1-20 of 70 results  for:

  • Sculpture and Carving x
  • 1300–1400 x
Clear all

Article

Phillip Lindley

(fl 1291–1317).

English sculptor. His first recorded works are in connection with the funerary monuments for Queen Eleanor of Castile (d 1290), the first wife of King Edward I. Alexander of Abingdon supplied wax models for three small images cast by William of Suffolk for the heart tomb in the Dominican church of the Blackfriars, London, as well as a painted cloth and ironwork to stand round the tomb (all destr.). From 1291 to 1294 he was also employed with Dymenge de Legeris on carving the Purbeck marble tomb-chest for the bronze effigy (both destr.) of Eleanor in Lincoln Cathedral. From William Sedgwick’s drawing of c. 1641, which is included in Sir William Dugdale’s Book of Monuments (London, BL, Loan MS. 38, fol. 98v), it appears to have been very similar to that still surviving at Westminster Abbey, London. Alexander supplied seven images at a cost of 5 marks each for the Charing Mews Eleanor Cross (destr.; ...

Article

G. Kreytenberg

(fl 1351–64).

Italian sculptor. He was one of the most important sculptors in Florence of his day. According to the contemporary poet Sacchetti, Arnoldi was in Milan for a long period, but there is no other evidence for this. He is first mentioned in 1351 in the cathedral works in Florence, where he was working as a mason on marble inlay for the campanile. In 1355 and 1358 he was listed as one of the advisers for the construction of the cathedral. There were two other principal master builders in the cathedral works, and Arnoldi was briefly promoted to be a third, with responsibility for executing the decorative work. On the basis of his documented work, however, he cannot be described as an architect.

Between 1359 and 1364 Arnoldi made the near-life-size statues of the Virgin and Child and two angels above the altar in the oratory of the Bigallo, Florence, and in ...

Article

Elisabetta Scirocco

[Alberto Arnoldi]

(fl 1351–64).

Italian sculptor. Alberto was one of the chief artists in Trecento Florence. His name is first recorded in 1351, when he was paid to work on the marble windows of the campanile of the Cathedral. He is generally ascribed (Becherucci) the rhomboid tiles with bas-reliefs depicting the Seven Sacraments on the second order of the campanile’s north side (originals in Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo). These may have been based on a design by di Maso Banco, who according to some scholars (Kreytenberg, 1979) also sculpted them. In 1355 and 1357–9 Arnoldi was given important jobs, such as the direction of works of the Cathedral with Talenti family §(1). His only documented works are those he executed for the oratory of the Bigallo in Florence: the life-size statues of the Virgin and Child and the two Angels holding the candelabra on the altar (1359–64), and the sculpted relief depicting the half-length ...

Article

Artistic manifestations of Arthurian legends antedate surviving textual traditions and sometimes bear witness to stories that have not survived in written form. Thus the Tristan sculptures (c. 1102–17) carved on a column from the north transept of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela show that the story was in circulation at least a generation before the earliest surviving written text was composed. The one surviving manuscript of Béroul’s Tristan is unillustrated, while the fragments of Thomas’s version include a single historiated initial showing Tristan playing the harp (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Fr. d. 16, fol. 10). Although Eilhart von Oberge’s Tristrant, composed in the late 12th century, is the earliest version of the Tristan story to survive complete, the only surviving illustrated copy dates from the 15th century (c. 1465–75; Heidelberg, UBib., Cpg 346), while the Munich manuscript of Gottfried von Strassburg’s Tristan was made in south Germany ...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Patrick M. de Winter

[Biauneveu, Andrieu]

(b Valenciennes, c. 1335; d ?Bourges, 1401–3).

South Netherlandish sculptor, painter, and illuminator. He possibly trained with, or in the circle of, Jean Pépin de Huy. He is presumably the ‘Master Andrieu the painter’ mentioned in the accounts of Yolande, Duchesse de Bar, as working intermittently between 1359 and 1362 in the chapel of her castle at Nieppe (destr.). In 1361–2 ‘Master Andrieu the carver’ restored the console of a statue (both destr.) in the aldermen’s hall in Valenciennes. By October 1364 and until June 1366 he is recorded in Paris, working with assistants for King Charles V, who spoke of him as ‘our esteemed Andrieu Biauneveu, our sculptor’. The monarch commissioned from him four tombs for Saint-Denis Abbey, for which he paid 4700 gold francs: tombs for his paternal grandparents Philip VI (reg 1328–50) and Joan of Burgundy (1294–1348); for his father, John II; and for himself (first mentioned on 12 December 1364...

Article

Hans Georg Gmelin

(b ?Minden, fl 1367; d Hamburg, between Feb 20, 1414 and May 13, 1415).

German painter, illuminator, and wood-carver. His major work, the Grabow Altarpiece (Hamburg, Ksthalle), a combination of carved figures and painted scenes, is one of the high points of late 14th-century north German art. In the many documentary references to him in Hamburg, he is referred to as ‘painter’, although he was also responsible for colouring statues. At least the designs of the sculpture of some of his altars have been attributed to him. His lively narrative style, with expressive and forceful gestures, made him one of the most influential of early German artists.

Probably originally from Minden in Westphalia, Bertram is mentioned for the first time in the Hamburg city accounts of 1367, when he was paid for painting a Virgin (untraced), restoring a sculpted angel and painting a letter case. Sixty documents relate to him from his lifetime, an astounding number for a 14th-century artist, and before 1487 he was the only painter mentioned by name in the Hamburg records. In ...

Article

Dorothy Gillerman

(fl 1313/14–51).

French sculptor. He has sometimes been identified with Pierron Boi, a stone-carver mentioned in 1286 and 1311 in the town rolls of Ypres, but Baron’s attribution to Boye of the tomb of Clement VI hardly allows for such an early beginning to his career. He was in Paris in 1313–14, where he participated with Jean Pépin de Huy and others in the execution of the tomb of Otto IV, Count of Burgundy (mostly destr.) commissioned by his widow, Mahaut, Countess of Artois. In 1317 she ordered an alabaster Virgin and Child (destr.) from the sculptor, which was destined as a gift for her niece, Alix de Vienne, mother superior of the Franciscan nuns at Lons-le-Saunier (Jura).

Boye’s style is known from the remains of the tomb of Clement VI (Haute-Loire, La Chaise-Dieu, abbey church; Le Puy, Mus. Crozatier). Materials were acquired for the tomb in 1342, and the work was completed between ...

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ad 330 and 1453, studies of Byzantine art often encompassed Post-Byzantine art and that of culturally allied states such as Armenian Cilicia, Macedonia, and portions of Italy. As such fields as Palaiologan family manuscripts and wall paintings, Armenian manuscripts, and Crusader manuscripts and icons emerged, scholars identified new intersections between Western medieval and Byzantine art. Subtle comparisons emerged with the recognition that Byzantine art was not static but changed over time in style and meaning, although most analyses identified Byzantine art as an accessible reservoir of the naturalistic, classicizing styles of antiquity. Scholars considering the 7th-century frescoes at S Maria Antiqua and mosaics at S Maria in Cosmedin, both in Rome, and the 8th-century frescoes at Castelseprio and Carolingian manuscripts such as the Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne (Vienna, Schatzkam. SCHK XIII) used formal comparisons with works such as pre-iconoclastic icons at St Catherine’s Monastery on Sinai, along with the history of Byzantine iconoclasm, to argue for the presence of Greek painters in the West. Similarly, Ottonian and Romanesque painting and luxury arts, such as ivories, provided examples of the appropriation of Byzantine imperial imagery. Yet the study of works such as the great 12th-century ...

Article

Rosa Alcoy

[Sanglada, Pedro]

(fl 1386–1407).

Catalan sculptor and wood-carver. He has been associated with Girona (Sp. Gerona), but his style, particularly that of the figures peopling the choir-stalls he carved for Barcelona Cathedral (1394–9; pulpit completed 1403), reflects his travels in France and the Netherlands. Ça Anglada was primarily concerned with the direction of the cathedral workshops and with projects for the city of Barcelona. In the early years of the 15th century he carried out various works for the Casa de la Ciutat (the Town Hall), including the carvings in the Saló de Cent and probably also the St Raphael on the Gothic façade of the building. An Annunciation in the choir of Barcelona Cathedral is partly the work of the sculptor Jordi di Deu (fl c. 1361–1418); but the decisive role is that of Ça Anglada, who gave an innovative refashioning, on International Gothic lines, to the subjects of this Italianizing master. In ...

Article

(b before 1315; d Venice, April 16, 1355).

Italian architect and sculptor. Reliable Venetian chronicles from the 15th century onwards not only praise him as the architect of the Doge’s Palace in Venice and as a sculptor but also record that the Venetian government (‘Signoria dogal’) valued his advice when building palaces, towers, and other public works. He was the most important sculptor and architect of the 14th century in Venice, although no building other than the Doge’s Palace can now be attributed to him.

It is probable that Calendario, like many Venetian masons, traded in stone, for he owned marani, large boats suitable for its transport. When he lost three marani in 1343, he was given State support. Calendario became known above all for his part in the ‘conspiracy’ of Doge Marin Falier (reg 1354–5), as a result of which he was condemned to death and hanged between two columns of the Doge’s Palace.

The decision to build a new Sala del Maggior Consiglio, which involved rebuilding the south wing of the Doge’s Palace, was taken on ...

Article

Roberto Coroneo

Term coined by critics in the 19th century to designate a group of sculptors and architects who were active in northern Italy and elsewhere from the mid-12th century to the late 14th; the name derives from their place of origin, Campione (Campigliono) di Lugano, which in documents often appears after their baptismal names. Some of the masters were related. A distinctive style, marked by solid forms and a robust realism, becomes apparent only in the second half of the 12th century and the first half of the 13th; later it merges with the more general manner of north Italian sculptors and builders from Arogno, Bissone, and other places between Lake Como and Lake Lugano.

The earliest document mentioning the masters from Campione is a contract dated 30 November 1244 between Ubaldino, Director (Massaro) of the Cathedral Works of Modena from 1230 to 1263, and Enrico di Ottavio da Campione, who undertook, on behalf of himself and his heirs, to work for the cathedral ...

Article

Pere Freixas

(fl 1394; d byApril 1431).

Catalan architect and sculptor, probably of Mallorcan origin. In 1394 he was working as a highly paid apprentice of Pere Ça Anglada on the choir carving of Barcelona Cathedral. He was briefly involved in the decoration of the Portal del Mirador of Palma de Mallorca Cathedral (1397). In 1405 he executed some of the ornamental detail of the portal of the former chapter house (now Capella del Santíssim) in the cloister of Barcelona Cathedral. His most important sculptural work is the alabaster tomb of Bishop Ramon d’Escales in the Capella de les Ànimes in the Cathedral, commissioned in 1409. The sarcophagus bears the recumbent effigy of the Bishop and a frieze of weeping figures on the front, which reveal that Canet, who was familiar with the Franco-Flemish models derived from Claus Sluter, was one of the most outstanding craftsmen of the international style in Catalan sculpture.

As an architect Canet was Master of the Works of Seu d’Urgell Cathedral until ...

Article

Rosa Alcoy

[Castayls, Jaime]

(b ?Berga; fl 1345–79).

Catalan sculptor, painter and architect. A citizen of Barcelona, he must have been trained among Italians, but in a school that was acquainted with developments in France and receptive to Sienese influences—possibly Pisa or Naples. Mallorcan painting—especially manuscript illumination, which was influenced by Pisan art—and the work of the Master of the San Michele in Borgo Pulpit (a Pisan sculptor who worked on the shrine of S Eulalia, 1327–39, in Barcelona Cathedral) also constituted important formative influences on his style. He married the daughter of Ferrer Bassa and was associated with the Bassa workshop in a commission for works for Saragossa in 1346. Like Ferrer Bassa, he was responsible for introducing Italianizing elements into Catalonia.

No authenticated paintings by Jaume Cascalls survive, however, and he is now known primarily for his sculpture, notably for the signed alabaster retable of the Virgin (c. 1345; 2.07×3.35 m) in S María, Cornellà del Conflent, which shows Italian characteristics in the treatment of continuous narrative and in the technique, in which some areas are deliberately left unfinished for expressive effect. At about this time, Jaume worked in Perpignan for the Aragonese crown. By ...

Article

Cassone  

Ellen Callmann and J. W. Taylor

[It.: ‘chest’]

Term used for large, lavishly decorated chests made in Italy from the 14th century to the end of the 16th. The word is an anachronism, taken from Vasari (2/1568, ed. G. Milanesi, 1878–85, ii, p. 148), the 15th-century term being forziero. Wealthy households needed many chests, but the ornate cassoni, painted and often combined with pastiglia decoration, were usually commissioned in pairs when a house was renovated for a newly married couple and were ordered, together with other furnishings, by the groom. Florence was the main centre of production, though cassoni were also produced in Siena and occasionally in the Veneto and elsewhere.

The earliest cassoni were simple structures with rounded lids, probably painted in solid colours, such as the red cassone in Giotto’s Annunciation to St Anne (c. 1305; Padua, Arena Chapel). The earliest known chests with painted designs are all from the same shop (e.g. Florence, Pal. Davanzati, inv. mob. 162). Like the much more numerous contemporary chests with gilded low-relief in pastiglia (...

Article

Dorothy Gillerman

(fl 1372; d before 1387).

French sculptor. Originally from the Poitiers region, he had apparently moved to Avignon by 1372, where he worked for members of the papal court. He directed the execution of the tomb of Innocent VI (partly destr.; Villeneuve-lès-Avignon, Charterhouse). Between 1372 and 1377 he worked probably with other sculptors on a tomb for Cardinal Philippe Cabassole (d 1372) to be installed in the Carthusian church of Bonpas, near Avignon. Partially destroyed during the Revolution, the figures that remain, a standing figure of Christ the Redeemer (Marseilles, Mus. Grobet-Labadié), a Coronation of the Virgin and an incomplete set of Apostles (both Avignon, Mus. Petit Pal.), reveal a variety of French and Italian influences. Such stylistic mixtures were probably not unusual in works commissioned by patrons whose ecclesiastical and political activities carried them between Paris, Rome and Naples.

Les Fastes du gothique: Le Siècle de Charles V (exh. cat., Paris, Grand Pal., 1981–2), no. 72, p. 429...

Article

G. Kreytenberg

(fl Florence, 1382–1418).

Italian sculptor and architect. He is not to be identified with the craftsman of the same name who was employed to construct the piers of Florence Cathedral in 1366. Giovanni d’Ambrogio’s work provided a decisive impetus for the emergence of Renaissance sculpture; he has been described as the ‘true mentor of Donatello, and even more so of Nanni di Banco’ (Wundram).

Giovanni d’Ambrogio is first mentioned on 23 May 1382 (Florence, Archv Opera Duomo, Delib., ii, 1, n. 14, c. 15) in connection with a payment at Florence Cathedral. Between 1383 and 1386 he made the large seated figures of Justice and Prudence for the Loggia dei Lanzi in the Piazza della Signoria, Florence. He worked on lintels, sills, and similar items for S Cecilia, Florence, and for the chapel of the Sacro Cingolo at Prato Cathedral (c. 1388).

Giovanni d’Ambrogio received a commission for three statues for the façade of Florence Cathedral in ...

Article

Dorothy Gillerman

(fl 1292–1352).

French architect, painter, and sculptor. He is first mentioned in the Parisian tax rolls of 1292, and a document of 1304 refers to him as ‘peintre du roi’. Between 1308 and 1328 he was employed as painter and architect at various royal châteaux, but his most important commission involved the additions ordered by Philip IV to his palace on the Ile de la Cité in Paris. Guérout concluded that Evrard designed the portal of the Galerie des Merciers with facing statues of Philip IV and his minister, Enguerrand de Marigny (both destr.), and that he was in charge of the decoration in the Grand’Salle, which ran parallel to the river. The great vaulted hall was the setting for a series of life-size painted statues of the Kings of France (destr.), an ensemble that reflected Philip’s programmatic image of the French monarchy. The statues themselves, doubtless planned if not all executed by Evrard, impressed contemporaries with their ‘lifelike’ aspect. Evrard may have been a specialist in creating donor images that preserved the convincing presence, if not an actual likeness, of their subjects. He continued to supervise the work at the Palais de la Cité under ...

Article

Maria Cristina Chiusa

[de Fesulis]

(fl c. 1393; d 1427).

Italian sculptor and architect, sometimes confused with Andrea (di Piero) Ferrucci (1465–1526), who was also known as Andrea da Fiesole. The only work that can definitely be attributed to the earlier of the two sculptors is the tomb of Bartolomeo da Saliceto (1412; ex-S Domenico, Bologna; Bologna, Mus. Civ. Med.), which is dated and signed opus Andreae de Fesulis. Saliceto was a reader in law at Bologna University, and the tomb sculpture represents him among his pupils. Motifs and facial types are borrowed directly from the tombs in the Bolognese tradition of Giovanni di Legnano (1383) by Pierpaolo dalle Masegne and of Carlo, Roberto, and Riccardo Saliceto (1403; both Bologna, Mus. Civ. Med.), a work indebted to Masegne, but despite this Andrea’s Tuscan origins remain apparent. Gnudi was of the opinion that Andrea da Fiesole was in Florence until c. 1410. However, Andrea subsequently moved away from the Tuscan Renaissance tradition towards a northern Gothic style, following his contact with Venetian–Emilian sculpture. This can be seen in the tomb of ...

Article

Patrick M. de Winter

(fl before 1384–after 1399).

South Netherlandish sculptor. He was commissioned by Louis II de Mâle, Count of Flanders and Duke of Brabant, to produce two carved altarpieces (untraced): one for the chapel of the castle of Dendermonde, another for the hospice of the Cistercian abbey of Bijloke, outside Ghent. Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, and from 1384 also ruler of Flanders through his marriage to Margaret of Flanders (1350–1405), having admired these works, commissioned two similar altarpieces from the sculptor in 1390 for the charterhouse of Champmol, which he had founded in 1385 outside Dijon. In August 1391 the two altarpieces were transported to Burgundy from Dendermonde. Documents suggest that these were to be completed in Dijon, but instead, for unexplained reasons, they were returned to Flanders one year later, where the overall supervision of their completion, as well as painting and gilding, was entrusted to Philip’s principal Netherlandish painter, Melchior Broederlam...