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Alexandra Wedgwood

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Sandra L. Tatman

(Francis)

(b Philadelphia, PA, April 29, 1881; d Philadelphia, PA, April 23, 1950).

African American architect. Born and educated in Philadelphia, Abele was the chief designer in the firm of Horace Trumbauer. Unknown for most of his life, Julian Abele has become renowned as a pioneer African American architect.

Abele attended the Institute for Colored Youth and Brown Preparatory School before enrolling at the Pennsylvania Museum School of Industrial Art, where in 1898 he earned his Certificate in Architectural Drawing and the Frederick Graff Prize for work in Architectural Design, Evening Class Students. Abele then enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania. Again he distinguished himself in the architectural program, and at his 1902 graduation he was awarded the prestigious Arthur Spayd Brooke Memorial Prize. Abele’s work was also exhibited in the Toronto Architectural Club (1901), the T-Square Club Annual Exhibition (1901–2), and the Pittsburgh Architectural Club annual exhibition of 1903.

As an undergraduate Abele worked for Louis C. Hickman (...

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T. Affleck Greeves

(b Burgess Hill, Sussex, 1849; d London, Aug 17, 1933).

English architect, editor and draughtsman. After completing his articles with H. N. Goulty of Brighton, he became assistant to William Ralph Emerson, and Architect to Brighton Council. Between 1872 and 1923 he was Editor of Building News. He instituted the Building News Designing Club, which enabled young architects to submit designs for his criticism. He contributed largely to the paper’s illustrations, redrawing designs for lithographic reproduction, and covered a wide range of subjects in a skilful and accurate, if somewhat dull, linear style. He also published several architectural books. Through the owner of Building News he obtained his major architectural commissions, notably Camberwell Polytechnic and Art Gallery (1902). He also designed country houses near London, for example Queensmead Cottage, Kings Road, Windsor, Berks (1883), for Reginald Talbot, as well as in Australia (e.g. Bellevue Hill, Double Bay, for Charles B. Fairfax in the mid-1880s) and America, where he designed timber houses in New Jersey for E. S. Wilde in ...

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(b Berlin, Oct 15, 1827; d Berlin, Sept 15, 1908).

German architect, archaeologist and writer. He was one of the leading figures of Berlin’s architectural establishment in the latter half of the 19th century. On completion of his studies in 1852, he was given the prestigious post of Bauleiter at the Neues Museum in Berlin, designed by Friedrich August Stüler. He subsequently became a lecturer and in 1861 a professor of architectural history at the Bauakademie in Berlin. Many of his church buildings used medieval motifs and elements, for example the Christuskirche (1862–8) in Berlin and the Elisabethkirche (1869–72) in Wilhelmshafen. He followed Karl Bötticher in his attempts to merge medieval and classical elements, best illustrated in his design for the Thomaskirche (competition 1862; built 1865–70), Berlin. There, Adler used Gothic structural devices embellished with rich Renaissance detail, a tendency that was also present in many of the entries for the Berlin Cathedral competition (...

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(b Bowdon, Cheshire, 1868; d London, April 11, 1946).

English architect and urban planner. The son of a landscape painter, he was apprenticed to an architect in Manchester in 1885. He went to London in 1890, where he built up experience in well-known architectural offices, notably with George Sherrin (d 1909) and William Flockhart (d 1913). His brief and shrewd recollections of these years are a valuable record of prosperous London practice in the 1890s. He gradually gained a reputation as a perspectivist but his architectural career was slow to develop. The library and assembly rooms at Ramsgate, Kent (1904), and offices for the Bennett Steamship Co., Southwark, London (1908), show his preference for an individual, refined Georgian-revival style.

In 1909 Adshead became Professor of Town Planning at Liverpool University and inaugurated the Department of Civic Design, the first town-planning school in Britain, with Patrick Abercrombie as his deputy. In 1910...

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Monica E. Kupfer

(b Santiago de Veraguas, March 25, 1869; d Panama City, Nov 12, 1952).

Panamanian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He is known chiefly as the designer of the national flag (1903) of Panama. He studied business administration and had a long career in public office. When Panama became independent in 1903, he became Secretario de Hacienda and in 1904 Consul-General ad-honorem to Hamburg. In 1908 he moved to New York, where he studied with Robert Henri, who strongly influenced his style of vigorous drawing, loose brushwork, distorted expressionist images and sombre colours, as in Head Study (1910; Panama City, R. Miró priv. col.; see Miró). He produced most of his work between 1910 and 1914 and again after the late 1930s; his main subject was the human figure, but he also painted portraits, landscapes and still-lifes. On his return to Panama in the 1930s he worked as an auditor in the Contraloría General. After his retirement he resumed painting and produced some of his most passionate works, such as ...

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(b Edinburgh, April 5, 1834; d Edinburgh, June 1, 1921).

Scottish architect. He was the dominant figure in Scottish architecture during the late Victorian and Edwardian periods. The son of a solicitor, he abandoned legal training in 1852 to begin an architectural career in the office of John Lessels, a leading practitioner in Edinburgh. He studied at the Trustees’ Academy and was influenced by Alexander Christie, director of its School of Design. In 1857 Anderson joined George Gilbert Scott’s staff in London, leaving for a continental tour in 1859 and returning to Edinburgh in 1860 as a civilian architect with the Royal Engineers. While attached to the Engineers, he designed a number of small Episcopal churches that show his mastery of the archaeologically accurate Gothic style popularized in England by the Ecclesiological Society, for example All Saints, Edinburgh (1866–78).

He began independent practice in 1868 and shortly afterwards published a book of measured drawings from his foreign tour. In ...

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Lucília Verdelho da Costa and Sandro Callerio

(b Lisbon, Aug 26, 1839; d Genoa, Nov 30, 1915).

Portuguese painter, architect and restorer, active in Italy. He came from a middle-class family with trading interests in Italy. In 1854 Andrade went to Genoa, and friendships there with such artists as Tammar Luxoro (1824–99) led him to study painting with Alexandre Calame and later to study architecture at the Accademia Ligustica di Belle Arti. He travelled widely, and in Italy he came into contact with Antonio Fontanesi and Carlo Pittura (1835/6–91), with whom he became one of the most active painters of the Scuola di Rivara. According to Telamaro Signorini, Andrade was among the painters who frequented the Caffè Michelangiolo in Florence. The influence of the macchiaioli painters is also evident from 1863 in his paintings, especially in Return from the Woods at Dusk (1869; Genoa, Mus. Accad. Ligustica B.A.)

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Andrade’s work represents a transition from the Romantic school of Calame to the Naturalism of the Barbizon school. His landscapes show careful observation of nature. The locations in northern Italy seem to have been chosen for their melancholy and serenity, as in the landscapes of Fontanesi. Andrade’s pastoral scenes at dawn or dusk are seen through morning mists or against sunsets, or they depict uninhabited countryside. Most of these works, for example ...

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Jean-Claude Vigato

(b Nancy, Aug 22, 1871; d Nancy, March 10, 1933).

French architect. His grandfather, François André (1811–1904), was a developer and his father, Charles André (1841–1928), became a county architect and was one of the organizers of the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Lorrains of 1894, which proved to be a prelude to the formation of the Ecole de Nancy seven years later. Emile André studied architecture with Victor Laloux at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In 1896 he travelled to the Nile with Gaston Munier (1871–1918), his friend and fellow student. On the advice of the French archaeologist Jacques de Morgan, they excavated the temple of Kom Ombo (154 bcad 14) to the north of Aswan and under his direction they also took part in an archaeological mission to Persia (now Iran). André made drawings and watercolours on his travels and he went to India with the aid of a travel grant awarded to him for his contribution on Kom Ombo to the Salon of ...

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George Tibbits

(b Bendigo, Victoria, Aug 16, 1865; d Melbourne, June 22, 1933).

Australian architect. He served articles with William Salway (1844–1902) in Melbourne and practised alone from the late 1880s to the early 1930s, with a circle of clients and friends drawn from varying levels of Melbourne society. As well as a commitment to the ideals of the Arts and Crafts movement, he aimed to create an Australian idiom and saw architecture as an art rather than a profession. His talent for sketching and his flair for writing on architecture were also recognized at an early stage in local building journals.

His earliest designs show the influence of H. H. Richardson, whom he greatly admired, but the Viennese Secession may have influenced the Springthorpe Memorial in Kew cemetery, Melbourne (1897). His well-known houses at 32, 34 and 38 The Eyrie, Eaglemont (1902–3), are free and decorative adaptations of a half-timbered, roughcast and Marseilles-tiled idiom fused with an Arts and Crafts approach, which he continued to develop in examples such as the Norman Macgeorge house at Alphington (...

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Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Valencia, 1832; d Madrid, 1917).

Spanish architect, teacher and writer. He studied at the recently established Escuela de Arquitectura in Madrid and received his degree in 1855. He was noted for the historical knowledge that he was able to apply to the theories of eclecticism in the pursuit of pure historicism. He was more a theoretician than a practising architect, devoting 50 years to teaching at the Escuela de Arquitectura as Catedrático de Construcción. He was director of the Escuela between 1896 and 1910 and bequeathed his library to it.

Aparici y Soriano’s early architectural works, such as the monument to Mendizábal, Argüelles and Calatrava (1857) in the cemetery of S Nicolás, Madrid, shows his scholarly interests. Immediately after, however, his style came under the influence of Viollet-le-Duc, of whom he became a fervent follower, as is apparent in his few completed projects. The most important of these was the sober and monumental basilica of Nuestra Señora de Covadonga (...

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Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Rome, Oct 22, 1844; d Madrid, Dec 18, 1916).

Spanish architect. He was the son of the watercolourist and printmaker Manuel Arbós y Ayerbe (d 1875) and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris (1862–5). In 1865 he entered the Escuela de Arquitectura in Madrid, where he received a bursary to train in Paris (1867). He was awarded the title of Architect in 1869 and in 1884 was appointed Architect to the Ministry of Justice. In 1898 he became a member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, Madrid; his acceptance speech was entitled Transformaciones más culminantes de la arquitectura cristiana.

Arbós y Tremanti’s work represents the pure eclecticism characteristic of architecture in the period after the restoration of Alfonso XII in 1874. The differences between his style, which reveals Italian and French influences mixed with a Byzantine type of orientalism, and that of his contemporaries may be explained by his training in Rome, Paris and Madrid....

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Irene Puchalski

(b Inverness, Dec 14, 1872; d Montreal, March 2, 1934).

Canadian architect of Scottish birth. From 1887 to 1893 he was an apprentice in the architectural office of William MacIntosh in Inverness. He settled in Canada in 1893, joining the office of Edward Maxwell in Montreal, where he was employed as draughtsman and assistant.

From 1897 to 1915 he formed a partnership with Charles Jewett Saxe (1870–1943), in which Archibald’s role was predominantly administrative. The partnership’s work included schools, large residences, residential blocks and office buildings. Early commissions in Montreal included the F. H. Anson Residence (1904), 466 Côte St Antoine, Westmount; Montreal Technical School (1909); and several additions to the Queen’s Hotel (1909–13; destr. 1988), 700 Peel Street. After 1915, in his own independent practice, Archibald built the Baron Byng High School (1921); the Masonic Memorial Temple (1928); and St Mary’s Memorial Hospital (1932), all in Montreal. In the 1920s ...

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Robert Buerglener

[motor car]

Architecture and the automobile have been intimately connected since the late 19th century. The attributes of cars required specific architectural solutions for manufacture, sales, and service. On a broader level, the overall built environment was forever changed by roadside structures designed to meet the needs of drivers.

Automobile factories evolved in tandem with mass production; modular form and open floor spaces provided flexibility in machine placement and possibilities for expansion as production needs changed. Detroit-based architect Albert Kahn, with his associate Ernest Wilby (1868–1957), set a new standard for 20th-century industrial buildings through innovative use of space and materials. For the Packard Company’s Building Number Ten (Detroit, 1905; enlarged 1909), Kahn used reinforced concrete to create modular bays, repeatable horizontally and vertically, with wide interior spans and large window surfaces. For Ford’s Highland Park factory (begun 1909; see fig.), Kahn designed a multi-building complex of reinforced concrete and steel-framed buildings that housed machinery strategically in the sequence of production. In Ford’s River Rouge manufacturing complex in Dearborn, MI (...

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(b Boulogne-sur-Seine, May 3, 1870; d Paris, Aug 14, 1935).

French architect. He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Paul-René-Léon Ginain and Louis-Henri-Georges Scellier de Gisors, receiving his architectural diploma in 1892. His early work included S. Bing’s Art Nouveau pavilion (destr.) at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 (inspired by Louis Bonnier’s initial project), blocks of flats in Paris in ashlar work, for example 236–238 Boulevard Raspail, 105 Rue Raymond Poincaré (both 1906) and the corner site of the Avenues du Bois de Boulogne et Malakoff (c. 1908), as well as regionalist constructions (garage in Neuilly and rural buildings in Herqueville and Heilly). He participated regularly in the competitions organized by the City of Paris, building low-cost housing schemes in the Rue Brillat-Savarin (1914–30) and the garden city at Chatenay-Malabry (1920–32) in collaboration with Joseph Bassompierre and Paul de Rutté. Following World War I he was named architect for the reconstruction schemes for the districts of Aisne and Pas-de-Calais....

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Dianne Timmerman and Frank van den Hoek

(b Loenen, April 3, 1858: d Abcoude, July 11, 1918).

Dutch architect. He trained as a carpenter’s assistant and took evening classes at the Society for the Workers, afterwards becoming a draughtsman for Jan Galman. From 1876 he worked in the office of Gerlof Bartholomeus Salm, where he was involved in, among other projects, the design of the building for the Vrije Gemeente (built 1879–80) on the Weteringschans, Amsterdam. In 1882 van Arkel set up as an independent architect. Rather than adopt Salm’s eclectic style, he was influenced by Netherlandish Renaissance architecture. His preferred Renaissance Revival style is particularly apparent in his early smaller works, such as the shop at Kalverstraat 200, Amsterdam. Following H. P. Berlage’s ideas, van Arkel also became more sparing in his use of decorative elements. An example of this sober style, related to Jugendstil, is the photographic studio at Spui 15–19, Amsterdam. He always remained active as a draughtsman and had a great interest in historic buildings, illustrating the book by ...

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John E. Bowlt

(Yefimovich)

(b Yegorovo, Ryazan province, Aug 15, 1862; d Moscow, Sept 25, 1930).

Russian painter. He trained at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture under Vasily Perov, Aleksey Savrasov, Vladimir Makovsky and Vasily Polenov and joined the Wanderers (Peredvizhniki) in 1889 and the Union of Russian Artists in 1903. While indebted to the realist painting of Perov, Arkhipov also gave particular attention to effects of light, rhythm and texture, even in his most didactic canvases, such as Washerwomen (late 1890s; two versions Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal. and St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). Arkhipov found a rich and diverse source of inspiration in the Russian countryside and the peasantry; he painted peasants at work, the melting of the snow, the local church and priest, the villages of the far north and the White Sea. Works such as The Lay Brother (1891) and Northern Village (1903; both Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) are evidence of Arkhipov’s important position in the history of late 19th-century Russian landscape painting. His concentration on ...

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Alan Crawford

(b Isleworth, Middx, May 17, 1863; d Godden Green, Kent, May 23, 1942).

English designer, writer, architect and social reformer . He was educated at King’s College, Cambridge. As a young man he was deeply influenced by the teachings of John Ruskin and William Morris, and particularly by their vision of creative workmanship in the Middle Ages; such a vision made work in modern times seem like mechanical drudgery. Ashbee played many parts and might be thought a dilettante; but his purpose was always to give a practical expression to what he had learnt from Ruskin and Morris. An intense and rather isolated figure, he found security in a life dedicated to making the world a better place.

In 1888, while he was training to be an architect in the office of G. F. Bodley and Thomas Garner (1839–1906), Ashbee set up the Guild and School of Handicraft in the East End of London. The School lasted only until 1895, but the Guild, a craft workshop that combined the ideals of the Arts and Crafts Movement with a romantic, apolitical socialism, was to be the focus of Ashbee’s work for the next 20 years. There were five guildsmen at first, making furniture and base metalwork. In ...