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Article

(b Solothurn, March 28, 1868; d Oschwand, July 6, 1961).

Swiss painter and sculptor. From 1884 to 1886 he received irregular lessons from the Swiss painter Frank Buscher (1828–90). In the autumn of 1886 he attended the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Munich and the following year met Giovanni Giacometti, who was to be a lifelong friend. In 1888 he visited the Internationale Kunstausstellung in Munich, where he was particularly impressed by the work of Jules Bastien-Lepage and Whistler. This prompted him to go to Paris to continue his studies, and from 1888 to 1891 he attended the Académie Julian, working under William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Tony Robert-Fleury and Gabriel Ferrier. While in Paris he also met Paul Sérusier, Maurice Denis and other Nabis artists, though his own painting of this period was most influenced by Impressionism. In 1892 he was advised to visit Pont-Aven in Brittany, where he met Emile Bernard, Armand Séguin and Roderic O’Conor, as well as seeing the works of Vincent Van Gogh and Gauguin at first hand. This brief period had a decisive effect upon his work, leading to such Synthetist paintings as ...

Article

Thérèse Burollet

(b Thivernal, Seine-et-Oise, Aug 29, 1848; d Paris, 1928).

French sculptor and painter . He first studied law; when the Franco-Prussian war broke out in 1870 he enlisted as a volunteer in Gen. Charles Bourbaki’s army. After the battle of Sedan he fled to Switzerland. As a prisoner on parole, he attended Barthélemy Menn’s studio at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Geneva and decided to devote himself to painting. He worked alone, in a naturalistic manner heavily influenced by that of Jules Bastien-Lepage, with its insistence on working in the open air rather than in the studio. Bartholomé exhibited for eight years at the Salon des Artistes Français (e.g. Recreation, 1885; Paris, priv. col.), receiving encouragement from Joris-Karl Huysmans. His first wife’s death in 1887 plunged him into depression; his best friend, Edgar Degas, advised him to sculpt a tombstone for her (1888; Bouillant cemetery, Crépy-en-Valois, Oise).

Soon after, Bartholomé embarked on the chief work of his career: from ...

Article

Petr Wittlich

(b Chýnov, Bohemia [now in Czech Republic], Nov 6, 1872; d Chýnov, Oct 13, 1941).

Czech sculptor and printmaker. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague (1887–8, 1890) under Maximilián Pirner, at the School of Applied Arts in Prague (1888) under Josef Mauder (1854–1920) and at the Académie Colarossi in Paris (1892) under Antoine Injalbert. From the outset of his career Bílek displayed an almost fanatical zeal in using his religious art to rouse mankind to avert a moral decline. While he was in Paris, the dramatic naturalism of his first important statues treating Christological themes was greeted with indignation by the Prague scholarship commission.

In Bílek’s over life-size woodcut of the Crucifixion (1896–9; Prague, St Vitus Cathedral), Symbolism prevailed over his initial naturalism and he was inspired by the work of William Blake and the Pre-Raphaelites. Bílek’s imagination was excited by the neo-Platonic symbolism of light, which he interpreted in an original way in both his woodcuts and prints. When he was criticized by the Catholic Moderns for exaggerated individualism, he turned to the tradition of the medieval Bohemian Hussite movement and began to foster their ideals. This is reflected in his mystically conceived statue of the heretic and leader of the movement, Jan Hus, entitled a ...

Article

Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

(b Montauban, Oct 30, 1861; d Le Vésinet, nr Paris, Oct 1, 1929).

French sculptor, painter and draughtsman. After working with his father, a cabinetmaker, in 1876 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse. In 1884 he was admitted as a pupil of Alexandre Falguière to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, but in rebellion against academic training left two years later. He then moved into a house (now the Musée Bourdelle) in the Impasse du Maine; Jules Dalou, for whom he had the greatest admiration, lived near by.

Bourdelle had begun exhibiting at the Salon of the Société des Artistes Français in 1884 and at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts from 1891. In 1893 he became an assistant in Auguste Rodin’s studio, remaining there until 1908. This period was marked principally by his first major commission, the War Memorial (1895–1902) at Montauban, and by commencement of his Beethoven series, comprising 45 sculptures as well as pastels and drawings, work on which continued until ...

Article

Geneviève Monnier

(b Paris, July 19, 1834; d Paris, Sept 27, 1917).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, pastellist, photographer and collector. He was a founder-member of the Impressionist group and the leader within it of the Realist tendency. He organized several of the group’s exhibitions, but after 1886 he showed his works very rarely and largely withdrew from the Parisian art world. As he was sufficiently wealthy, he was not constricted by the need to sell his work, and even his late pieces retain a vigour and a power to shock that is lacking in the contemporary productions of his Impressionist colleagues.

The eldest son of a Parisian banking family, he originally intended to study law, registering briefly at the Sorbonne’s Faculté de Droit in 1853. He began copying the 15th- and 16th-century Italian works in the Musée du Louvre and in 1854 he entered the studio of Louis Lamothe (1822–69). The training that Lamothe, who had been a pupil of Ingres, transmitted to Degas was very much in the classical tradition; reinforced by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, which he attended in ...

Article

Jean-Pierre de Bruyn

(b Lille, Feb 8, 1861; d Ghent, Jan 7, 1938).

Belgian painter, sculptor, illustrator, and stage designer. He studied music at the Koninklijk Muziekconservatorium and sculpture at the Gewerbeschule, Ghent (after 1877). He visited Paris in 1887 and Italy in 1890, with a grant from the city of Ghent. He was deeply impressed by the masters of the Quattrocento, and was encouraged to take up painting after meeting Constantin Meunier (1891). He painted Symbolist scenes and was influenced by Art Nouveau. After exhibiting his work with Les XX in Brussels (1893), he made decorative panels for Oostakker Castle.

As an illustrator Doudelet worked on Pol De Mont’s Van Jezus (Antwerp, 1897) and books by Maurice Maeterlinck, for example Douze chansons (Paris, 1896) and Pelléas et Mélisande (Brussels, 1892 or 1922). He illustrated the periodicals Réveil (1895–1896), De Vlaamsche school, Mercure de France, Pan, L’Eroica, Nuovo Convito, De Vlaamsche School, Woord en beeld...

Article

Rodolphe Rapetti

(b Paris, June 7, 1848; d Atuona, Marquesas Islands, May 8, 1903).

French painter, printmaker, sculptor and ceramicist. His style developed from Impressionism through a brief cloisonnist phase (in partnership with Emile Bernard) towards a highly personal brand of Symbolism, which sought within the tradition of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes to combine and contrast an idealized vision of primitive Polynesian culture with the sceptical pessimism of an educated European (see fig.). A selfconsciously outspoken personality and an aggressively asserted position as the leader of the Pont-Aven group made him a dominant figure in Parisian intellectual circles in the late 1880s. His use of non-naturalistic colour and formal distortion for expressive ends was widely influential on early 20th-century avant-garde artists.

Article

Peter J. Flagg

(b Lagny-sur-Marne, nr Paris, Feb 14, 1860; d Lagny-sur-Marne, Oct 27, 1944).

French painter, sculptor, designer and government official. He trained first as a sculptor and engraver, not taking up painting until 1883. While working at the shop of the wood-engraver Eugène Froment (1844–1900) he met Emile-Gustave Péduzzi (Cavallo-Péduzzi; 1851–1917) and Maximilien Luce. By 1886 all three were experimenting with the stippled brushwork and divided colour they had seen in the works of Seurat, Paul Signac and Camille Pissarro and Lucien Pissarro. That year Gausson made his début at the Salon as a sculptor, with the plaster medallion Profile of a Young Girl (untraced). He first showed his paintings at the Salon des Artistes Indépendants in 1887 and exhibited there annually thereafter.

Gausson painted regularly until c. 1900, with a brief Neo-Impressionist phase from 1886 to 1890; as the critic Fénéon remarked, ‘he soon realized that this technique was ill-suited to his temperament’. In paintings such as River and Bridge at Lagny...

Article

Julius Kaplan

(b nr Termonde, Sept 12, 1858; d Brussels, Nov 12, 1921).

Belgian painter, illustrator, sculptor, designer, photographer and writer. He was one of the foremost Symbolist artists and active supporters of avant-garde art in late 19th-century Belgium. His wealthy family lived in Bruges from 1859 to 1864, moved to Brussels in 1865, where Khnopff remained until his death, and spent their summers at a country home in Fosset, in the Ardennes. Fosset inspired numerous landscapes that owe a strong debt to Barbizon-style realism (see 1979 cat. rais., p. 210), which dominated advanced Belgian painting in the late 1870s. Khnopff abandoned law school in 1875, and, turning to literature and art, he studied with Xavier Mellery at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. During visits to Paris (1877–80) he admired the work of Ingres and was especially attracted to the painterly art of Rubens, Rembrandt, the Venetian Renaissance and particularly Delacroix. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris he discovered Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones, both of whom indelibly influenced his art. He studied with ...

Article

Ellen W. Lee

(b Versailles, June 18, 1868; d Alençon, June 29, 1916).

French painter and sculptor. He was born into a cultivated family of artistic inclination and independent means. He first studied with his mother, the printmaker and painter Laure Lacombe (1834–1924), and received further guidance from the French painters Georges Bertrand (1849–1929), Alfred Roll and Henri Gervex, who were family friends. From 1888 to 1897 he spent the summers at Camaret on the Brittany coast. In 1892 he befriended Paul Sérusier and was soon attracted to the aesthetic of the Nabis. He painted Breton figural scenes and stylized seascapes characterized by flat patterns, Japanese print devices, and mysterious, often anthropomorphic imagery. Familiarity with Paul Gauguin in 1893–4 aroused his interest in wood-carving (an interest that may also have been nurtured by his father, an amateur cabinetmaker) and encouraged him to employ a deliberately crude technique. Known as ‘the Nabi sculptor’, Lacombe explored Symbolist themes such as the cycle of life and death treated in ...

Article

Wojciech Włodarczyk

(b Makowiec Duży, nr Mińsk Mazowiecki, Sept 3, 1865; d Kraków, March 23, 1956).

Polish sculptor and ceramicist. He began studying sculpture in 1885, initially at private schools in Warsaw and then between 1891 and 1896 in Paris at the studios of Antonin Mercié, Alexandre Falguière and Jean-Léon Gérôme. Laszczka exhibited in Poland and abroad from 1889. From 1899 to 1935 he was a professor of sculpture at the Academy of Fine Arts, Kraków, where he created the ‘Kraków school’ of sculpture, as distinct from that in Warsaw.

Laszczka’s work has several stylistic phases. While at Falguière’s studio he produced realistic pieces, and in the early 20th century Rodin’s influence can be seen in his sculptures. However, most of his sculptures reflect his fascination with folklore and symbolism. Folk trends are evident in his genre sculptures (e.g. Country Urchin and Kasia’s First Attempts at the Loom) and in his ceramic work, which was prolific: he collaborated with the majolica factories in Dębniki and ...

Article

Michèle Lavallée

(b Champsecret, Orne, July 23, 1862; d Paris, May 24, 1934).

French painter, illustrator, and sculptor. He went to Paris in 1878 to study under the painter Emile Bin until 1885, when he entered the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. From 1883 onwards, he exhibited landscapes, genre scenes, and portraits (those of women and children being particularly popular) in oil and pastel at the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français.

Léandre also taught drawing until 1897. His fame was due chiefly to the vast number of Symbolist drawings he produced for newspapers and magazines. His first post was as a caricaturist for Le Chat noir, and he later worked for Le Journal, Le Figaro, Le Gaulois, and Le Journal amusant; his most important work was for Le Rire, for which he often illustrated the front page. In 1907 he helped to found the Société des Artistes Humoristes, publishing a magazine, Les Humoristes, in 1910.

Léandre produced posters for the nightclubs of Montmartre, artists’ balls, and chansonniers’ tours, and for the first two exhibitions of the Société des Peintres Lithographes. He illustrated many literary works, of which the most famous was Gustave Flaubert’s ...

Article

Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

(b Banyuls-sur-Mer, Oct 8, 1861; d Perpignan, Sept 24, 1944).

French sculptor, painter, designer and illustrator. He began his career as a painter and tapestry designer, but after c. 1900 devoted himself to three-dimensional work, becoming one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century. He concentrated almost exclusively on the nude female figure in the round, consciously wishing to strip form of all literary associations and architectural context. Although inspired by the Classical tradition of Greek and Roman sculpture, his figures have all the elemental sensuousness and dignity associated with the Mediterranean peasant.

Maillol first intended to become a painter and went to Paris in 1881, where he lived in extreme poverty. Three years later the Ecole des Beaux-Arts finally accepted him as a pupil, where he began studies under Alexandre Cabanel. He found the teaching there discouraging and his early painted work was more strongly influenced by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Paul Gauguin, and the Nabis group which he joined around ...

Article

Gisèle Ollinger-Zinque

(b Ekeren, nr Antwerp, July 27, 1868; d Brussels, Nov 21, 1941).

Belgian painter, sculptor and decorative artist. He came from a prosperous bourgeois family and was therefore able to devote himself exclusively to art without financial worries. Encouraged by Emile Claus, a family friend, he enrolled at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp; he left after a short time, however, disliking the conformist teaching methods. In 1888 he moved to Paris, where he frequented the studios of Alfred Roll, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and Eugène Carrière. He began working in an Impressionist style, turning c. 1890 to a Neo-Impressionist style as a means of giving more solid form to light. He returned in February 1892 to Antwerp, where he took part in the activities of avant-garde groups, particularly Als ik Kan, L’Association pour l’Art, La Libre Esthétique and Eenigen, of which he was a founder-member in 1902. He exhibited regularly in these circles in the company of Neo-Impressionist painters such as Claus, Georges Lemmen, Théo Van Rysselberghe, Henry Van de Velde, Paul Signac and Seurat. In ...

Article

Jens Peter Munk

(Esbern)

(b Copenhagen, June 10, 1840; d Copenhagen, March 3, 1920).

Danish painter, sculptor and draughtsman. He studied at the Kongelige Akademi for de Skønne Kunster, Copenhagen, in 1862–3 and 1865–9, and in Paris under Léon Bonnat in 1875–6. He was an important figure in the development and renewal of Danish naturalism, linking the Danish Golden Age tradition with new French ideas. Conscious of the importance of plein-air painting, he was first a great admirer of the Barbizon school; later he was influenced by the Impressionists, becoming the only truly Danish Impressionist. Frequent visits abroad helped him develop his outlook; he eagerly studied the Old Masters, and the strong light of the south—Italy, Spain, Tunisia—encouraged him to paint pictures full of atmosphere, movement and colour. In A Street in Tunis (1882; Copenhagen, Stat. Mus. Kst), for example, a group of camel riders gallop between whitewashed walls in a rosy-white cloud of dust. While in Italy in 1883 he heard of the current Impressionist theories from his travelling companion, the Belgian painter Rémy Cogghe (...

Article

Anne Distel

(b Limoges, Feb 25, 1841; d Cagnes-sur-Mer, Dec 3, 1919).

French painter, printmaker, and sculptor. He was one of the founders and leading exponents of Impressionism from the late 1860s, producing some of the movement’s most famous images of carefree leisure. He broke with his Impressionist colleagues to exhibit at the Salon from 1878, and from c. 1884 he adopted a more linear style indebted to the Old Masters. His critical reputation has suffered from the many minor works he produced during his later years.

Renoir was born in Limoges but lived with his family in Paris from 1844. The sixth of seven children, he came from a humble background; his father, Léonard Renoir, was a tailor and his mother, Marguerite Merlet, a dressmaker. At the age of 13 he was apprenticed to M. Levy, a porcelain painter who perceived and valued his precocious skill. Nevertheless his ambition was to become a painter.

From 1860 he copied Old Master paintings in the Louvre, and by ...

Article

(b Antwerp, Nov 8, 1872; d Brussels, Feb 1944).

Belgian painter and sculptor. Born of Russian parents, he trained as a sculptor at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. In 1898 he was a co-founder of the group Labeur together with Auguste Oleffe, the Belgian painter Willem Paerels (1878–1962) and Louis Thévenet. One of his earliest sculptures is a mask of the Theosophist Madame Blavatsky (1898; see exh. cat., pl. 37). Around 1900 he suffered a nervous breakdown, after which he devoted himself largely to painting. His few sculptures are monumental and static, as in Eve with Apple (1910; see exh. cat., pl. 55).

In his painting Schirren was initially influenced by the Impressionism of Emile Claus and Théo Van Rysselberghe but he soon turned to Fauvism, producing such works as The Chestnut Trees (1915–16; see exh. cat., pl. 16). After about 1925 his style became more austere, as in The Study (1933...

Article

Leila Krogh

(b Copenhagen, Sept 7, 1863; d Cannes, April 4, 1958).

Danish painter, printmaker, sculptor, ceramicist, architect and collector. He studied from 1881 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen and in 1886 at Peder Severin Krøyer’s Frie Skole there. His style changed radically during his travels in France and Spain (1888–9) and during a stay in France, where he met and exhibited with French artists, including Paul Gauguin. In Brittany he painted several scenes of local people, similar to Gauguin’s work of this period, for example Two Women Walking, Brittany (1890; Frederikssund, Willumsens Mus.). In such works Willumsen emphasized the element of vigorous movement. From the start of his career Willumsen also made prints (etchings from 1885, lithographs from 1910 and woodcuts from 1920): early, more realistic works, such as the Copenhagen townscape of Woman Out for a Walk (1889) soon gave way to a bolder, more Symbolist approach, as in Fertility (1891), which showed his wife Juliette in an advanced stage of pregnancy and raised a storm of protest when exhibited at the Copenhagen Frie Udstilling (Free Exhibition), which Willumsen and others had founded. His major work from this period is ...

Article

Roger Avermaete

(b Mechelen, Aug 21, 1882; d Amsterdam, July 11, 1916).

Belgian painter, sculptor, draughtsman and printmaker . From the age of 11 he worked in the studio of his father, an ornamental sculptor. After studying painting in 1899 at the Akademie van Schone Kunsten in Mechelen, he went to Brussels in 1902 to study sculpture under Charles Van der Stappen; although he did not stay there long, he continued to sculpt, taking up painting only in 1911. In 1905 he married Hélène Duerinckx, known affectionately as Nel, who first worked for him as a model earlier in the year. They were rescued from poverty only in 1911, when Wouters signed a contract with the Galerie Giroux in Brussels.

Wouters was particularly productive as a painter from 1912 to 1914, painting some of his best works, such as the portrait of his wife entitled Woman with Yellow Necklace (1912) and The Flautist (1914; both Brussels, Mus. A. Mod.), in which a man in pensive pose is set against a landscape seen through a window. An exhibition held at the Galerie Giroux at this time was highly successful. After being called up in ...