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Revised and updated by Margaret Barlow

(b Philadelphia, PA, Jan 9, 1877; d Framingham, MA, 1968).

African American sculptor. Her long career anticipated and included the period of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and early 1930s (see African American art §I 2.). Born Meta Vaux Warrick, she studied at the Pennsylvania Museum and School for Industrial Art, Philadelphia, from 1893 to 1899. This was followed by a period in Paris (1899–1902) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, and the Académie Colarossi, during which time one of her figures caught the eye of Auguste Rodin. She exhibited regularly at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Her early work, with themes of death and sorrow, was characterized by a powerful expressionism. At the Tercentennial Exposition (1907) she was awarded a gold medal for the Jamestown Tableau, a 15-piece sculpture that recorded the settlement of the black community of Jamestown in 1607. In 1909 she married Solomon Carter Fuller and settled in Framingham, MA. After the loss of her early work in a fire in ...

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(b Dublin, 1865; d Nice, France, 1941).

Irish sculptor. He entered the Metropolitan School of Art in Dublin in 1878, attending as a part-time student for ten years. His influences were mainly from the Italian Renaissance, and he retained his love for the work of Jacopo della Quercia throughout his life. In 1890 he won a scholarship to the South Kensington School of Art, London, where he studied under Edouard Lanteri. A period of study followed in Paris and Italy, and after a year teaching at Plymouth Technical School he was appointed to the Metropolitan School of Art in Dublin in 1894 and became Professor of Sculpture in the Royal Hibernian Academy Schools. Napoli (1900; Dublin, N. Mus.), a small bronze also known as the Mandolin Player, shows his continual preoccupation with Italian models and makes particular reference to Donatello’s David.

In 1901 Hughes resigned his teaching post to start work on two of his most successful commissions, the ...

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Josefina Alix Trueba

(b Palencia, Dec 23, 1887; d Toledo, July 13, 1966).

Spanish sculptor. The son of a poor carpenter, he became aware of his vocation at an early age when he came into contact with the sculpture of the Mannerist and Baroque artists of Castile. At the age of 17 he entered the Escuela de Bellas Artes in Madrid but immediately demonstrated his rejection of academic teaching by joining bohemian circles. He became the friend of the most interesting realist sculptor of the day, Julio Antonio, who encouraged him to undertake journeys through the most remote and forgotten villages of Castile in an attempt to find his own roots. On these journeys, between 1910 and 1915, Macho made a series of drawings of local people, shepherds and labourers (El hombre de Madera, 1910–12; Toledo, Casa–Mus. Victorio Macho), and these inspired him to create his first sculptures of popular figures, for example Marinero Vasco (Toledo, Casa–Mus. Victorio Macho). He held his first exhibition in ...

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Jennifer Wingate

(b Terre Haute, IN, Oct 27, 1873; d Rockport, MA, June 9, 1940).

American sculptor, active also in France. Scudder developed a lively style influenced by antique and Renaissance statuary as well as by the animated figurative work of Frederick William MacMonnies . The carefree spirit of her sculpture suited the tastes of wealthy Americans who ordered her bronzes for the grounds of their country estates, and her fountains helped garden sculpture achieve a new level of prestige. She had one of the most successful careers of any woman artist of the early 20th century.

A student of modest means, Scudder learned the practical trade of wood carving at the Cincinnati Academy of Art and briefly carved decorations for a Chicago furniture factory. Her first breakthrough came when Lorado Taft hired her as an assistant at the 1893 Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition. Her experience as one of Taft’s “White Rabbits” (as Taft’s female sculpture assistants at the fair were known), gave her the training and financial means to travel to Paris where she secured a coveted position in MacMonnies’s studio. She bought a house at Ville d’Avrya outside of Paris in ...