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Article

(b Holywood, County Down, Ireland, Jan 26, 1922).

Australian painter, printmaker, book designer, lecturer, collector, gallery director and publisher of limited edition artists’ books, of Irish decent. He worked as a draughtsman before entering war service in the British Admiralty from 1940 to 1949, including five years in Colombo, where he made sketching trips to jungle temples with the Buddhist monk and artist Manjsiro Thero. Between 1949 and 1951 Adams worked as an exhibition designer in London and studied wood-engraving with Gertrude Hermes in her evening class at the Central School of Arts and Crafts (now Central St Martin’s College of Art and Design). In 1951, after moving to Melbourne, Adams began a 30-year teaching commitment at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), where he instructed many of the younger generation of Australian printmakers, including George Baldessin and Jan Senbergs. A brief return to Britain and Ireland in 1957–8 provided experience with Dolmen Press, Dublin, which published his first book of engravings, ...

Article

Jetty E. van der Sterre

(bapt Mechelen, Jan 14, 1600; d Deurne, Antwerp, Nov 1, 1652).

Flemish painter, draughtsman and printmaker . In 1622–3 he became a master in the Guild of St Luke, Antwerp. In 1625–6 he took on Peter van de Cruys (fl 1625–44) as his pupil, who was followed by Frans Wouters in 1629 and Wouters’s brother, Pieter Wouters (1617–after 1632), in 1631–2. In 1631 van Avont became a citizen of Antwerp.

A recurring motif in van Avont’s work is a group of figures dominated by children and putti; these appear in a variety of forms—the Infant Christ, John the Baptist, angels—in van Avont’s many pictures of the Holy Family. The figure groups in these pieces are often of the same type: angels paying tribute to the Virgin and Child. The grouping is identical in several paintings. Van Avont also used figures of children in his bacchanals and in such allegorical scenes as the Four Elements (Basle, Kstmus.) and ...

Article

(Gruenwald, Alfred Emanuel Ferdinand]

(b Stettin, Pomerania [now Szczecin, Poland], Oct 9, 1892; d nr Chamonix, France, 17 or Aug 18, 1927).

German collagist, draughtsman, writer and publisher. Although he came from an upper middle-class family, after serving as a volunteer in World War I he became a pacifist and a supporter of democratic socialism on Soviet lines. In 1918 he began a political career as a committee member of the mid-Rhine district of the Independent Social-Democratic Party, a Marxist party that had split from the Social-Democratic Party of Germany. The short-lived journal he edited, Der Ventilator, which published six issues in Cologne in February and March 1919, was a satirical magazine directed against the Social Democrat government in Berlin.

Having discovered the work of de Chirico and come under the influence of Dada, in autumn 1919 Baargeld became an opponent of tradition and convention in art as well, setting himself particularly against Expressionism. In November 1919 he and Max Ernst, who together can be said to have founded the Cologne branch of ...

Article

[Pieter]

(b Antwerp, c. 1526–28; d Antwerp, 1584).

South Netherlandish painter, draughtsman, engraver and publisher. He was the son of the sculptor Balten Janszoon de Costere (fl 1524). In 1550 he became a master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp and in 1569 its dean. Primarily on the authority of van Mander, Baltens was long considered to be an inferior imitator of Bruegel family, §1 the elder. Baltens’s best-known work, the signed St Martin’s Day Kermis (e.g. versions Amsterdam, Rijksmus.; Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.), was formerly thought to be a free copy after Bruegel’s treatment of the subject, known through an engraving and the Gift of St Martin, a fragment on cloth (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.). The relationship between Baltens and Bruegel is, however, more complicated. In 1551 they collaborated on an altarpiece (destr.) for the Mechelen Glovemakers. Baltens’s other works, for example the Ecce homo (Antwerp, Kon. Acad. S. Kst.), reveal that the two artists were closely associated: a group from the ...

Article

Paul H. Rem

[Danckerts]

Dutch family of architects and artists. Cornelis Danckerts (1536–95) was the city mason of Amsterdam. His son, Cornelis Danckerts de Rij (i) (b Amsterdam 1561; d 1634) possibly received from him his early training in the building trade. Judging from the addition of ‘de Rij’ (surveyor or clerk of works) to his name, he must have been a well-respected land surveyor or building inspector, and on his father’s death he succeeded to his post. The Municipal Works Department at that time consisted of Hendrick de Keyser I (City Architect), Hendrick Jacobsz. Staets (c. 1588–1631; City Carpenter) and Cornelis Danckerts de Rij (i) (City Mason and Land Surveyor). Danckerts worked closely with de Keyser and probably executed his designs for the Zuiderkerk (1603), the Exchange (1608–11) and the Westerkerk (1620). The tower of the Westerkerk (h. 85 m), which was completed in ...

Article

(b Bayreuth, Oct 8, 1799; d Gleichenberg, June 16, 1863).

Austrian architect, publisher and teacher. In 1818 he went to Vienna to study at the academy. Although Förster pursued an academic career at the academy, as a lecturer (1820–26) and professor of architecture (1842–5), his influence was due mainly to his great ability as a publisher and his untiring work on the urban reorganization of Vienna. In 1836 he founded the Allgemeine Bauzeitung (1836), one of the earliest 19th-century architectural journals. Given the rigid spirit of politics and the arts in Vienna at that time, the Bauzeitung was a bold enterprise, but it succeeded in establishing a long-desired contact with architectural trends in western Europe and in introducing historicist architecture in Vienna and throughout the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Förster’s contribution to the planning of the expansion of Vienna also began in 1836, when he presented his first design. He continued to produce proposals for Vienna until the international competition in ...

Article

J. M. Richards

(b London, July 18, 1902; d Bedham, Surrey, Oct 20, 1986).

English architectural editor, publisher and writer. He studied architecture at the Bartlett School, University of London, and art at the Slade School, London, and in 1926 he joined the Architectural Press, of which his father was proprietor. In 1927–32 and 1935–7 he was editor of the Architectural Review, transforming it from a staid, academic magazine to one notable for its adventurous policies and original use of photographs and typography, which strongly influenced English magazine production. He was also editor of the Architects’ Journal (1932–7) and a founder-member of the English modern architecture MARS Group (1933). In 1937 he left London for Sussex, where he farmed, but he remained chairman of the Architectural Press until his retirement in 1973 and retained a dominating influence over the conduct and policies of the company’s publications. His special interests were planning and land use, about which he promoted influential features in the ...

Article

Eva Börsch-Supan

(b Berlin, Sept 25, 1801; d Berlin, May 29, 1865).

German architect. He introduced the forms of the Schinkel school into Berlin’s private housing. He studied at the Berlin Bauakademie (1819–28), but in 1824, when the Bauakademie was separated from Akademie der Künste, Knoblauch and his friend Friedrich August Stüler founded the Architekten-Verein zu Berlin, to make up for the loss in artistic instruction. His numerous private houses (as many as 50 between 1830 and 1850), were mostly in an Italianate style, amongst them the Villa Knoblauch (1835) at Potsdamer Strasse 105, a square block with gables on two sides; the Villa Hänel (1839), a symmetrical building with belvedere and roof terrace; the Villa Pflug (1859) at Alt-Moabit 117–8, with interiors by Bernard Kolscher; the Palais Arnim-Boytzenburg (1857) at Pariser Platz 4; and the Russian Embassy (1840–41; destr. 1945) at Unter den Linden 7. Other buildings included the Weidinger hospital (...

Article

Guido Zucconi

(b Milan, Nov 18, 1891; d Milan, Sept 16, 1979).

Italian architect, painter, writer, designer and publisher. After serving in World War I, he graduated (1921) from the polytechnic in Milan, where he later held a professorship (1936–61). Working first (1923–7) with architects Mino Fiocchi and Emilio Lancia, and later (1927–33) in partnership with Lancia only, in his early years of practice he was attracted to the simplified classicism of the Novecento Italiano. As designer (1923–7) to the ceramic manufacturer Richard-Ginori he produced a porcelain that was exhibited at the first Monza Biennale (1923) and at the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (1925) in Paris, where the chairman of Cristoffle, Tony Bouilhet, commissioned him to make a new range of cutlery; he also asked him to design his villa (completed 1926) at Garches, Paris. This villa, together with the slightly earlier house (...

Article

Doris Kutschbach

[Ryff, Walther Hermann]

(b Strasbourg, c. 1500: d Nuremberg, after 1545).

German publisher. Probably a physician by profession, he had a fairly comprehensive knowledge of the writings on architectural theory of the Renaissance, as far as they were available in print, and sought to make them accessible to German artists and craftsmen. In 1547 he published five plates and a page of text on the subject of the five orders with pictorial material by Sebastiano Serlio and Cesare di Lorenzo Cesariano. His Unterrichtung zu rechtem Verstandt der lehr Vitruvii (Nuremberg, 1547; the so-called Architektur) did not constitute a complete architectural theory but contains excerpts and adaptations of mainly Italian texts in a German compilation; the theories of Serlio and Alberti, in particular, were disseminated in Germany by this work. After publishing a Latin edition (Strasbourg, 1543) of the work of Vitruvius, Rivius published the first German translation, the Vitruvius Teutsch (Nuremberg, 1548; Basle, 1575, 1614). He based this annotated edition on the Italian translation and commentary (Como, ...

Article

[SAH]

Professional organization devoted to the study of architecture worldwide. Founded in 1940 by a small group of students and teachers attending summer session at Harvard University, the Society of Architectural Historians (SAH) has grown into the leading professional and scholarly organization in the world concerned with various aspects of the built environment. With a membership of around 2700, composed of architectural historians, architects, planners, preservationists, students, and other individuals interested in the subject, as well as nearly 1000 institutions worldwide, it publishes a scholarly periodical, the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, whose topics range from antiquity to the present day around the world; a monthly electronic Newsletter; and a multi-volume book series of detailed guides to the architecture of the individual American states, Buildings of the United States (BUS). The Society sponsors an annual meeting, held each year in a different part of the USA or Canada, or occasionally elsewhere, where members present scholarly papers, discuss these papers and other architectural topics, explore the area via a series of tours, and learn of the award of a number of prizes for notable accomplishments in the field, as well as designation of Fellows of the Society for lifetime contributions to architectural history. These include four book awards, the Alice Davis Hitchcock, Spiro Kostof, Elisabeth Blair MacDougall, and Antoinette Forrester Downing, for architecture, the built environment, landscape architecture, and preservation, respectively; the Philip Johnson Exhibition Catalogue Award; the Founders’ Award for the best article published in the ...

Article

Anna Bentkowska

(b Płock, Jan 25, 1910; d London, Sept 6, 1988).

British film maker, poet, writer and publisher of Polish birth. He studied physics at the University of Warsaw and architecture at the Warsaw Polytechnic. In 1931 he married the painter Franciszka Weinles (1907–88), his lifelong collaborator on films, children’s books and publishing. In the 1930s they made four experimental films in which forms of lyrical montage replaced narrative structures; these included Europa (1932), inspired by a futurist poem by Anatol Stern (1899–1968). Their innovative technique made use of photograms and collages and was directly influenced by Dadaist typography. Adventures of a Good Citizen (1937) was the fifth and last of their pre-war films and the only one that has survived. In 1935 they founded S.A.F., a co-operative for film makers, and the journal The Artistic Film. They travelled to Paris and London (1936), where they met László Moholy-Nagy. They moved to England in ...