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Hélène Guéné-Loyer

(b Altkirch, Alsace, Sept 21, 1823; d Nice, Nov 11, 1889).

French architect, ceramics manufacturer and writer. He trained at the Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, Paris, and became a civil engineer, his first project being the building of 300 dwellings (1852–97) for the Jean Dollfuss workers’ housing estate in Mulhouse. In 1853 he proposed model workers’ housing estates called ‘cités circulaires’, composed of prefabricated timber houses, but none was ever built. After these early experiments in social housing Muller became one of the undisputed specialists in the field, publishing his ideas in 1855 and 1879.

It was in the industrialized production of ceramic products, however, that Muller played his most significant role. In 1854 he founded his own tile factory, La Grande Tuilerie d’Ivry, producing the first industrial tiles, which were exhibited at the Exposition Universelle, Paris, in 1855. He produced industrial tiles in different colours, ridge-tiles and made-to-measure roofing for the Menier factory (1871–2) in Noisiel, Seine-et-Marne. Designed by the architect ...