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Article

Matthew Woodworth

(b Walsingham, Norfolk; d Ely, Cambs, 1363).

English cleric, architect, and goldsmith. Already an accomplished goldsmith when first recorded as monk of Ely Cathedral in 1314, Walsingham was appointed sub-prior of Ely in 1316, sacrist in 1321, and served as prior from 1341 until his death. As sacrist, Alan of Walsingham was responsible for the building fabric, particularly finances and general repair. He also supervised new construction projects, organized and paid the labour force, and arranged for delivery of materials. During his tenure, Walsingham oversaw the building of a new sacristy (1322–5), the spacious Lady Chapel (1321–49), Prior Crauden’s Chapel (1322–8), guest quarters (1330), and Bishop Hotham’s partly remodelled choir (1338–50). Walsingham’s most ambitious project at Ely was the soaring Octagon and central lantern (1322–49), built to replace the original Romanesque crossing tower after it collapsed in 1322. Surviving Sacrist Rolls hold Alan himself responsible for the Octagon’s design, specifying that he measured out the locations of its eight supports, secured their foundations, and carried the walls up to their full height. Scholarship is divided as to Walsingham’s precise role in the Octagon’s final appearance, but, whether as architect or industrious layman, he brought to completion one of the most innovative and spatially complex structures of the 14th century....

Article

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Cistercian abbey in Portugal. The abbey, dedicated to S Maria, was founded as part of the policy of repopulation and territorial improvement of the first king of Portugal, Alfonso I (reg 1139–85), who in 1152 granted a large area of land to St Bernard of Clairvaux by a charter known as the Carta dos Coutos (Lisbon, Arquiv. N.). Work on the monastery started in 1158 and adhered to the rigid precepts of the Order. Although the exterior was extended and altered in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially the Baroque façade of the church, the interior essentially preserves its original Early Gothic appearance.

W. Beckford: Recollections of an Excursion to the Monasteries of Alcobaça and Batalha (London, 1835/R 1972) M. V. Natividade: Ignez de Castro e Pedro o Cru perante a iconografia dos seus túmulos (Lisbon, 1910) E. Korrodi: Alcobaça: Estudo histórico, arqueológico e artístico da Real Abadia de Alcobaça...

Article

Algarve  

Kirk Ambrose

Southern-most region of mainland Portugal. Its name is derived from ‘the West’ in Arabic. This region has relatively few medieval buildings: devastating earthquakes in 1722 and 1755 contributed to these losses, though many buildings were deliberately destroyed during the Middle Ages. For example, in the 12th century the Almoravids likely razed a pilgrimage church, described in Arabic sources, at the tip of the cape of S Vicente. Mosques at Faro, Silves and Tavira, among others, appear to have been levelled to make room for church construction after the Reconquest of the region, completed in 1249. Further excavations could shed much light on this history.

Highlights in the Algarve include remains at Milreu of a villa with elaborate mosaics that rank among the most substantial Roman sites in the region. The site further preserves foundations of a basilica, likely constructed in the 5th century, and traces of what may be a baptistery, perhaps added during the period of Byzantine occupation in the 6th and 7th centuries. The period of Islamic rule, from the 8th century through to the 13th, witnessed the construction of many fortifications, including examples at Aljezur, Loulé and Salir, which were mostly levelled by earthquakes. Silves, a city with origins in the Bronze Age, preserves a substantial concentration of relatively well-preserved Islamic monuments. These include a bridge, carved inscriptions, a castle, cistern and fortified walls, along which numerous ceramics have been excavated. Most extant medieval churches in Algarve date to the period after the Reconquest. These tend to be modest in design and small in scale, such as the 13th-century Vera Cruz de Marmelar, built over Visigothic or Mozarabic foundations. The relatively large cathedrals at Silves and at Faro preserve substantial portions dating to the 13th century, as well as fabric from subsequent medieval campaigns. Renaissance and Baroque churches and ecclesiastical furnishings can be found throughout Algarve....

Article

Antonio Fernández-Puertas and D. Fairchild Ruggles

(Granada)

The palaces of the Alhambra and Generalife in Granada, Spain, form the most important architectural ensemble to survive from the Nasrid period (1232–1492). Art created under the Nasrid dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula (see Islamic art, §II, 6(iv)(e) ) provided the spark of originality for art in the neighbouring Christian kingdoms and for Marinid and Abd al-Wādid art in Morocco and Algeria. By the 9th century the citadel on the Sabīka spur of the Sierra Nevada overlooking Granada was called al-ḥamrā’ (Arab.: ‘the red’) because its ageing white stuccoed walls, probably belonging to a Visigothic fortress, were already stained red with ferruginous dust. In the 11th century the Zirids built defensive walls that linked this fortress with Albaycín Hill to the north and Torres Bermejas to the south. In 1238 the first Nasrid sultan, Muhammad I, organized the supply of water by canal, which allowed the building of a royal city on the Sabīka from the 13th to the 15th century. Enlarged and embellished by his descendants, the walled Alhambra city comprised the Alcazaba (...

Article

Basilio Pavón Maldonado

Spanish term for a type of intricately joined wooden ceiling in which supplementary laths are interlaced into the rafters supporting the roof to form decorative geometric patterns (see fig.). Artesonado ceilings were popular in the Islamic architecture of North Africa and Spain from the 13th to the 15th century and were also used widely in Jewish and Christian architecture. They continued to be popular into the 16th century when they were effectively integrated with Renaissance motifs.

Artesonado ceilings developed from horizontal coffered ceilings, which were used in Spanish Islamic architecture as early as the 10th century ad (see Islamic art, §II, 5(iv)). The Umayyad caliph al-Hakam II (reg 961–76) ordered a carved and painted coffered ceiling for the Great Mosque of Córdoba (see Córdoba, §3, (i), (a)). It was suspended from the ceiling joists and tie-beams of the pitched roofs covering the aisles. The halls of ...

Article

Asinou  

Susan Young

[Gr. Panagia Phorbiotissa: ‘Our Lady of the Pastures’]

Byzantine church in Cyprus, situated on the west side of the island, 4 km south-west of the village of Vizakia. The church was originally part of the monastery of the Phorbia (destr.), and a marginal note in a synaxarion copied in Cyprus or Palestine in 1063 indicates that the manuscript once belonged to this monastery. The church is renowned for its well-preserved cycles of wall paintings and painted inscriptions, two of which attribute the foundation and decoration of the church to Nicephoros Ischyrios, the Magistros, in 1105–6. A third, damaged inscription mentions a certain ‘Theophilos’ and ‘the people’, who were probably responsible for a programme of redecoration in 1332–3. The wall paintings were cleaned and restored in 1965–8 by Ernest Hawkins and David Winfield under the auspices of the Center for Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC.

The church is a single-aisle structure with a semicircular apse and barrel-vaulted nave supported by transverse ribs and engaged piers, forming three blind niches in the north and south walls. In plan it resembles the parekklesion of the Cypriot monastery of St John Chrysosthomos, but it does not have a dome. Although the original walls were of stone mortared with mud, probably in the late 12th century, yellow sandstone of better quality was used for the construction of a domed narthex with north and south absidioles; this arrangement is found elsewhere in Cyprus, at the monasteries of St John Chrysosthomos, and the Panagia Apsinthiotissa. The church was later given a secondary steeply pitched wooden roof of a type common among the Cypriot mountain churches....

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Batalha  

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Former Dominican priory, dedicated to S Maria da Vitória, c. 10 km south of Leiria, Portugal. Founded by John I (reg 1385–1433), the first king of the Aviz dynasty, to celebrate the Battle of Aljubarrota (1385), it is the most representative and important example of Late Gothic architecture in Portugal. It marks the highest point of the movement that began at Alcobaça Abbey and such buildings as Évora Cathedral and the chevet of Lisbon Cathedral, in which the national tradition of Gothic architecture is combined with a verticality that has few parallels in northern Europe (see Gothic, §II, 2). Although the decoration shows influences from French Flamboyant and English Perpendicular, its originality and the Portuguese style are unmistakable. The exterior of this vast cloistered complex, which the King presented to the Dominicans in 1388, has a strong horizontal emphasis in which the traceried outlines of parapets, pinnacles, steeples, and buttresses stand out in the mass of limestone. The west front is divided into three by narrow pilasters and buttresses, and the projecting doorway has a tympanum and archivolts richly carved with Old Testament kings, angels, and prophets; the façade is also pierced by a fine Flamboyant window. As at Alcobaça Abbey the interior is narrow (22 m) in proportion to its height (32.46 m). Two-bay transepts open off the crossing, and to the east is a row of five apsidal chapels, the central one projecting. The chancel, transepts, and nave are all the same height. The vaults, which are supported on compound piers, have ornamented keystones and both longitudinal and transverse ridge ribs. The interior is lit by the clerestory and tall aisle windows, and the apse has two rows of lancets, making ten windows in all (...

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Nicola Coldstream

Premonstratensian abbey in Cyprus dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The abbey was founded in 1206 by Thierry, Archbishop of Nicosia, the foundation being confirmed by Pope Gregory IX in 1232. Of the buildings, the church and two ranges round the cloister substantially remain; the western range was looted for building materials. Bellapais is built of limestone on a precipitous hillside facing north, with the conventual buildings north of the church, heavily buttressed against the slope of the hill.

The church is of the early 13th century, while the present claustral buildings and much of the cloister were begun by King Hugh IV (1324–39); Jeffery (1914) identified later work, possibly of the 15th century, in the cloister itself. After the Lusignan period (1192–1489) the church was used by the Orthodox Christians until 1974, when it was desecrated in the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Bellapais was heavily repaired by ...

Article

Besakih  

D. J. Stuart-Fox

Balinese Hindu temple (pura) complex. It is situated on the south-western flank of the volcano Gunung Agung, Bali’s highest mountain, in the north-east of the island. Associated probably since prehistoric times with the Lord of the Mountain, now identified with the Hindu god Shiva, it has been a dynastic temple of several royal families since at least the 15th century. The complex consists of 22 temples, spread along three parallel ridges over a distance of more than a kilometre. The complex was not planned as an entity but seems to have been constructed piecemeal, and the overall structure that links the temples is more ritual and symbolic than physical. The annual cycle of more than 70 rituals culminates in the enormous centennial Ekadasa Rudra ceremony.

The symbolic and ritual centre of the complex is Pura Penataran Agung, the largest temple, which over the centuries has undergone numerous changes. Its 57 separate structures are arranged on six terraces. Originating probably in a simple prehistoric sanctuary, it has a terraced form suggesting a series of successive enlargements. The earliest structures were probably simple shrines and stone seats, represented now in developed form by the two uppermost shrines dedicated to the Lord of the Mountain. On current evidence, the pagoda-like shrines (...

Article

Bobbio  

Michael Richter

Monastery in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Approximately 50 km south of Piacenza in the Apennines, it was founded c. ad 613 through the cooperation of the Lombard king Agilulf (reg 590–615) and the Irish abbot and saint Columbanus (c. 540–615). Its nucleus was an older dilapidated church dedicated to St Peter. Columbanus died on 23 November 615, but his name and renown remained alive in the following centuries. Through cooperation with the Lombard monarchs as well as later the Carolingian kings, Bobbio became a very prominent monastery in Northern Italy. In 628 it was granted the earliest monastic exemption from supervision by the local diocesan, the bishop of Tortona. The community of Bobbio apparently lived according to the Rule of Columbanus as well as the Rule of Basil of Caesarea. The presence of the Rule of St Benedict cannot be documented there before the early 9th century. Bobbio became a known not only as a centre of Irish learning but also as a centre of grammatical as well as computational studies. Its early library also contained Classical texts as well as important palimpsests (a ‘catalogue’ survives from the late 9th century). In the late 9th and early 10th centuries (a period of economic decline) important illuminated manuscripts were produced there. The abbatial church was rebuilt under Abbot Agilulf (...

Article

Peter Kurmann

[incorrectly Stehaimer]

(b Burghausen, c. 1355–60; d Landshut, Aug 10, 1432).

German architect. He was the most important architect of the German-speaking area in the late 14th century and the early 15th, and the founder of the tradition of Late Gothic hall churches in south Germany that lasted over a century and a half. Documentary sources are scarce: the earliest possible reference is in 1389, when ‘Master Hans’ is mentioned as master builder of the church of St Martin at Landshut, in a context indicating that he had already held this office for several years. On the assumption that he was then a mature man, he was probably trained in the builders’ lodge of the large town church of St Jakob, Burghausen, which was built from 1360. Some features of his main work, St Martin at Landshut, suggest that he must have been familiar with the stylistic repertory of the cathedral lodge in Prague under Peter Parler (see Parler family, §3...

Article

J. M. Maddison

[Caernarvon]

Royal fortress and palace in Gwynedd, Wales. It was begun in 1283 on the site of a Norman predecessor, built c. 1090 by Hugh, Earl of Chester, and is the most splendid and important of the royal castles built in connection with Edward I’s Welsh wars. The castle made an impact on the development of both secular and religious architecture in early 14th-century England and successfully emulated one of the great works of antiquity.

The royal building accounts have been analysed by Taylor (1952) to establish a chronology, which is divided into two phases. The full length of the south curtain wall from the Eagle Tower to the North-East Tower was constructed between 1283 and 1292. This completed the enclosure of the town walls, which were built simultaneously. Associated work on the north curtain wall was suspended after the excavation of a substantial ditch and the laying of the lower masonry courses. Welsh forces led by Prince Madoc overran these unfinished defences in ...

Article

(b before 1315; d Venice, April 16, 1355).

Italian architect and sculptor. Reliable Venetian chronicles from the 15th century onwards not only praise him as the architect of the Doge’s Palace in Venice and as a sculptor but also record that the Venetian government (‘Signoria dogal’) valued his advice when building palaces, towers, and other public works. He was the most important sculptor and architect of the 14th century in Venice, although no building other than the Doge’s Palace can now be attributed to him.

It is probable that Calendario, like many Venetian masons, traded in stone, for he owned marani, large boats suitable for its transport. When he lost three marani in 1343, he was given State support. Calendario became known above all for his part in the ‘conspiracy’ of Doge Marin Falier (reg 1354–5), as a result of which he was condemned to death and hanged between two columns of the Doge’s Palace.

The decision to build a new Sala del Maggior Consiglio, which involved rebuilding the south wing of the Doge’s Palace, was taken on ...

Article

Roberto Coroneo

Term coined by critics in the 19th century to designate a group of sculptors and architects who were active in northern Italy and elsewhere from the mid-12th century to the late 14th; the name derives from their place of origin, Campione (Campigliono) di Lugano, which in documents often appears after their baptismal names. Some of the masters were related. A distinctive style, marked by solid forms and a robust realism, becomes apparent only in the second half of the 12th century and the first half of the 13th; later it merges with the more general manner of north Italian sculptors and builders from Arogno, Bissone, and other places between Lake Como and Lake Lugano.

The earliest document mentioning the masters from Campione is a contract dated 30 November 1244 between Ubaldino, Director (Massaro) of the Cathedral Works of Modena from 1230 to 1263, and Enrico di Ottavio da Campione, who undertook, on behalf of himself and his heirs, to work for the cathedral ...

Article

Pere Freixas

(fl 1394; d byApril 1431).

Catalan architect and sculptor, probably of Mallorcan origin. In 1394 he was working as a highly paid apprentice of Pere Ça Anglada on the choir carving of Barcelona Cathedral. He was briefly involved in the decoration of the Portal del Mirador of Palma de Mallorca Cathedral (1397). In 1405 he executed some of the ornamental detail of the portal of the former chapter house (now Capella del Santíssim) in the cloister of Barcelona Cathedral. His most important sculptural work is the alabaster tomb of Bishop Ramon d’Escales in the Capella de les Ànimes in the Cathedral, commissioned in 1409. The sarcophagus bears the recumbent effigy of the Bishop and a frieze of weeping figures on the front, which reveal that Canet, who was familiar with the Franco-Flemish models derived from Claus Sluter, was one of the most outstanding craftsmen of the international style in Catalan sculpture.

As an architect Canet was Master of the Works of Seu d’Urgell Cathedral until ...

Article

Rosa Alcoy

[Castayls, Jaime]

(b ?Berga; fl 1345–79).

Catalan sculptor, painter and architect. A citizen of Barcelona, he must have been trained among Italians, but in a school that was acquainted with developments in France and receptive to Sienese influences—possibly Pisa or Naples. Mallorcan painting—especially manuscript illumination, which was influenced by Pisan art—and the work of the Master of the San Michele in Borgo Pulpit (a Pisan sculptor who worked on the shrine of S Eulalia, 1327–39, in Barcelona Cathedral) also constituted important formative influences on his style. He married the daughter of Ferrer Bassa and was associated with the Bassa workshop in a commission for works for Saragossa in 1346. Like Ferrer Bassa, he was responsible for introducing Italianizing elements into Catalonia.

No authenticated paintings by Jaume Cascalls survive, however, and he is now known primarily for his sculpture, notably for the signed alabaster retable of the Virgin (c. 1345; 2.07×3.35 m) in S María, Cornellà del Conflent, which shows Italian characteristics in the treatment of continuous narrative and in the technique, in which some areas are deliberately left unfinished for expressive effect. At about this time, Jaume worked in Perpignan for the Aragonese crown. By ...

Article

Ernst Ullmann

Former Cistercian abbey on Lake Parstein, eastern Germany. It was founded in 1258 by the margraves Johann I and Otto III of Brandenburg on the Pehlitzwerder on Lake Parstein. They established the church to serve as a burial place for their branch of the Askania family and installed monks from the Cistercian abbey of Lehnin in 1260. The remains of an incomplete church were excavated in 1939: a square-ended choir with aisles and four closely spaced pairs of piers indicate a basilican plan. The plan shows similarities to the choir of the Cistercian church in Hude, Oldenburg. The architect may have been the Conradus magister operis who is mentioned in 1260 in connection with the foundation of the abbey.

In 1270 and 1272 the monks complained about life on Lake Parstein, and the abbey was transferred to a village on the lake 5 km to the south-west. Construction of new buildings must have begun immediately, as Margrave Johann II (...

Article

Phillip Lindley

Manager of the royal building works in later medieval England (see also Office of Works). In the 12th century royal building operations were usually initiated by a writ from the king to the sheriff of the county in which work was to be carried out, the sheriff bringing the writs to the Exchequer at Michaelmas as authority for his expenditure. Viewers also attended in order to verify the expenditure. During the 13th century, as financial control was progressively removed from the hands of the sheriff, individuals who supervised specific works as ‘keepers of the works’ (custodes operacionum) became increasingly common. By Henry III’s minority (1216–27), the keepers of major building operations generally submitted their accounts in writing. Under the reform of the Exchequer in 1236–7 a regulation required all works accounts to be audited by means of written accounts, and by the end of Henry’s reign rolls of particular expenses were being presented by sheriffs as well as keepers of works. Each passed account was usually enrolled, in a very condensed form, on the Pipe Roll. Although there is still evidence of major building operations for which no enrolled accounts were ever produced, the rendering of accounts in writing became increasingly common practice, and it was this reliance on the written record that necessitated the employment of paid officials as clerks of the works. In general, this move can be seen as part of the transition from an oral to a written culture. By the 14th century the management of the king’s works was entirely in the hands of professional clerks of the works, and the old title of ‘keepers of the works’ fell into disuse. The organization of the works increasingly tended towards specialization and centralization, with a separation of the administrative and technical sides....