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Article

A. Wallert

Medieval treatise and the most important source on the techniques of manuscript illumination (see Manual, manuscript). The manuscript (Naples, Bib. N., MS. XII.E.27) has no title or signature and was entitled De arte illuminandi by its first editor, Demetrio Salazaro. Containing recipes for the making, preparation and mixing of pigments and colorants, it is a simple and well-organized manual, clearly composed for teaching the illuminator’s craft. It describes consecutively the colours, gold, the temperas and various applications. Unlike most other medieval technical sources, De arte illuminandi is not a compilation of earlier treatises. The manuscript was probably written in southern Italy and dates from the end of the 14th century. No other copies of this text are known.

D. Salazaro: L’arte de la miniatura nel secolo XIV (Naples, 1877)A. Lecoy de la Marche: L’Art d’enluminer (Paris, 1890)D. V. Thompson and G. H. Hamilton: An Anonymous Fourteenth-century Treatise, ‘De arte illuminandi’: The Technique of Manuscript Illumination...

Article

Sandra L. Hindman

[Pisan]

(b Venice, c. 1364; d Poissy, nr Paris, ?c. 1430).

Italian writer and publisher, active in France.

At the age of four Christine went with her father, Tommaso di Benvenuto da Pizzano (whose name reflects the origin of his family in the small town of Pizzano in the foothills of Bologna), to Paris, where he served as physician and astrologer to Charles V. In 1379 Christine married a French nobleman, Etienne Castel, who became a royal notary and secretary. She bore him three children before his death in 1389. Since her father had also died between 1384 and 1389, Christine was forced to support both herself and her family. Many women in her situation might have taken religious vows or remarried, but Christine determined to earn her living through her skills as a writer.

Initially she wrote love poetry, which she gathered together at the end of the 1390s in a volume called Cent balades. Although she continued occasionally to write love poetry, such as the ...

Article

Judith K. Golden

Anonymous collection of in-depth typologies, based on the idea that every event in the New Testament was presaged by an event in the Old Testament ( see Typological cycles ). The Speculum humanae salvationis appeared first in manuscript form, then as Block-book s and later as incunabula. Chief among possible sources for the text is Ludolphus of Saxony (c. 1300–77), with Conradus of Altzheim, Vincent of Beauvais, Henricus Suso and Nicholas of Lyra among others also suggested authors. Like copies of the earlier Biblia pauperum, tituli and captions identify events and figures, however the Speculum humanae salvationis augments these pictures with a text that explains the illustrations. Between the early 14th century and the end of the 15th, several hundred copies, nearly all illustrated, were produced and translated from the original Latin into German, French, English, Dutch and Czech.

Typically the manuscripts include a Prologue and Prohemium, of text only; followed by forty-two chapters with four miniatures atop four text columns each of twenty-five lines; closing with three chapters with eight miniatures devoted to the Seven Stations of the Passion, the Seven Sorrows and the Seven Joys of Mary, these last three chapters not being typological. Some manuscripts omit opening texts or the final three chapters. Each opening provides a meditative, typological diptych of four images and clarifying text, for example Christ and the Last Supper as the first image, followed by Moses and the Miracle of Manna; Moses and Passover; Abraham blessed by Melchisedek. The first image contains gospel citations; the last three have captions indicating their relationship to the first....