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Article

Ilse O’Dell-Franke

[Jobst, Jos]

(b Zurich, bapt June 13, 1539; d Nuremberg, March 17, 1591).

Swiss draughtsman, woodcutter, engraver, etcher and painter. He was the youngest son of the noted scholar and Chorherr in Zurich, Johann Jakob Amman, a friend of Ulrich Zwingli and Gessner family §(2). Although a successful pupil at the renowned Collegium Carolinum where his father was a professor, Jost, like his brother Josua (1531–64), who became a goldsmith, did not take up a scholarly career. As early as 1556–7 his copies of prints by other artists, for example Dürer family, §1 (b. 94) and Solis family §(1) (b. 249), show an independent and original approach. For his apprenticeship Amman may have been in Basle or Zurich, but he probably spent some time in Paris or Lyon, since his early works show a close similarity to French book illustrations.

In 1561 Amman was in Nuremberg, where he may have worked with Solis, the chief illustrator for the Frankfurt am Main publisher ...

Article

Christiane Andersson

(b ?Schwäbisch Gmünd, 1484 or 1485; d Strassburg [now Strasbourg, France], 1545).

German painter, printmaker, draughtsman and stained-glass designer. Such contemporaries as Jean Pélerin (De artificiali perspectiva, 1521) and the Alsatian humanist Beatus Rhenanus in 1526 counted him among the greatest artists of his time. In the opinion of specialists today, Baldung’s work places him only half a step behind Grünewald, Dürer and Hans Holbein the younger. A prodigious and imaginative artist of great originality, versatility and passion, Baldung was fascinated with witchcraft and superstition and possessed a desire for novelty of subjects and interpretation that sometimes borders on the eccentric. The new themes he introduced include the supernatural and the erotic. He was the first to show the erotic nature of the Fall in his chiaroscuro woodcut of Adam and Eve (1511; Hollstein, no. 3) and illustrated the successive stages of mating behaviour of horses in his woodcut series of Wild Horses in the forest (1534; Hollstein, nos 238–40); and he is remembered especially for his images of witches. Dürer influenced him only in an early stage but not lastingly. Baldung had a very different sensibility and lacked Dürer’s sense of decorum. Grünewald, whose monumental ...

Article

[Pieter]

(b Antwerp, c. 1526–28; d Antwerp, 1584).

South Netherlandish painter, draughtsman, engraver and publisher. He was the son of the sculptor Balten Janszoon de Costere (fl 1524). In 1550 he became a master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp and in 1569 its dean. Primarily on the authority of van Mander, Baltens was long considered to be an inferior imitator of Bruegel family, §1 the elder. Baltens’s best-known work, the signed St Martin’s Day Kermis (e.g. versions Amsterdam, Rijksmus.; Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.), was formerly thought to be a free copy after Bruegel’s treatment of the subject, known through an engraving and the Gift of St Martin, a fragment on cloth (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.). The relationship between Baltens and Bruegel is, however, more complicated. In 1551 they collaborated on an altarpiece (destr.) for the Mechelen Glovemakers. Baltens’s other works, for example the Ecce homo (Antwerp, Kon. Acad. S. Kst.), reveal that the two artists were closely associated: a group from the ...

Article

Fiorella Sricchia Santoro

(di Giacomo di Pace)

(b Cortine in Valdibiana Montaperti, 1484; d Siena, between Jan and May 1551).

Italian painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker and illuminator. He was one of the protagonists, perhaps even the most precocious, of Tuscan Mannerism, which he practised with a strong sense of his Sienese artistic background but at the same time with an awareness of contemporary developments in Florence and Rome. He responded to the new demand for feeling and fantasy while retaining the formal language of the early 16th century. None of Beccafumi’s works is signed or dated, but his highly personal maniera has facilitated almost unanimous agreement regarding the definition of his corpus and the principal areas of influence on it. However, some questions concerning the circumstances of his early career and the choices available to him remain unanswered. The more extreme forms of Beccafumi’s reckless experimentation underwent a critical reappraisal only in the later 20th century.

The primary sources of information concerning Beccafumi are Vasari’s biography (1568) and archival findings, mostly 19th century, relating to the artist. Vasari, although a direct acquaintance of Beccafumi in his last years and in a position to gather information from mutual friends, was, predictably, unreliable in regard to his early career. According to Vasari, Mecherino, the son of a poor farmer named Giacomo di Pace, became the protégé of ...

Article

Riccardo Lattuada

(b Fossano, nr Turin, 1636; d Naples, Sept 28, 1688).

Italian painter, engraver and draughtsman. He studied with Esprit Grandjean (fl 1642–55), a painter working at the court of Savoy in Turin from 1642, and won the protection of Christina, Duchess of Savoy (1606–63). By 1652 Beinaschi had settled in Rome. This date appears on the engraving he made (b. 20) of Giovanni Domenico Cerrini’s Rest on the Flight into Egypt (untraced). As a pupil of the engraver Pietro del Pò (1610–92), Beinaschi made copies after Annibale Carracci’s frescoes in the Galleria Farnese, Rome, after Giovanni Lanfranco’s frescoes in S Andrea della Valle and S Carlo ai Catinari, and after the Classical sculptures in the Belvedere in the Vatican. Beinaschi was deeply attracted by Lanfranco’s illusionism, and it seems likely that he made a journey to Parma to study the frescoed domes executed by Correggio (de Dominici). His earliest works, the St John the Baptist Preaching in the Desert...

Article

Phyllis Dearborn Massar

(b Florence, May 17, 1610; d Florence, July 1664).

Italian etcher and draughtsman, active also in France. He was a prolific artist: 1052 prints are described in the catalogue raisonné (de Vesme; rev. Massar, 1971) and thousands of his drawings are in public and private collections. He was one of the greatest Italian etchers, whose prints of battles and sieges, harbours, festivals, plays and operas are filled with tiny figures and vividly suggest many features of 17th-century urban and rural life. Della Bella’s landscape etchings were an important influence on the prints of the Lorraine artists François Collignon and Israël Silvestre (i). His work was overlooked in the 19th century but in the 1960s and 1970s became well known through exhibitions and scholarly publications, distinguishing his work from that of Jacques Callot.

On the premature death of his father, Francesco della Bella (d 1612), a sculptor who had worked with Giambologna, and following his older brothers, also artists, della Bella was apprenticed at an early age to the goldsmith ...

Article

Michel Sylvestre

(Charles) (de)

(b ?Bassigny, c. 1575; d Nancy, 1616).

French painter, etcher and draughtsman. His known artistic activity dates only from 1602 to 1616 and he is now familiar chiefly for his etchings and drawings, all his decorative works and most of his paintings having perished. His highly idiosyncratic style was inspired by such Italian artists as Parmigianino, by the School of Fontainebleau and by northern artists including Albrecht Dürer and Bartholomeus Spranger. His work would seem to express a private and nervous religious sensibility through a style of the greatest refinement. It is among the latest and most extreme expressions of Mannerism. He was influential on other Lorraine artists: Claude Déruet was his pupil, as, perhaps, was Georges de La Tour.

He may have had his earliest artistic training in Bassigny, the south-west part of the then independent duchy of Lorraine, or in Nancy, its capital. He may have completed it in Italy, perhaps in Florence, and/or in Paris. On ...

Article

(b Türkheim, bapt April 15, 1688; d Augsburg, April 2, 1762).

German painter, teacher, draughtsman and printmaker. His frescoes and altarpieces and his teaching established him as the dominant figure in the art life of Augsburg in the earlier 18th century. He came from a family of well-known Swabian sculptors, cabinetmakers and painters, with whom he probably initially trained. The Bavarian Duke Maximilian Philip paid for him to study (1702–8) with the Munich court painter Johann Andreas Wolff, after which he was summoned by the Elector of the Palatinate to decorate the court church of St Hubertus in Düsseldorf (1708–9; destr.). In 1710 or 1712 Bergmüller frescoed the church of Kreuzpullach, near Wolfratshausen. In his request for permission to marry and for mastership in Augsburg in 1712, he referred to an otherwise undocumented stay in the Netherlands. He settled permanently in the Imperial Free City in 1713 and attended its Reichstädtische Kunstakademie from 1715. From this time he rose to become the most influential painter and teacher in Augsburg, with apprentices coming from beyond the city, including ...

Article

Federica Lamera

(b Genoa, bapt April 14, 1629; d Genoa, 1657).

Italian painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was taught by his father, Giovanni Andrea Biscaino, a mediocre landscape painter, and entered the workshop of Valerio Castello (ii), probably at the end of the 1640s. The chronology of his oeuvre, truncated by his early death in a plague, is hard to reconstruct. Only two paintings bear early documentation: St Ferrando Imploring the Virgin (Genoa, Pal. Bianco) and an untraced Flaying of Marsyas (see Manzitti, 1971, pl. 31). However, his graphic work had a continuing reputation: he was called a ‘great draughtsman’ by Pellegrino Orlandi in his Abecedario pittorico (1704), and his etchings, of which over 40 are catalogued in Bartsch, were ‘very favourably received’, according to Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d’Argenville (1762). About half the etchings are signed or initialled, and two are dated (Nativity, 1655, b. 22; St Mary Magdalene in the Desert, 1656, b. 38). From them it is possible to attribute further works, mostly small canvases, to Biscaino, and to characterize his development....

Article

Lucie Galactéros-de Boissier

(b ?Paris, 1614; d Lyon, June 21, 1689).

French painter, draughtsman, architect, sculptor and printmaker. He trained in Paris, where he came into contact with Jacques Sarazin, who advised him to study painting rather than sculpture. He probably studied (c. 1637–45) with Simon Vouet, becoming familiar with perspective, the Mannerism of the School of Fontainebleau and the Baroque, then newly introduced to Paris. Around 1645 he arrived in Rome; during his stay there (which ended in 1653) he worked with artists who were members of Nicolas Poussin’s circle and frequented the studios of Andrea Sacchi, Pietro da Cortona and Gianlorenzo Bernini (who thought highly of him). He executed paintings for Niccolo Guido di Bagno (1584–1663). His engravings of antique tombs and his prospettive were much admired. In 1654 he created a mausoleum for René de Voyer d’Argenson, Ambassador of France in Venice, in S Giobbe, Venice.

In 1655 Blanchet returned to Lyon, having been summoned to carry out the decoration, both painted and sculpted, of the Hôtel de Ville. In ...

Article

M. J. T. M. Stompé

(b Lohr, c. 1525).

German architect, engraver and writer. After training as an architect in his native town, Hans Blum left Lohr because two architects were already working there: Peter Volckner (fl 1539–48) and Jost Wenzel (fl 1548–70). He then moved to Zurich, where he married Ragali Kuchymeister in 1550. Their eldest son Christoffel Blum (bapt 21 Jan 1552) was named after the publisher Christoffel Froschauer (?1490–1564), who later published Hans Blum’s treatises on architecture.

Hans Blum is primarily known as the author of Quinque columnarum exacta descriptio atque delinaeatio cum symmetrica (1550), a book on the five orders of architecture. He based his work on the fourth volume of Serlio’s Regole generali di architettura (Venice, 1537), a German edition of which was published in 1542. The second source for Blum’s book was Gualtherus Rivius’s edition of Vitruvius, published in 1548 and illustrated by Peter Flettner (...

Article

Michael Eissenhauer

(b ?Memmingen; fl c. 1511; d Mulhouse, 1553).

German painter, draughtsman and etcher. The son of a Memmingen artist, he was in Lucerne in 1512–13 and was taxed in Konstanz from 1515 to 1544. Leaving Konstanz in 1543, he stayed briefly in Colmar, then worked in Montbéliard (1544–6). From 1552 until his death he was employed painting the town hall (built 1551) of Mulhouse. His principal work was the high altar (1523–4; destr. 1529) of the church at St Gall Abbey. His surviving work was formerly thought to include the triptych (1524) in the cathedral at Konstanz, and the etchings of the Augsburg monogrammist Master CB were also attributed to him, but the triptych is now known to be the work of Matthäus Gutrecht II (fl 1517–24), and the monogrammist CB has been identified as Conrad Bauer (fl 1525–31). Thus Bockstorffer is no longer seen as a painter of Augsburg training who had a lasting influence on, and introduced significant innovations to, the painting of the Bodensee area. His oeuvre, of which only a few samples survive (along with the St Gall altarpiece, all the murals were lost), shows him as an artist of slight originality. A winged altarpiece (...

Article

Jetty E. van der Sterre

(b Mechelen, 1545; d Antwerp, 1608).

Flemish painter, engraver and draughtsman. His identity is confused: it is known that a painter called Pieter van der Borcht worked in Mechelen for the Antwerp publisher Christoph Plantin from 1564 onwards. From 1552 until at least 1592 this artist—referred to as Pieter van der Borcht IV by Hollstein and as Pieter van der Borcht II by Bénézit—made etchings as well as woodcuts with the inscription fecit petrus van der borcht.

In addition, there was a Pieter van der Borcht active in Mechelen, who, after 1552, made woodcuts which he signed p.b. Thus, either one artist had a steady output of woodcuts and etchings over a long career (1552–c. 1600) or there were a number of artists with the same name. The second hypothesis seems the more likely. It is supported by other facts. In 1580 a ‘Pieter Verborcht, painter’ became a master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp, of which he served as dean in ...

Article

Alfonso E. Pérez Sánchez

(b Rome, c. 1575; d Rome, Jan 15, 1616).

Italian painter and etcher, also active in Spain. He was the son of a Florentine carpenter and stepbrother of the sculptor and architect Giulio Lasso. He accompanied Lasso to Sicily, and his earliest known work is a modest painting, in a Mannerist tradition, of St Gregory in his Study (1593; Catania, Villa Cerami, see Moir, pl. 48). He finished his training in Rome, and his study of the art of ancient Rome is evident in his early paintings, both in his use of Classical ruins and in the sculptural folds of his drapery. He must also have painted from nature and responded to the naturalism of Caravaggio. About 1598 Borgianni was in Spain and in 1601 he was in Pamplona. He stayed at least until June 1603, when he signed a petition for the establishment of an Italian-style academy of painting in Madrid. Among the other signatories was the Madrid-born Eugenio Cajés, whom Borgianni may have met in Rome, since Cajés was in Italy about ...

Article

Thierry Bajou

(b Montpellier, Feb 2, 1616; d Paris, May 8, 1671).

French painter, draughtsman and engraver. Although he was one of the most successful painters of the mid-17th century in France and highly praised by the writer André Félibien, he was also widely criticized for never achieving a fixed style of his own. He began his career as an imitator of the Bamboccianti and of Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione. He later produced altarpieces in a vigorous Baroque style and portraits in the manner of Anthony van Dyck before coming under the classicizing influence of Nicolas Poussin. Towards the end of his career, in a lecture to the Académie Royale, he recommended that young artists reject uniformity of inspiration. Remarkably, he was able to give a personal flavour to his work in any style and genre.

He was born into a Protestant family, the son of Marin Bourdon, a master painter and glass painter, and Jeanne Gaultière, the daughter of a master goldsmith. He probably left Montpellier for Paris when the city was besieged by Louis XIII in ...

Article

(b Speyer, 1709; bur; Mannheim, Dec 21, 1760).

German painter, draughtsman and etcher. Trained by Johann Georg Dathan (1703–c. 1748) in Speyer, he was a court painter in Mannheim from 1733 until his death, from 1755 gallery director and from 1757 a privy councillor. Of the religious works that, as a court painter, he was obliged to produce, the only ones that survive are frescoes (spandrel paintings) depicting the Four Quarters of the World (after 1748; Mannheim, former Jesuit church of SS Ignaz und Franz Xavier) and ceiling paintings in Electress Elizabeth Augusta’s library in Schloss Mannheim.

Brinckmann’s landscapes show two opposing trends. On the one hand, there are small, detailed picturesque landscapes in courtly or rural settings with suitable accessories, often with many figures. According to the terms of his contract, he had to produce two such paintings each year; typical examples are the Court Gardens at Mannheim (1745) and Wolfbrunnens near Heidelberg...

Article

Daniele Benati

(b Bologna, c. 1574; d Bologna, 1623).

Italian painter, draughtsman and engraver. He studied with Bartolomeo Passerotti and afterwards at the Accademia degli Incamminati, founded by the Carracci, where he participated in group projects supervised by Ludovico Carracci. These included frescoes (c. 1598–1600) in the Palazzo Fava in Bologna depicting scenes from the Aeneid (here it seems that he worked on the last room, in collaboration with Leonello Spada); decorations (c. 1600) in the oratory of S Maria dell’Orazione annexed to the oratory of S Colombano, Bologna (Road to Calvary); and others (1604–05; almost invisible) in the octagonal cloister of the monastery of S Michele in Bosco, Bologna (Three Stories of St Benedict). He was left in charge of the workshop while Ludovico made a brief visit to Rome in 1602, suggesting that he held a prestigious position (although the best pupils had by then already left). Brizio continued to work with ...

Article

Janez Höfler

(b ?Fulda, c. 1500; d ?Erfurt, 1554 or after).

German painter, draughtsman, engraver and woodcut designer. He worked in Fulda from c. 1520 to the mid-1540s, as is known from a series of dated paintings and copper engravings, including portraits of distinguished citizens of Fulda. Of the few surviving portraits, mainly from the 1520s, only one, that of Chancellor Johannes von Othera (1536; Switzerland, priv. col.), is signed with his full name. All have brownish flesh tones and a green background and are typified by rather angular faces, a certain stiffness and an interest in fine materials. A group of portraits bearing the monogram hb and a griffin’s head and also dating from the 1520s, which has been associated with this series, cannot be attributed to Brosamer with certainty; they mostly represent leading citizens of Nuremberg and are closer to Lucas Cranach (i) in character.

Brosamer was specifically described as Johannes Brosamer Fuldae degens, on an engraving of the ...

Article

Veronika Braunfels

(fl ?c. Strasbourg, 1559–96).

German draughtsman and engraver. He worked in the style of the Nuremberg Little Masters. His many known engravings (Bartsch names 111; Passavant, 134) include animal and fencing scenes, military figures (in individual pictures of 1559), Turkish figures, rustic genre scenes, allegories, coats of arms and ornaments. The cycle showing ...

Article

(b Hanoversch Münden, 1599 or 1602; d Hanoversch Münden, 1669).

German engraver, draughtsman and painter. His presence in the northern Netherlands c. 1620 is suggested by the woodcut Holy Family under a Tree (Hollstein, no. 4), which renders a design taken from Abraham Bloemaert in a chiaroscuro produced with one line and two tone blocks—a technique developed by Hendrick Goltzius. Between 1623 and 1629–30 Büsinck lived in Paris, producing woodcuts for the publisher Melchior Tavernier (1564–1641) after drawings by Georges Lallemand. The Holy Family with the Infant St John (1623; h 3) shows a more Italian technique, restricting contours to the black line and placing less emphasis on the use of the tone blocks. Subsequent work, such as the Moses (h 1) and the Apostles series (h 5–19) after Lallemand, synthesizes the clear black outlines of the Italian tradition with a lively decorative sway characteristic of the Dutch 17th-century style; while the systematic layers of parallel lines and crosshatching used in the ...