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Article

Jean-Claude Vigato

(b Nancy, Aug 22, 1871; d Nancy, March 10, 1933).

French architect. His grandfather, François André (1811–1904), was a developer and his father, Charles André (1841–1928), became a county architect and was one of the organizers of the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Lorrains of 1894, which proved to be a prelude to the formation of the Ecole de Nancy seven years later. Emile André studied architecture with Victor Laloux at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In 1896 he travelled to the Nile with Gaston Munier (1871–1918), his friend and fellow student. On the advice of the French archaeologist Jacques de Morgan, they excavated the temple of Kom Ombo (154 bcad 14) to the north of Aswan and under his direction they also took part in an archaeological mission to Persia (now Iran). André made drawings and watercolours on his travels and he went to India with the aid of a travel grant awarded to him for his contribution on Kom Ombo to the Salon of ...

Article

(b Boulogne-sur-Seine, May 3, 1870; d Paris, Aug 14, 1935).

French architect. He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Paul-René-Léon Ginain and Louis-Henri-Georges Scellier de Gisors, receiving his architectural diploma in 1892. His early work included S. Bing’s Art Nouveau pavilion (destr.) at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 (inspired by Louis Bonnier’s initial project), blocks of flats in Paris in ashlar work, for example 236–238 Boulevard Raspail, 105 Rue Raymond Poincaré (both 1906) and the corner site of the Avenues du Bois de Boulogne et Malakoff (c. 1908), as well as regionalist constructions (garage in Neuilly and rural buildings in Herqueville and Heilly). He participated regularly in the competitions organized by the City of Paris, building low-cost housing schemes in the Rue Brillat-Savarin (1914–30) and the garden city at Chatenay-Malabry (1920–32) in collaboration with Joseph Bassompierre and Paul de Rutté. Following World War I he was named architect for the reconstruction schemes for the districts of Aisne and Pas-de-Calais....

Article

Meredith L. Clausen

Term used to refer to a movement or set of concerns espoused by a small number of left-wing artists and architects in the 1890s and early 1900s, mainly in Brussels and Paris. A significant number of leading Art Nouveau artists and architects, including Victor Horta, Héctor Guimard and Frantz Jourdain (the main spokesman for the movement) were involved. Art à la Rue, which focused specifically on bringing art to the working classes, was part of a broader movement aimed at social reform, whose roots were in the French socialist movement, the political theories of the Russian anarchist Prince Kropotkin and William Morris’s later essays. In challenging the élitist status of art, it urged those in the arts to forget the world of museums and collectors and to concentrate instead on relating art to everyday life, so that it assumed a more socially responsive role in society. The main arena for this was the ...

Article

Anne van Loo

(b Brussels, Sept 15, 1863; d Antwerp, March 6, 1927).

Belgian architect . He began his studies at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp, studying monumental architecture in the evenings while working by day. His marriage to the daughter of the architect J.-B. Vereecken introduced him to wealthy bourgeois circles where he found most of his clients. Between 1894 and 1906 he took part in the construction of the Zurenborg district of Antwerp, begun at the instigation of Senator John Cogels, where he built 25 houses for the Société Anonyme pour la Construction du Quartier Est d’Anvers. This group of buildings constitutes one of the city’s architectural curiosities: it is dominated by historicism, particularly in the double residence Euterpia (1906) that is an example of neo-Greek bravura, but Bascourt also developed an original Art Nouveau style there, marked by echoes of Arabian architecture. His own house (1902; destr. 1986) in Antwerp was conceived in the spirit of the work of John Soane, designed around a central hall giving on to rooms that were each furnished and decorated in a different style. He built several mansions, office blocks and industrial buildings in Antwerp between ...

Article

Iain Boyd Whyte

(b Hamburg, April 14, 1868; d Berlin, Feb 27, 1940).

German architect, designer and painter. Progressing from painting and graphics to product design and architecture, Behrens achieved his greatest successes with his work for the Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG), in which he reconciled the Prussian Classicist tradition with the demands of industrial fabrication.

After attending the Realgymnasium in Altona, he began his painting studies in 1886 at the Kunstakademie in Karlsruhe. From there he moved to Düsseldorf, where he studied with Ferdinand Brütt. In December 1889 Behrens married Lilli Krämer, and the following year the couple moved to Munich, where he continued his studies with Hugo Kotschenreiter (1854–1908). Behrens was one of the founder-members of the Munich Secession (see Secession, §1) in 1893 and, shortly afterwards, a founder of the more progressive Freie Vereinigung Münchener Künstler, with Otto Eckmann, Max Slevogt, Wilhelm Trübner and Lovis Corinth. He also joined the circle associated with the magazine Pan, which included Otto Julius Bierbaum, Julius Meier-Graefe, Franz Blei, Richard Dehmel and Otto Eckmann....

Article

[Francisco]

(b Reus, July 21, 1866; d Barcelona, Feb 8, 1914).

Catalan architect. His father had taught Antoni Gaudí, who later became a close friend and collaborator with Berenguer, the two architects’ characters perfectly complementing each other. Although Berenguer studied at the Escuela de Bellas Artes (from 1881) and attended the Escuela de Arquitectura, both in Barcelona, he never finished his studies, abandoning them in 1887 to work first in the office of Augusto Font i Carreras and later with Gaudí. From 1892 he was employed in the architectural department of the town hall of Gracia, one of the adjoining small towns swallowed up by Barcelona, where he did most of his work: the Mercado de la Libertad (1893), the Casa Parroquial (1900), the renovation of the Iglesia de S Juan de Gracia (1909), and the house at Calle del Oro 44 (1909). These works demonstrate most of the general characteristics of ...

Article

Pieter Singelenberg

(b Amsterdam, Feb 21, 1856; d The Hague, Aug 12, 1934).

Dutch architect, urban planner, designer and writer. He abandoned early his intention to become a painter and instead trained in architecture at the Bauschule of the Eidgenössiche Polytechnikum (now Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule) in Zurich under Gottfried Semper’s followers. Semper was a major influence on Berlage, especially for Berlage’s emphatic use of a variety of materials and an acute attention to construction. The other major influence was the work of Viollet-le-Duc. After his training Berlage visited Germany and Italy from 1878 to 1881, returning to Amsterdam to become an associate of the classicist architect and businessman Theodorus Sanders, who very soon handed over to him the task of designing. The shop and office-block for Focke & Meltzer (1884–5), Kalverstraat, Amsterdam, was critically acclaimed for its correct application of the Venetian Renaissance style favoured by Semper and for the grandeur of its shopping area, with its unusually large windows. Berlage voiced doubts in ...

Article

Raquel Henriques da Silva

(b Oporto, Oct 1, 1864; d Sintra, Feb 19, 1948).

Portuguese architect. He studied architecture at the Academia de Belas Artes in Oporto and then for five years with Paul Blondel (1847–97) in Paris on a state scholarship. He returned to a busy and successful career in Portugal, his work ranging from projects in Revivalist styles to the propagation of a simplified version of Art Nouveau. In 1895 he won first prize in a competition for restoration work on the church of the Hieronymite Monastery at Belém, although this was subsequently carried out by teams from the Ministry of Public Works, and in 1897 he won first prize in a competition project for the design of low-cost housing estates, in which his approach was derived from the garden city concept. He then won first prize for a standardized design (1898) for primary schools in a style that included some of the hybrid characteristics of the Casa Portuguesa style; this brought him commissions for the construction of about 300 buildings throughout Portugal. He also designed many branches of the ...

Article

Raquel Henriques da Silva

(b Venice, 1852; d Venice, Oct 8, 1908).

Italian architect, teacher and designer, active in Portugal. Little is known of his early life and work before the 1880s, when he was one of several Italian architects invited by the Portuguese State to teach in the recently founded schools of industrial design set up in Portugal as part of the reform of art education there, which was carried out by the Minister of Public Works, Emídio Navarro. Bigaglia divided his time in Portugal between teaching in the Escola Industrial Afonso Domingues, Lisbon, and designing many single-family houses or small residential blocks in Lisbon and other parts of Portugal. Bigaglia was a versatile architect and adapted well to the variations in Portuguese middle-class taste of the time, designing decorative façades that incorporated the fashionable style of Art Nouveau in wrought-iron railings, azulejo (glazed tile) friezes, and door- and window-mouldings, but which retained traditional structural design and volume. The most original examples are in Lisbon: Casa Lima Mayer (...

Article

Gerhard Kabierske

(b Karlsruhe, Feb 7, 1867; d Karlsruhe, March 2, 1946).

German architect and teacher. He came from a family of building craftsmen established in Karlsruhe and studied there (1883–4) at the Kunstgewerbeschule, which, under the directorship of Hermann Götz (1848–1901), had become a focus of progressive tendencies in the applied arts in Germany. After a year’s military service he moved on to study architecture at the Technische Hochschule, Karlsruhe, but did not graduate. Feeling little affinity with the doctrinaire Renaissance Revival ideas promoted by his teacher Josef Durm, he was more influenced by study tours in Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Scandinavia. In 1888–92 he lived in Berlin and Aachen, where he worked in leading architectural practices and encountered the emerging stylistic movements of the day.

In 1892 Billing set up his own practice in Karlsruhe and produced some competition entries that attracted considerable attention, for example the design (1893) of a bridge over the River Weser at Bremen. Private commissions for houses, residential buildings and industrial developments followed. His work before ...

Article

Anne van Loo

(b Brussels, Feb 21, 1870; d Brussels, Jan 19, 1957).

Belgian architect and designer. He studied architecture at the Ecole Saint-Luc in Brussels and during his very brief career as a practising architect (1899–1903) he became one of the most interesting protagonists of the Art Nouveau style in Brussels. His work included a total of 17 houses in Saint-Gilles and 11 houses in Saint-Boniface, Ixelles, Brussels, where he acted as both architect and builder and sold the houses on completion. To suit the individual tastes of the purchasers he created a different façade for each house based on virtually identical plans, and these buildings remain as examples of Art Nouveau ensembles that are unique in their architectural variety. During the same period he built some 15 houses in the new districts to the south of Brussels, for which he also designed some remarkable wrought ironwork. From 1902 to 1908 he concentrated on building his own house (destr. 1962...

Article

Ye. I. Kirichenko

(Yevgrafovich)

(b Ufa, 1870; d Moscow, Jan 29, 1946).

Russian architect, architectural historian, restorer and exhibition organizer. He studied (1887–91) at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Moscow, and then at the Technische Hochschule, Zurich, where he completed his studies in 1894. He designed the Russian craft pavilion at the Exposition Universelle (1900) in Paris with A. Ya Golovin and with the painter Konstantin Korovin. The work largely reflected the search for a distinct national style, particularly the revival of Russian timber architecture and tent-roofed churches (for illustration see Mir Iskusstva). His own churches, built for the Old Believers community, are in Bogorodsk (now Noginsk; 1900–02), Tokmakov Lane, Moscow, Gavrilov Lane, Moscow, and in Orekhovo-Zuyevo and Kuznetsy near Moscow, all built in 1906–9. Two later examples are at Kuznetsov (1911) near Kashin, near Moscow, and in Riga (1913–14). They are picturesque compositions, complex in form with expressive contrasts in texture and colour. Similar in approach are his country houses, including those for ...

Article

Bernard Marrey

(b Templeuve, nr Lille, June 14, 1856; d Paris, Sept 16, 1946).

French architect and urban planner. Born to a staunchly republican peasant family in Flanders, in 1875 he entered the Ecoles Académiques, Lille, where he was initially attracted to painting. The death of his father in 1876 and the consequent need to support his family then directed him towards the more financially secure career of architecture. In August 1876 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris; he also taught drawing and worked with various architects, notably Paul Sédille whom he greatly respected. In 1881 he married the daughter of Jean Deconchy (1827–1911), one of the architects employed by the city authorities of Paris, and in 1884 Bonnier himself joined the city administration as a trainee architect, working in the 19th arrondissement. In 1883 he won the competition for the construction of the town hall (1886–7) at Issy-les-Moulineaux on the south-west edge of Paris. He then built a series of villas, Les Dunes, Les Oyats, Les Sablons, Les Algues and Robinson (...

Article

Annette Nève

(b Brussels, Nov 16, 1852; d Brussels, Jan 4, 1942).

Belgian architect. He studied at the Ecole du Génie Civil in Ghent and then from 1873 to 1879 at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels. An important early influence was a period spent working with Henri Beyaert, with whom he collaborated closely, acquiring an astonishing virtuosity in the design of façades. The major part of his work, however, can be characterized as derived from Italian and Flemish Renaissance sources, although developed with a rationalist rigour given the limitations of party-wall construction and narrow plots of land with which he had to contend. After the early design for the Ecole Communale (1878–80), Place Anneessens, Brussels, he visited Italy and spent a few years in the early 1880s in Portugal. On his return to Brussels he specialized in designing middle-class homes, large houses for the wealthy, industrial buildings and exhibition halls. However, his outstanding work is the Hôtel Hannon (...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Christiania [now Oslo], March 28, 1864; d Oslo, June 2, 1953).

Norwegian architect and designer. He was trained as a draughtsman and technician in Christiania (1883–4) and completed his education as an architect in Berlin (1884–7). He started his own practice in Christiania in 1888, serving also as a teacher at the Royal School of Design there from 1908 and as director from 1912 to 1934. Early on he demonstrated an extraordinary ability as a draughtsman and a thorough knowledge of architectural history; he was equally interested in the traditional buildings of his own country and international contemporary trends. Bull’s first buildings in Christiania, such as the Paulus Church (1889–92) and Mogens Thorsen’s home for the elderly (1896–8; destr.), are historicist, although freely so. The high spire of the Gothic-Revival church, which is of red brick with details in glazed tiles, provides a landmark for Georg Bull’s earlier Grünerløkka development. In the National Theatre (...

Article

Raquel Henriques da Silva

(Garcia de Aráujo)

(b Lisbon, 1863; d Lisbon, Jan 21, 1919).

Portuguese architect. He was born of a poor family but came to the notice of Alexandre Herculano (1810–77), the famous historian, who supervised his studies. Carvalheira trained at the Instituto Industrial, Lisbon, in a tradition based on Neo-classicism but was also sensitive to historicist trends, which in Portugal derived from the Manueline style of the 16th century, and to the decorative aesthetic of Art Nouveau propagated by French periodicals. In a short period up to 1910, when the Portuguese monarchy ended, Carvalheira divided his activity between commissions for private houses, outstanding among which is the chalet (1893), Monte Estoril, for the queen, Maria Pia (1847–1911), and the planning of several shops in the commercial centre of Lisbon, including Tabacaria Mónaco (1894) in the Rossio, with Art Nouveau decoration. He also designed the Sanatorióm de Sant’Ana (1901–4), Parede, one of the most important Art Nouveau complexes in Portugal, with a functional plan, skilfully designed elevations and furnishings and outstanding ...

Article

Elke Ostländer

[Klönne, Eduard; Colonna, Eugène]

(b Mülheim, nr Cologne, May 27, 1862; d Nice, Oct 14, 1948).

German architect and designer. He studied architecture from 1877 to 1881 in Brussels and in 1882 went to New York where he worked briefly as a designer for Tiffany’s Associated Artists. From 1884 to 1885 he worked with the New York architects Bruce Price. From 1885 onwards he produced railway wagons for Barney & Smith, Dayton, OH, and for a Canadian railway company, and he also worked in the field of interior decoration. In 1893 Colonna went to Europe, settling in Paris, where in 1898 he started work as a designer for S. Bing’s Galerie Art Nouveau. His heyday came between 1898 and 1902, when he produced designs for jewellery, textiles and furniture, including exhibits in the famous Art Nouveau Bing pavilion (destr.) at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900.

In 1902 Colonna returned to Canada, and for 20 years he worked as an interior decorator and designer there and in the USA. In ...

Article

Vincenzo Fontana

(b Gemona, Udine, Aug 31, 1857; d San Remo, Imperia, May 3, 1932).

Italian architect. The son of a building contractor, at 14 he was working as a mason in Graz, Austria, and attending the local Baukunde where Leopold Theyer taught neo-Gothic and neo-Renaissance architectural design. He returned to Gemona in 1874 and after voluntary military service with the military engineers in Turin, where he learned the techniques of structural work in wood, he attended the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice, studying under Giacomo Franco and graduating in 1880.

After a brief period (1881) during which he taught at the Accademia di Carrara, D’Aronco’s career can be divided into three phases: in the first decade he was associated with Giuseppe Sommaruga and Ernesto Basile as one of the leading architects of the Stile Liberty (It.: Art Nouveau); the second, c. ten years either side of 1900, was when much of his work was in Turkey; and the third, after 1908...

Article

Isabella Di Resta

(b Lecce, 1859; d Naples, 1932).

Italian urban planner and architect. He was brought up in Trani, a town in the Puglie, and graduated at the Scuola d’Applicazione degli Ingegneri in Naples, the city where he was most active. He was primarily an urban planner but also designed public and private buildings. A thorough theoretical and practical knowledge underpinned his schemes, which were concerned particularly with problems associated with road networks, functional planning and economy. In 1889 he made a plan (unexecuted) for the transformation of the area surrounding the Museo Archeologico in Naples. The project was drawn up for a competition for the improvement, enlargement and beautification of the city and it was intended to resolve the road arrangement at this pivotal urban point, replacing the smaller buildings on the site. Other unexecuted schemes include those commissioned by the Comune di Trani for the Palazzo di Giustizia (1900) and the area around the port (...

Article

Volker Helas

(b Breslau, Jan 1, 1859; d Dresden, Dec 21, 1942).

German architect and teacher. He first trained at the Gewerbeschule, Schweidnitz, then studied architecture (1877–9) in Hannover with Conrad Wilhelm Hase and at the Technische Hochschule, Stuttgart (1879–80). His practical training was in the largest German architectural practice of the time, Kayser & von Grossheim, Berlin, then with Brost and Grosser in Breslau, and finally with Friedrich von Thiersch in Munich (1885–6). Having set up an independent practice in Munich (1887), Dülfer began designing façades, the first being that of the Bernheimer Haus (1887–9), a Baroque-style façade above a tall ground-floor, which is broken up by windows and iron supports. In 1891 he went to London and worked with Emanuel von Seidl (1856–1919) on the decorations for a German exhibition. Although English elements began to appear in his work, he continued to use a mixture of the neo-Baroque and Louis XVI styles in many later façades, notably that of the Staats- und Stadtbibliothek (...