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Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Strasbourg, March 2, 1815; d Paris, March 20, 1896).

French architect and restorer. After training as a mason, he visited Munich in 1836 and then studied architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of Henri Labrouste. He soon joined the group of Gothic Revival architects that formed around Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus and Eugène-Emanuel Viollet-le-Duc, and from 1843 he worked for the Commission des Monuments Historiques, with which he spent a large part of his career. He built very little, apart from the church of Ste Eugénie at Biarritz, but restored a large number of buildings, including the cathedrals of Toul and Laon (see Laon, §1, (i)) and the churches at Montiérender, Avioth (Notre-Dame), Chaumont (St Jean-Baptiste) and Guebwiller (St Léger). Boeswillwald began his career in the administration of diocesan buildings as Inspecteur (1845) at Notre-Dame, Paris, with Lassus and Viollet-le-Duc. He was successively appointed diocesan architect to Luçon (1846), Bayonne (...

Article

Chris Brooks

(b London, Sept 7, 1814; d London, Feb 23, 1900).

English architect and designer. He committed his feelings and creative energies to the High Anglicanism of the Oxford Movement from the early 1840s and to its expression through the revival of Gothic architecture and design, then vociferously advocated by the Ecclesiological Society, of which he became an active member. Butterfield’s extensive output was almost exclusively confined to the building and restoration of churches and associated buildings, such as vicarages and schools.

He was the eldest son of a London chemist, and his parents were Nonconformists. From 1831 to 1833 Butterfield was articled to a Pimlico builder, Thomas Arber, from whom he must have derived the detailed understanding of practical building that was to be basic to his architectural practice. Between 1833 and 1836 he was the pupil of E. L. Blackburne, a London architect with strong antiquarian interests, and in 1838–9 he became assistant to a Worcester architect, probably Harvey Eginton, whose practice included church building and restoration. During this period Butterfield must have begun to acquire the profound knowledge of medieval architecture that was to underlie all his work. In ...

Article

Jean van Cleven

(b Courtrai [Flem. Kortrijk], May 20, 1819; d Beloeil, March 10, 1886).

Belgian architect. One of the most distinguished Belgian architects of the second half of the 19th century who designed in several styles, he won a first prize at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels in 1845 and specialized in the study of medieval architecture under Joseph Jonas Dumont. Around 1852 he established himself in Bruges, where he collaborated with Jean-Baptiste Charles François Bethune on the chapel of the Sisters of Charity (1858); before 1861, however, he moved to Beloeil, where he was employed on alterations to the Prince de Ligne’s château (which was then largely rebuilt following a fire in 1900). Carpentier was most influential in the field of ecclesiastical architecture. His churches at Beloeil (1862), Châtelet (1867; destr. by fire 1937), Thollembeek (1869), Antoing (1869) and Awenne (1881) show a personal interpretation of High Victorian Gothic, whereas St Remacle (...

Article

(b Bruges, Sept 27, 1838; d Bruges, Sept 2, 1909).

Belgian architect. He trained at the Municipal Academy of Fine Arts, Bruges, under Jean-Baptiste Rudd (1792–1870). In 1870 he was appointed City Architect in Bruges and Professor of the Academy, becoming Director in 1889. In 1879 he became a member of the Provincial Committee of the Royal Commission of Monuments. He was involved in the restoration of most of the major historical monuments in Bruges: the Chapel of the Holy Blood (1870 and 1877), the Registry (1873–83), the Toll House (1879), the Gruuthuse Palace (1883–95), the Town Hall (1894–5 and 1903–4), St John’s Hospital (1905–9) and the west façade of Notre-Dame (1907–8). In addition he restored several houses in the historic town centre. His approach to restoration was drastic, consisting in the completion of a project according to the intentions of the original master builder or architect and the removal of later additions that destroyed the stylistic unity....

Article

Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Barcelona, 1845; d Barcelona, 1924).

Spanish Catalan architect, restorer and teacher. He studied at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura in Madrid and then continued his preparation in Barcelona under Elías Rogent before becoming a professor in the city’s newly created Escuela de Arquitectura (1871), teaching art history and design. With Rogent he specialized in the restoration of such great architectural ensembles as Tarragona Cathedral (1883), frequently using brick and generally adopting a historicist approach influenced by the rationalist theories of Viollet-le-Duc. Other noteworthy achievements include the reinforcement of the cupola of the basilica del Pilar in Saragossa and the construction of the cimborio of Barcelona Cathedral, in a perfect neo-Gothic style. Font i Carreras also built numerous mansions for the aristocracy and wealthy bourgeoisie of Catalonia and was responsible for the Palace of Fine Arts in the Exposició Universal (1888) in Barcelona. In the course of his successful career he also became an associate member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, Madrid, and in Barcelona was elected to membership of the Academia de S Jorge and the Academia de Ciencias y Artes; he was also President of the Asociacíon de Arquitectos de Cataluña and of the Comisión Provincial de Monumentos....

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Paris, March 19, 1807; d Vichy, July 15, 1857).

French architect, designer, architectural historian and restorer. He began his studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, but interrupted them to enter the studio of Henri Labrouste. He was among the first of his generation to oppose the hegemony of the Académie and the teaching curriculum based on Greco-Roman tradition. Having become known through the exhibition of several of his projects at the Salon, including a reconstruction (1833) of the Palais des Tuileries as intended by Philibert de L’Orme, and proposed restorations of the Sainte-Chapelle (1835) and the refectory of St Martin-des-Champs (1836), all in Paris, Lassus began his career as an architectural historian, architect and restorer. One of his earliest works was the restoration (1835) of St-Séverin, Paris. In direct contrast with the committed classicists epitomized by Antoine Quatremère de Quincy, Lassus developed a programme based on the assumption that the Early Gothic period produced a rational and functional architecture that marked the high point of national architecture; that later Gothic represented a decline and that the Renaissance introduced foreign and pagan influences; that restoration of Gothic buildings should respect their formal and structural authenticity; and that architects of the 19th century should apply the precepts of Early Gothic in order to find the way towards a new architecture....

Article

Dominique Colmont

(b Paris, May 21, 1819; d Cannes, Feb 24, 1879).

French architect and restorer. He entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in 1837 and studied under Henri Labrouste. In 1847 he was appointed assistant architect to Viollet-le-Duc in the Commission des Monuments Historiques, and the following year he became architect for diocesan buildings in Troyes (Aube) and Châlons-sur-Marne (Marne). In 1849 he was promoted within the Commission des Monuments Historiques, and thereafter he carried out major restoration work on numerous medieval churches, including St Pierre, Souvigny (Allier), the former abbey church at St Benoît-sur-Loire (Loiret) and Notre-Dame at Paray-le-Monial (Saône-Loire). In 1855 Millet was appointed architect in charge of the château of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris. On the death of Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus in 1857 he took over the rebuilding of the cathedral at Moulins (Allier), where a Gothic Revival nave was grafted on to a 15th-century choir. In 1863 Millet was appointed Professor of Building at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, but he resigned two years later. In ...

Article

Yvonne Janková

(b Citoliby, nr Louny, Nov 22, 1835; d Prague, Jan 15, 1899).

Bohemian architect and conservator. After graduating from the Czech Technical University, Prague, he went to Vienna, where he studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste with Eduard Van der Nüll and August Siccard von Siccardsburg. Later he became a pupil of Friedrich von Schmidt and devoted himself to the study of Gothic art. Schmidt employed Mocker from 1864 to 1869 as a supervisor of his projects, and the two also collaborated from 1863 on the reconstruction and completion of the Stephansdom in Vienna. In 1869 Schmidt sent Mocker to Děčín in northern Bohemia, where he worked for the aristocratic Thun family until 1872. He also designed schools in the area, for example at Litoměřice and Mladá Boleslav, and a railway station in Lovosice.

A turning-point in Mocker’s life came in 1873 with his appointment as master builder for the completion of the cathedral of St Vitus, Prague. This campaign, of great national significance, had been taken up from ...

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Paris, Feb 18, 1820; d Cannes, May 8, 1887).

French architect, restorer, teacher and writer. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of Simon-Claude Constant-Dufeux. He was subsequently appointed junior lecturer and in due course the first professor of the history of the decorative arts at the Ecole Royale de Dessin (later the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs), where he remained for the whole of his teaching career. In 1844 he asked to be appointed Inspecteur des Travaux at Notre-Dame, Paris, a post for which he was recommended by the Broglie family. In 1848 he was appointed Diocesan Architect to Bayeux Cathedral and to diocesan buildings in Coutances, and shortly afterwards he became Auditeur to the Commission des Arts et Edifices Religieux. His later diocesan posts were at Séez (1854), Nevers (1857), Albi (1877–9) and Reims (1879). In 1883 Ruprich-Robert was unable to visit his construction sites due to ill-health and the following year he requested the appointment of deputies at Reims and Nevers, although he refused to relinquish his artistic control of the construction works....

Article

Peter Howell

(b Woodford, Essex, June 20, 1824; d London, Dec 18, 1881).

English architect. Widely regarded as the greatest British architect of his time, he played a crucial role in the development of the Gothic Revival between A. W. N. Pugin in the 1840s and its High Victorian climax. Street brought earnest conviction and great self-confidence to his work and won admiration even when his ideals were no longer considered fashionable. His concern for detail was prodigious: the Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford, for example, were assured in 1879 that if they accepted his design for new buildings, ‘every detail, even the smallest, would, as his custom is, be drawn by him’, although this meant that his assistants and pupils had no opportunity to make independent designs. Through his many articles, books on Italian and Spanish architecture and lectures at the Royal Academy, Street wielded enormous influence and his buildings were greatly admired.

His father was a London solicitor, who retired in ...

Article

Jean van Cleven

(b Ghent, July 26, 1826; d Ghent, Feb 24, 1907).

Belgian architect, writer and restorer. He was the son of a carpenter-builder, and his studies at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Ghent under the direction of Louis Joseph Adrien Roelandt, J. Van Hoecke (1803–1862) and Adolphe Pauli were crowned by a first prize in 1855–6. His first works included several designs for houses and a published project for a museum (‘Ontwerp van een Museum van beeldende kunsten’, in Album uitgegeven door hat kunstlievend geselschap der Gentsche Academie (Ghent, 1856)) in the classical taste, as well as work in the Rundbogenstil advocated by his teachers. When Jean-Baptiste-Charles-François Baron Bethune settled in Ghent in 1858, Van Assche became his pupil and collaborator, teaching at the St Luke Schools and becoming a member of the archaeological society, the Gilde de St Thomas et de St Luc. Under Bethune’s influence, from c. 1865 he increasingly developed his own practice as a protagonist of the Gothic Revival movement. His personal interpretation of Bethune’s architectural principles, distinguished by a preference for a strong visual impact sometimes resulting in a striking constructional polychromy, are evident in St Joseph’s (...

Article

Françoise Bercé

(b Paris, Jan 27, 1814; d Lausanne, Sept 17, 1879).

French architect, restorer, designer and writer. He is one of the few architects whose name is known to the general public in France, although his fame as a restorer of medieval buildings is often accompanied by a somewhat unflattering critical judgement: a restoration ‘à la Viollet-le-Duc’ is usually understood to be abusive in terms of the original work and is often confused with the type of eclectic architecture that he himself particularly disliked. Through his published writings, particularly his Dictionnaire raisonné de l’architecture française du XIe au XVIe siècle (1854–68), he made a substantial contribution to contemporary knowledge of medieval buildings. In addition, his writings and theories had an enormous impact on attitudes to restoration ( see Architectural conservation and restoration ) and on contemporary design, not only for the Gothic Revival movement but also in the development of rationalism, providing an important stimulus to new movements in architecture both in France and abroad (...

Article

(b Lidköping, Nov 21, 1831; d Stockholm, 1907).

Swedish architect and restorer . After gaining early experience as a builder, he studied at the Academy of Arts from 1853 to 1859 and then worked for his former teacher F. W. Scholander. In 1860 Zettervall was appointed cathedral architect at Lund, where he remained in charge of the restoration works for the following 20 years. The restoration of the Romanesque cathedral at Lund necessitated the structural rebuilding of large parts of the edifice, especially the west front, with its twin towers. Zettervall followed the fashion of the time in valuing stylistic accuracy and uniformity above archaeological considerations. From a historical perspective his work was destructive, but as architecture Lund Cathedral is a tour de force. In the 1880s and 1890s the Gothic cathedrals of Skara and Uppsala were restored along the same lines, the interiors being particularly successful. Despite his involvement in these projects, Zettervall was not a true ecclesiologist so much as a gifted and versatile architect. While he was working at Lund, for example, he also designed a series of new or rebuilt churches and public buildings. For the complete rebuilding of Malmö Town Hall (...