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Article

T. Affleck Greeves

(b Burgess Hill, Sussex, 1849; d London, Aug 17, 1933).

English architect, editor and draughtsman. After completing his articles with H. N. Goulty of Brighton, he became assistant to William Ralph Emerson, and Architect to Brighton Council. Between 1872 and 1923 he was Editor of Building News. He instituted the Building News Designing Club, which enabled young architects to submit designs for his criticism. He contributed largely to the paper’s illustrations, redrawing designs for lithographic reproduction, and covered a wide range of subjects in a skilful and accurate, if somewhat dull, linear style. He also published several architectural books. Through the owner of Building News he obtained his major architectural commissions, notably Camberwell Polytechnic and Art Gallery (1902). He also designed country houses near London, for example Queensmead Cottage, Kings Road, Windsor, Berks (1883), for Reginald Talbot, as well as in Australia (e.g. Bellevue Hill, Double Bay, for Charles B. Fairfax in the mid-1880s) and America, where he designed timber houses in New Jersey for E. S. Wilde in ...

Article

Elizabeth Meredith Dowling

(b Richmond, VA, Feb 24, 1883; d Glen Head, Long Island, NY, Feb 1, 1951).

American architect, preservationist, author, and editor. His wealthy patrician family provided the opportunity for a fine education and connections to future clients. In 1906 he received a Bachelor of Architecture degree from Columbia University. His education continued in Rome at the American Academy through receipt of the McKim Fellowship in Architecture in 1907. In 1908 he passed the entrance examination for the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and remained in Paris until 1909.

Best known for his residential work, Bottomley combined his extensive knowledge of architectural history with his own observations to produce personal interpretations of past styles. Of his approximately 186 commissions, 90 were located in New York and 51 in Virginia. His most recognized residential commissions are found on Monument Avenue in Richmond, VA. Produced during the 1920s and 1930s, these residences, like many of his other projects, have exteriors inspired by nearby 18th-century James River Georgian mansions. Their interiors deviate from the Georgian models with creatively arranged plans that display a particular delight in the use of curving stairs within a variety of different shaped foyers....

Article

(Scott)

(b 1864; d 1946).

English mezzotint engraver. He lived in Bushey, Herts, and worked for most of the leading London print publishers and dealers. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy, London, in 1889, with A Schoolgirl after Luke Fildes, and continued to show there until his death in 1946, when his only exhibited original work, ...

Article

Judith Zilczer

Journal devoted to photography that was published from 1903 to 1917. Camera Work evolved from a quarterly journal of photography to become one of the most ground-breaking and influential periodicals in American cultural history. Founded in January 1903 by photographer Alfred Stieglitz as the official publication of the Photo-Secession, the journal originally promoted the cause of photography as a fine art. As Stieglitz, its editor and publisher, expanded the journal’s scope to include essays on aesthetics, literature, criticism and modern art, Camera Work fueled intellectual discourse in early 20th-century America.

Camera Work mirrored the aesthetic philosophy of its founder Alfred Stieglitz. The journal resulted from his decade-long campaign to broaden and professionalize American photography. Serving for three years as editor of American Amateur Photographer (1893–6), Stieglitz championed the expressive potential of photography and advocated expanded exhibition opportunities comparable to those available in European photographic salons. In 1897, when the Society of Amateur Photographers merged with the New York Camera Club, Stieglitz convinced the enlarged organization to replace their modest leaflet with a more substantial quarterly journal, Camera Notes, which he edited until ...

Article

Ismeth Raheem

(b 1854; d England, 1913).

English photographer, publisher and writer. He first travelled to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) as private secretary to the Bishop of Colombo. In 1870 he set up a small bookshop in Colombo, which by 1884 had diversified into a flourishing publishing house, H. W. Cave & Company, and a printing firm equipped to produce books with excellent quality photographic reproductions. He took a serious interest in photography, and this enabled him to illustrate the pictorial travelogues written by him and published by his own firm. His close supervision of the details of book production and photographic reproduction gave him a competitive edge over other commercial photographers. He returned to England in 1886 after the death of his wife and settled down in Oxford. He made occasional visits to Ceylon, but continued to manage his firm’s business from England.

In his photography Cave specialized in rural and landscape scenes and was especially interested in creating views with luxuriant tropical vegetation, using dramatic atmospheric lighting effects. Some of the best examples of this type of work are reproduced in his lavishly printed travelogues ...

Article

Merrill Halkerston

(b Portland, ME, March 4, 1832; d New York, March 26, 1920).

American painter, interior designer and writer. Colman grew up in New York, where his father, Samuel Colman, ran a successful publishing business. The family bookstore on Broadway, a popular meeting place for artists, offered Colman early introductions to such Hudson River school painters as Asher B(rown) Durand, with whom he is said to have studied briefly around 1850. Having won early recognition for his paintings of popular Hudson River school locations (see Storm King on the Hudson), he was elected an Associate of the National Academy of Design in New York in 1854. Most of Colman’s landscapes of the 1850s, for example Meadows and Wildflowers at Conway (1856; Poughkeepsie, NY, Vassar Coll., Frances Lehman Loeb A. Cent.), reveal the influence of the Hudson River school. An avid traveller, he embarked on his first European tour in 1860, visiting France, Italy, Switzerland and the more exotic locales of southern Spain and Morocco. His reputation was secured in the 1860s by his numerous paintings of romantic Spanish sites, notably the large ...

Article

Henry Adams

(b Veracruz, Mar 13, 1880; d Stamford, CT, Jan 10, 1961).

Mexican illustrator, writer, gallery owner, and publisher, active in the USA. He was the son of a wealthy Mexican lawyer and publisher. De Zayas started his career as an artist by providing drawings for his father’s newspaper in Veracruz. In 1906 he moved on to Mexico City’s leading newspaper, El Diario, but a year later, after the ascension of the dictator Porfirio Diaz, whom the newspaper had opposed, he fled to the USA. There he landed a position making caricatures for the New York Evening World. Shortly after his arrival in the USA, he came into contact with Alfred Stieglitz, who staged solo shows of De Zayas’s caricatures at his gallery Gallery 291 in 1909 and 1910, both of which proved to be huge popular successes.

In 1910 De Zayas traveled to Paris, where he stayed almost a year, scouting out adventurous forms of modern art for Stieglitz, notably the cubist work of Picasso and African sculpture. On his return, equipped with knowledge of European modern art and inspired by the work of the French modernist ...

Article

Tapati Guha-Thakurta

In 

Article

(b Corenc, nr Grenoble, July 9, 1871; d Corenc, May 1947).

French painter, printmaker and draughtsman. While still at the Lycée de Grenoble he took courses in drawing and modelling. Abandoning his baccalauréat he joined a firm of printers in Grenoble in 1889 where he learnt the techniques of lithography while continuing his other art courses. Having done his military service he moved to Paris in 1893 and enrolled at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, which he attended during 1894. Late in 1894 he also enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts where, impressed by his ability, Gustave Moreau took him into his studio in 1895 even before he had passed the entrance examination. He remained there until Moreau’s death in 1898 and also received encouragement and advice from Pierre Puvis de Chavannes at this time.

Flandrin first exhibited in 1896, at the Salon du Champ de Mars in Paris, with a number of paintings and lithographs. After becoming an associate member of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in ...

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Bloomington, IL, March 8, 1865; d Marlboro-on-Hudson, NY, May 11, 1947).

American typographer, printer and graphic designer. He demonstrated his interest in letter forms when a child, cutting out 3000 in paper. While working as a clerk in Boston, he discovered the Kelmscott Press. In 1895 Goudy founded the Booklet Press, a small printing shop, later renamed the Camelot Press. In 1896 he designed his first type, called Camelot, and in 1899 set up as a freelance designer, producing book designs and advertising lettering. His Village Press printed two books before 1904 when he moved to Hingham, MA, where a further nine books were produced over the next two years. The establishment of the press in New York was followed by a fire (January 1908) in which all Goudy’s property was lost. From this point he abandoned general printing in favour of type design. A trip to Europe in 1909 enabled him to study inscriptions. His first two types to achieve serious recognition and success were ...

Article

(b Bazoches-en-Houlme, Orne, April 4, 1858; d Paris, Sept 27, 1915).

French writer and draughtsman. He came from a family that had, in the 15th and 16th centuries, produced many notable painters, engravers and publishers, including Jean de Gourmont the elder and the younger. Though he had from an early age wanted to become a writer, he entered the university at Caen in 1876 to study law. He graduated in 1879 and in 1881 started working at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, where he published many articles, populist books and a novel, Merlette (Paris, 1886). At the Bibliothèque Nationale he met the writer Villiers de l’Isle Adam, who became a close friend and introduced him to Joris-Karl Huysman in 1889. The poet Stéphane Mallarmé was another of his associates at this time. In 1890 he was one of the co-founders of the journal Mercure de France together with Albert Aurier, Jules Renard (1864–1910) and others. He was a regular contributor and his article ‘Le Joujou patriotisme’ (...

Article

Patrick Conner, David Tatham and Tapati Guha-Thakurta

English family of artists. Daniel Havell (d ?1826) was an engraver and publisher of topographical and architectural works distinguished by a delicacy of line. He worked in London and was for a time in partnership with Robert Havell I (1769–1832), a painter, engraver and publisher. According to their descendants, Robert was undeniably Daniel’s son, though there is evidence to suggest that he may have been his uncle. The family firm engraved work by (1) William Havell, a cousin of Daniel Havell, and a painter and traveller. Robert Havell I later became self-employed and set up in business for a time in Oxford Street with his son (2) Robert Havell jr. In 1839 Robert Havell jr went to the USA at the invitation of John James Audubon, for whom he had engraved many of the plates for Birds of America. (3) Ernest Binfield Havell, a great-nephew of (1) William Havell, seems to have inherited the family love of travel and painting and became a distinguished art teacher in India and a scholar of Indian art....

Article

Colin J. Bailey

(b Olmütz, Moravia, May 13, 1853; d Stuttgart, May 17, 1934).

German painter. While still at school he became familiar with lithography and printing methods with the intention of joining his father’s thriving publishing firm. His later decision to study art eventually met with his father’s approval, and from 1876 until 1879 he trained at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna. In 1879 he transferred to the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich, where until 1881 he continued his training under Carl Barth and Wilhelm von Diez (1839–1907). After a study tour with the German painter Arthur Langhammer (1854–1901) he returned to Munich to paint.

A visit to Paris in the 1880s had a decisive effect on Hölzel’s future development. He frequented the studios of Manet and Monet and was particularly impressed by the plein-air paintings of the Impressionists. As a direct result both his style and his technique underwent immediate change. Whereas his early work was executed in the realistic manner of Diez, and his paintings of the early 1880s (e.g. ...

Article

E. A. Christensen

(b Bloomington, IL, June 19, 1856; d SS Lusitania, off Co. Cork, May 7, 1915).

American designer. He was initially a successful salesman for the Illinois-based Weller’s Practical Soaps. He settled in East Aurora, near Buffalo, NY, and abandoned selling soap in 1893. During a trip to England the following year, he met William Morris and admired the works of his Kelmscott Press. On returning to East Aurora, Hubbard employed his great showmanship to popularize a simplified version of English Arts and Crafts design for a wide audience. With the help of a local press, he began publishing monthly biographies, Little Journeys to the Homes of the Great (1895–1909), the first two of which treat the lives of George Eliot and John Ruskin. Soon after, he founded the Roycroft Press with the publication of The Philistine (1895–1915), a monthly journal combining popular philosophy, aphorisms and brief preachments with crude Art Nouveau lettering and ornament. The Song of Songs (1895), printed on handmade paper with rough and arty bindings, was the first of many Roycroft books. The press became the centre of the ...

Article

Marc Simpson

(b Oldmeldrum, Aberdeenshire [now Grampian], Nov 21, 1838; d Berkeley, CA, April 13, 1911).

American painter of Scottish birth. He arrived in New York as a boy in 1850 and was hired as a wood-engraver by the publishing firm of Harper & Brothers in 1857. In 1859 he established himself as a wood-engraver in San Francisco. Keith soon began to make watercolours of the state’s spectacular mountain scenery, and in 1868 he turned to oil painting. After spending two years (1870–72) travelling first to Düsseldorf, where he admired the landscapes of Andreas Achenbach (1815–1910), then to Paris, where he saw the work of the Barbizon painters, and to New York and Boston, he returned to the American West. There he travelled widely during the next decade with the photographer Carleton E. Watkins and the naturalist and conservationist John Muir (1838–1914). From 1883 to 1885 Keith studied informally in Munich; he returned to Europe in 1893 and 1899. In the mid-1880s he was influenced by the philosophical teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg (...

Article

Deborah C. Mays

(b Stirling, July 3, 1855; d Edinburgh, Jan 7, 1931).

Scottish architect. After training with John Hutchison (c. 1840–1908) in Glasgow and continuing under Wardrop and Reid in Edinburgh, he travelled abroad, publishing Details from Italian Buildings, chiefly Renaissance in 1882. He was in practice with Henry Seymour (fl 1882–1901) in Edinburgh until 1889, working independently until 1897 when he was joined by Harold Ogle Tarbolton (1869–1947) until 1905. Domestic commissions were his favoured field, including numerous additions (1890–1905) to the mansion and estate of Manderston, Berwickshire; four houses (1897–1900) in Mortonhall Road, Edinburgh; Altyre estate works (1900–02); Carlekemp (1898), East Lothian; and The Peel (1904–7), Selkirkshire. His designs incorporated an extensive range of sources, drawing particularly from Scottish 17th-century precedents. Perceptive interpretation and sensitive treatment earned his restorations a high contemporary reputation. His restorations include Falkland Palace (1890–98), St Andrew’s Augustinian Priory (...

Article

Anne Blecksmith

(b Kiev, Sept 4, 1919; d Miami, FL, Nov 19, 1999).

American painter, photographer and publishing executive of Ukrainian birth. Raised in England and France, he received a degree in philosophy and mathematics from the Sorbonne in 1930. Connected to the Russian exile community in Paris, he was introduced to artists Aleksandr Yakovlev and Marc Chagall. In 1931, he studied painting with André Lhote and enrolled at the Ecole Spéciale d’Architecture, where he was a student of Auguste Perret. Later that year, he transferred to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. While studying architecture, he was apprenticed to graphic artist Cassandre through whom he found work at the newsweekly Vu, where he created photomontage covers with Russian Constructivist sensibilities and later rose to art director. At Vu he worked with imagery by pioneers of 35 mm photography Henri Cartier-Bresson, Brassaï and Erich Salomon. A prolific photographer since childhood, he enthusiastically identified with the candid documentary style of the 35 mm camera.

Arriving in New York in ...

Article

Christina Lodder

(Vasil’yevich)

(b Nizhny Novgorod, 1861; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], Oct 14, 1934).

Russian painter, patron, musician, writer and publisher. He pursued a highly original line of artistic thought and practice and developed an organic perception of the world, deriving his inspiration from nature rather than machines, unlike many of his Russian Constructivist contemporaries.

Matyushin trained initially as a musician at the Moscow Conservatory (1878–81) and played the violin in the Court orchestra in St Petersburg from 1881 to 1913. In 1889 he began to attend the School of the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts in St Petersburg, where he studied painting with Yan Tsionglinsky (d 1914). In Tsionglinsky’s studio he met the artist and writer Yelena Guro, whom he married. Later (1906–8) he studied with the World of Art (Mir Iskusstva) painters Léon Bakst and Mstislav Dobuzhinsky at the Zvantseva School of Art in St Petersburg.

In 1909 Matyushin briefly joined the circle around Nikolay Kul’bin and the following year he founded the ...

Article

José Luis Morales y Marín

(b Entrambasmestas, Santander, Nov 16, 1851; d Ontaneda, Santander, Sept 25, 1929).

Spanish painter and lithographer. In 1858 he went to Madrid on a scholarship from the printer José María Martínez and entered the Escuela de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, where he trained under Carlos de Haes, leader of the 19th-century Spanish school of landscape painters. Later Riancho went to Belgium, living first in Antwerp and later in Brussels, where he remained for 18 years. There he acquired a knowledge of the work of the Barbizon school, which was fundamental to his art. In 1883 he returned to Spain, where he settled. A prolific painter, he principally produced landscapes. In his highly original compositions the mountains and vegetation of Santander predominate, seen through the delicately painted soft tones of the mists and light of northern Spain. He was a skilled draughtsman and prepared numerous sketches from nature in pencil and stump before finishing his definitive versions in oils. He was also a lithographer of landscapes. In ...

Article

Anne Ehrenkranz

(b Ribe, Denmark, May 3, 1849; d Barre, MA, May 26, 1914).

American photographer of Danish birth. The son of a school teacher and editor, he was well-educated when he came to the USA in 1870. He was a self-taught photographer and worked at a variety of jobs before becoming a journalist, and he understood the power of the written and illustrated word. Riis’s work in journalism began in 1873 when he was employed by the New York News Association. By 1874 he was editor and then owner of the South Brooklyn News. In 1878 he won a coveted job as a police reporter at the Tribune and found the basis of his life’s work in his assigned territory, Mulberry Bend, where the worst slums and tenements were (e.g. Mulberry Bend as It Was, see Riis, 1901, p. 265).

Using flash photographs to document articles and lectures, Riis emphasized the dehumanizing conditions of New York’s slums with works such as Tenement House Air-shaft...