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Jan Johnson

(b Mantua, 1558–9; d 1629).

Italian woodcutter and printer. He was the only printmaker to produce a significant number of chiaroscuro woodcuts in Italy in the second half of the 16th century; he also reprinted chiaroscuro woodblocks originally cut 60 or 70 years earlier. He made at least 35 prints in both black and white and colour (many multiple-sheet), using a sophisticated style of cutting characterized by thin, closed contours. Based in Florence in 1584–5 and from 1586 in Siena, by 1590 he was also finding work in his native Mantua, where he is documented as establishing a workshop. He reproduced the designs of artists in diverse media with great fidelity: for example he made several prints (1586–90) after Domenico Beccafumi’s intarsia pavement designs in Siena Cathedral, three prints (1584) from different angles of Giambologna’s marble sculpture of the Rape of the Sabines (Florence, Loggia dei Lanzi; see fig.), as well as of the bas-relief on the base of the same group and of Giambologna’s relief of ...


Jetty E. van der Sterre

(bapt Mechelen, Jan 14, 1600; d Deurne, Antwerp, Nov 1, 1652).

Flemish painter, draughtsman and printmaker . In 1622–3 he became a master in the Guild of St Luke, Antwerp. In 1625–6 he took on Peter van de Cruys (fl 1625–44) as his pupil, who was followed by Frans Wouters in 1629 and Wouters’s brother, Pieter Wouters (1617–after 1632), in 1631–2. In 1631 van Avont became a citizen of Antwerp.

A recurring motif in van Avont’s work is a group of figures dominated by children and putti; these appear in a variety of forms—the Infant Christ, John the Baptist, angels—in van Avont’s many pictures of the Holy Family. The figure groups in these pieces are often of the same type: angels paying tribute to the Virgin and Child. The grouping is identical in several paintings. Van Avont also used figures of children in his bacchanals and in such allegorical scenes as the Four Elements (Basle, Kstmus.) and ...


Feliciano Benvenuti

Italian family of typographers, engravers, publishers and print dealers. Members of the family were active in Venice and Padua in the 16th century and the early 17th. Most notable among them were Luca Bertelli (fl Venice, c. 1560; fl Padua, 1594), Orazio Bertelli (fl Venice, 1562–88), who was possibly Luca’s brother, and Ferdinando (Ferrando, Ferrante) Bertelli (fl Venice, 1561–72). It is difficult to determine the extent of Luca Bertelli’s participation in the execution of the prints he published; they were mainly historical, religious and mythological. Orazio Bertelli probably encouraged Agostino Carracci’s visit to Venice in 1582. Orazio’s engravings included the works of Federico Barocci, Domenico Tibaldi and Paolo Veronese, notably a Pietà (De Grazia, p. 125, no. 102). Ferdinando Bertelli was best known for his publication of a vast number of maps, by both Italian and foreign cartographers.

DBI; Thieme–Becker D. De Grazia: Le stampe dei Carracci...


Arnout Balis

(b Antwerp, bapt Oct 22, 1622; d Paris, Sept 3, 1674).

Flemish painter, draughtsman and etcher. He came from an artistic family: his father Jan Boel (1592–1640), was an engraver, publisher and art dealer; his uncle Quirin Boel I was an engraver; and his brother Quirin Boel II (1620–40) was also a printmaker. Pieter was probably apprenticed in Antwerp to Jan Fyt, but may have studied previously with Frans Snyders. He then went to Italy, probably visiting Rome and Genoa, where he is supposed to have stayed with Cornelis de Wael. None of Boel’s work from this period is known. In 1650 he became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke (having given his first name as Jan, not Pieter). His marriage to Maria Blanckaert took place at about the same time. Boel dated only a few of his paintings, making it difficult to establish a chronology. He is best known for his hunting scenes, some of which clearly show his debt to Snyders, but the dominant influence on his work was that of Fyt, particularly evident in his emphatic brushwork. However, Boel was more restrained both in his treatment and in his handling of outline. He also borrowed the theme of open-air hunting still-lifes (e.g. ...


David Rodgers

(fl 1660–83)

English miniature painter, writer, printmaker and print publisher. In 1665 he taught limning to Elizabeth Pepys, wife of Samuel Pepys, probably on the recommendation of Pepys’s superior, Sir William Penn, whose daughter he had previously taught. Pepys, finding Browne over-familiar, terminated the acquaintance the following year. In 1669 Browne published Ars Pictoria, or an Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning and Etching, with 31 plates etched by himself after Old Master painters. It was published with Browne’s portrait by Jacob Huysmans, engraved by Arnold de Jode (b 1638; fl 1658–66), as its frontispiece. Six years later Browne added An Appendix to the Art of Painting in Miniture [sic] or Limning, etc and in 1677 published A Commodious Drawing Book with 40 plates after modern masters. In 1683, according to Horace Walpole, Browne obtained a 14-year patent to publish 100 mezzotint prints from works by Anthony van Dyck and ...


Françoise Jestaz

(b Viterbo; fl 1560; d Naples, April 16, 1620).

Italian printmaker and cartographer. He was in Rome by 1560, the date of his first known engraving, the Adoration of the Shepherds (b. 2), after Heinrich Aldegrever. Bartsch recorded 28 prints by him, to which Passavant added a further 27. Mainly engravings, his works include St Jerome (b. 14), after Albrecht Dürer, Christ Descending into Limbo (b. 7), after Andrea Mantegna, the Last Judgement (b. 18), after Michelangelo, and a Landscape (b. 26), after Titian. Until 1577 Cartaro collaborated with the publisher Antoine Lafréry, providing illustrations for the Speculum Romanae magnificentiae, a collection of plans and views issued between 1545 and 1577, and for Le tavole moderne di geografia (c. 1580). After this, he turned increasingly to the more profitable activity of print-selling. He spent his last years in Naples making drawings for printed maps of the kingdom of Naples (e.g. b. 27) with the help of the mathematician ...


Maxime Préaud

(b Orléans, bapt April 18, 1635; d Paris, Sept 15, 1683).

French engraver and print publisher. He travelled to Rome, where he trained as an engraver with Johann Friedrich Greuter (c. 1590/93–1662) and Cornelis Bloemaert the younger. He then worked for a time for the Papacy and stayed in Venice and Genoa before returning to France. He taught engraving in Lyon to Benoît Farjat (1646–c. 1720). Having moved to Paris, he became known for his engravings after works by Poussin, such as the Death of Germanicus (1663; see Weigert, no. 35). He worked for Louis XIV and in 1663 became one of the first engravers to be admitted to the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture. In 1665 he married the miniaturist Antoinette Hérault (1642–95), thus becoming brother-in-law to the painters Charles-Antoine Hérault (1644–1718) and Noël Coypel. Chasteau went into partnership with the latter in the publication of thesis frontispieces, Coypel supplying the drawings and Chasteau carrying out the engraving and distribution. Without abandoning engraving, he actively engaged himself in the publishing and selling of prints, as is shown by the inventory made after his death; he set up business in the Rue St Jacques, first under the sign of the Guardian Angel and then under that of the Bust of Louis XIV. He exhibited at the Académie Royale in ...


Celia Carrington Riely

[Ch’en Chi-ju; zi Zhongshun; hao Meigong, Meidaoren, Migong]

(b Huating, Jiangsu Province [modern Songjiang, Shanghai Municipality], 16 Dec 1558; d 19 Oct 1639). Chinese editor, writer, calligrapher and painter. He exemplified the literati ideal of the accomplished gentleman–scholar who rejected the sordid world of political involvement and devoted himself to a life of literary, artistic and philosophical pursuit. At the age of 28, having passed the prefectural examination, the first important step leading to a career in government office, Chen renounced official life in a dramatic gesture, by burning his Confucian cap and gown. Thereafter he lived at country retreats at Kunshan and then Mt She, near Huating in Jiangsu Province: entertaining guests; writing and editing; composing the poems, prefaces, epitaphs and biographies for which he was in constant demand; and travelling to places of scenic beauty in the company of friends.

Chen followed the lead of his close friend Dong Qichang, the foremost painter, calligrapher and connoisseur of the late Ming period (...


Jacques Kuhnmünch

(b ?Nancy, c. 1610; d Rome, bur Jan 18, 1687).

French engraver, print-seller and publisher, active in Italy. After a four-year apprenticeship sometime between 1622 and 1630 in the studio of Jacques Callot, he went to Rome to finish his training as an engraver. Collignon is chiefly known as a print-seller and publisher, however. After a modest start in Paris, he settled in the Parione district of Rome. Details of his estate, posthumously published, reveal that he was a major figure in publishing and print-selling. Sometime after 1650 he and Giovanni Giacomo Rossi were the joint publishers of Pietro Testa’s engravings, and Collignon also published plates by Cornelis Bloemaert (ii) after Pietro da Cortona, Nicolas Poussin and Charles Le Brun. He also handled engravings by Simon Vouet and François Spierre as well as large numbers of prints by Nicolas Pérelle and Jean Le Pautre. On Collignon’s death, his business was bought up by the Antwerp dealer Arnold van Westerhout (...


Blanca García Vega

[Juan de(s)]

(b Paris, 1592; d c. 1641).

French engraver, active in Spain. He worked first for publishing companies in Paris, executing portraits of Mary Sidney and Philip Sidney for the French translation of Philip Sidney’s Arcadia of the Countess of Pembroke (Paris, 1624). Courbes worked in Spain between 1620 and 1640, mainly in Madrid but also for clients in other parts of the country. He engraved numerous portraits, including that of Lope de Vega (1562–1635), for whose work he produced many title pages and illustrations. He also portrayed Luis Góngora (1561–1627), Henry III of Castille (d 1406), Philip IV and nine members of the Hurtado de Mendoza family for Historia de Cuenca (Madrid, 1629). He engraved a large number of frontispieces with portraits and plates for books, among which his allegories, executed in collaboration with Melchor Prieto (d 1648) for his Psalmodia Eucharistica (Madrid, 1622), are outstanding....


Maxime Préaud

(b Arles, c. 1622; d Paris, c. 1675–80).

French engraver. He travelled to Italy and was a friend of the print-publisher François Langlois de Chartres and the painter Claude Vignon. Basically a reproductive engraver, his line engraving showed strength and precision. Although he reproduced the works of some Italian artists, such as Annibale Carracci (the Virgin Suckling the Child...


Paul H. Rem


Dutch family of architects and artists. Cornelis Danckerts (1536–95) was the city mason of Amsterdam. His son, Cornelis Danckerts de Rij (i) (b Amsterdam 1561; d 1634) possibly received from him his early training in the building trade. Judging from the addition of ‘de Rij’ (surveyor or clerk of works) to his name, he must have been a well-respected land surveyor or building inspector, and on his father’s death he succeeded to his post. The Municipal Works Department at that time consisted of Hendrick de Keyser I (City Architect), Hendrick Jacobsz. Staets (c. 1588–1631; City Carpenter) and Cornelis Danckerts de Rij (i) (City Mason and Land Surveyor). Danckerts worked closely with de Keyser and probably executed his designs for the Zuiderkerk (1603), the Exchange (1608–11) and the Westerkerk (1620). The tower of the Westerkerk (h. 85 m), which was completed in ...


(b Paris, c. 1604; d Laluque, Landes, March 29, 1678).

French painter, engraver and print publisher. Although it was as a painter that he was received (reçu) in 1663 by the Académie Royale, it is as an engraver that he is now remembered. His earliest known print is dated 1630, and he later made many plates, particularly reproductive engravings after his contemporaries Jacques Blanchard and Claude Vignon. He was one of Simon Vouet’s best interpreters, and Vouet himself commissioned from him at least 11 plates after his own paintings. Daret’s most important projects were the engraving of plates for and the publication of M. de Gomberville’s La Doctrine des moeurs (Paris, 1646) and the monumental collection of over 100 portraits in the Tableaux historiques où sont gravez les illustres français et estrangiers (Paris, 1652). His translation of Vasari’s life of Raphael, Abrégé de la vie de Raphael Sansio d’Urbin (Paris, 1651), is celebrated as the first monograph on an artist published in France....


Timothy Riggs


Dutch family of etchers. The brothers Jan [Johannes] van Doetechum (i) (b Deventer, fl 1554–c. 1600) and Lucas van Doetechum (b Deventer, fl 1554; d before March 1584) worked extensively for Antwerp print publishers, first Hieronymus Cock and later Gerard de Jode (i). They may have learnt etching from Cock, but their style is distinct from his; they combined firmly drawn, and frequently ruled, shading lines, the weight of which was controlled by variable biting, with the occasional use of an engraver’s burin. Their earliest signed work is the Funeral Procession of Charles V (1559), designed by Cock and published by Christoph Plantin. They appear to have worked entirely from the designs of other artists. They produced a few large figure compositions (e.g. the Resurrection, 1557, after Frans Floris) but specialized in landscape (after Pieter Bruegel, I and Hans Bol, among others), architectural and ornamental designs (especially after ...


Véronique Meyer

(b Paris, April 1662; d Paris, Jan 6, 1757).

French printmaker, print-seller and print publisher. He was a pupil of Guillaume Vallet (1632–1704). He was appointed Graveur du Roi and accepted (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1704; he was received (reçu) in 1707 with his portraits, both after Hyacinthe Rigaud, of Charles de La Fosse (Roux, no. 10) and François Girardon (r 9). He enjoyed a considerable reputation: according to Claude-Henri Watelet he was one of the printmakers who were able to produce the softest effects in engraving and who knew how best to suggest the velvety texture of a woman’s skin; in this domain he was often imitated but never equalled. His reproductions of Corregio’s Io (r 8), Leda (r 16) and Danaë (r 33) are among the most celebrated of his works, which are not numerous; only 58 have been identified, probably owing to his activities as a print publisher. He distributed works by Laurent Cars and his family, by Jacques-Philippe Lebas and by the Audran family. He also collaborated with ...


Maxime Préaud

(b Antwerp, bapt Oct 20, 1640; d Paris, April 2, 1707).

French engraver and print publisher of Flemish origin. He was the son of a tailor in Antwerp and trained as an engraver with Gaspar Huybrechts (1619–84) and Cornelis Galle the younger. On arriving in Paris in 1666, he worked with his compatriot Nicolas Pitau the elder, and then with François de Poilly, Robert Nanteuil and Philippe de Champaigne. In 1672 he married the daughter of Nicolas Regnesson, the Parisian engraver and print publisher, thus himself becoming a print publisher. In 1675 he became a naturalized Frenchman and in 1677 was admitted (reçu) to the Académie Royale. In 1695 he was made a Chevalier of the Order of St Michel and a Papal Knight. He became both a councillor at the Académie and Premier Dessinateur du Cabinet du Roi. Among his pupils were his brother Jean Edelinck (b Antwerp, c. 1643; d Paris, 14 May 1680...


Annette Faber

(fl Leipzig, 1592; d after 1617).

German painter, illustrator and printmaker. In 1592 he was granted the freedom of Leipzig, where he worked mainly as an illustrator for the publisher Henning Gross. He specialized in views and plans of towns, including Moscow, Wrocław, Venice, Istanbul and Jerusalem. His etchings illustrated the Persianische Reise (Leipzig, 1609) by ...


[Jeremiasz; Jeremij]

(b ?Gdańsk, c. 1610; d Gdańsk, 1677).

Polish engraver. Between 1639 and 1645 he worked in Paris for the publishers Justus van Egmont, Justus Leblond, François Langlois and Pierre-Jean Mariette, producing a series of engraved allegories, for example the Five Senses, the Four Seasons, the Twelve Months and the Four Elements. He engraved portraits of Louis XIII and his family and surroundings, after paintings by van Egmont, while for the Leblond print publishers he produced portraits of actors in the manner of Jacques Callot.

Falck was active in Gdańsk from 1646, producing engravings of the triumphal arches erected for the entry of Queen Marie Louise de Gonzague in 1646 (plates, Gdańsk, Lib. Pol. Acad. Sci.) and drawings (1648–9; Gdańsk, N. Mus.) of the sculptures by Peter Ringering (1612–50) on the Golden Gate in Gdańsk. In 1646–55 Falck engraved his mature portraits of Swedish and Polish dignitaries and magnates and of Gdańsk scholars and patricians, which were based on paintings by David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl and Daniel Schultz, among others. Falck used the oval-framed, bust-length format he had developed during the years he had worked in Paris; the background was made up of concentric lines, the shading giving an illusion of depth, and at the bottom of each engraving was a tablet-form inscription. He occasionally alluded to his origins by signing himself ...


David Tatham

(bapt Dorchester, MA, Dec 10, 1648; d Dorchester, Sept 9, 1681).

American printer and printmaker. He was the son of early settlers in Massachusetts and graduated from Harvard College in 1667; he then taught in Dorchester (now South Boston) and about 1670 began making the earliest pictorial woodcuts in English-speaking North America. In 1675 he became the first letterpress printer in Boston and the second in New England. Foster’s woodcut Richard Mather (c. 1670; Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) is among the earliest of American portraits and perhaps the first in any medium by an artist born in English-speaking America. His Map of New-England, ‘White Hills’ version (1677; Boston, MA Hist. Soc.), which he adapted from a manuscript source (untraced), was the first map to be cut, printed and published north of Mexico. Despite their primitive quality, Foster’s prints are strongly designed and show a keen awareness of Baroque style in the graphic arts. In addition to his work as a printer and printmaker, Foster took an interest in medicine, music, astronomy, meteorology, mathematics and possibly painting....


Marianne Grivel

(b Paris, 1561; d Paris, c. 1635).

French engraver, draughtsman, print publisher and dealer. He was the son of the goldsmith Pierre Gaultier, but probably not, as has been stated, the son-in-law of Antoine Caron and brother-in-law of Thomas de Leu. His first dated engravings (1576; Linzeler, 13–120) form part of a suite of 108 plates illustrating the New Testament. He was a very prolific engraver—his output reached at least 985 prints—and treated various genres, producing religious engravings, allegories, coats of arms and above all portraits and book illustrations. Although he copied the suite of engravings by Agostino dei Musi and B. Daddi after Raphael’s fresco cycle the Loves of Cupid and Psyche in the Farnesina, Rome (l 163–95), most of his work was from his own drawings. His work was published by a number of print publishers: Pierre Gourdelle (fl 1555–88) and, in 1591, by his wife (e.g. the Salvator Mundi, l...