1-20 of 61 results  for:

  • Architecture and Urban Planning x
  • Conservation and Preservation x
Clear all

Article

Claude Laroche

(b Paris, Nov 9, 1812; d Chatou, Aug 2, 1884).

French architect and restorer. He was the son of a Neo-classical architect of the same name (1783–1868), who was a pupil of Charles Percier and architect to the département of Charente. The younger Paul Abadie began studying architecture in 1832 by joining the atelier of Achille Leclère and then entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1835. While he was following this classical training, he participated in the rediscovery of the Middle Ages by going on archaeological trips and then, from 1844, in his capacity as attaché to the Commission des Monuments Historiques. He undertook his first restoration work at Notre-Dame de Paris, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus and Viollet-le-Duc. Abadie was appointed deputy inspector at Notre-Dame in 1845, and in 1848, when the department responsible for diocesan buildings was created, he was appointed architect to the dioceses of Périgueux, Angoulême and Cahors. He subsequently completed about 40 restoration projects, mainly on Romanesque churches in Charente, in the Dordogne and the Gironde, and as a diocesan architect he was put in charge of two large cathedrals in his district: St Pierre d’Angoulême and St Front de Périgueux. In the former he undertook a huge programme of ‘completion’, returning to a stylistic unity that was in line with current episcopal policy (...

Article

Lucília Verdelho da Costa and Sandro Callerio

(b Lisbon, Aug 26, 1839; d Genoa, Nov 30, 1915).

Portuguese painter, architect and restorer, active in Italy. He came from a middle-class family with trading interests in Italy. In 1854 Andrade went to Genoa, and friendships there with such artists as Tammar Luxoro (1824–99) led him to study painting with Alexandre Calame and later to study architecture at the Accademia Ligustica di Belle Arti. He travelled widely, and in Italy he came into contact with Antonio Fontanesi and Carlo Pittura (1835/6–91), with whom he became one of the most active painters of the Scuola di Rivara. According to Telamaro Signorini, Andrade was among the painters who frequented the Caffè Michelangiolo in Florence. The influence of the macchiaioli painters is also evident from 1863 in his paintings, especially in Return from the Woods at Dusk (1869; Genoa, Mus. Accad. Ligustica B.A.)

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Andrade’s work represents a transition from the Romantic school of Calame to the Naturalism of the Barbizon school. His landscapes show careful observation of nature. The locations in northern Italy seem to have been chosen for their melancholy and serenity, as in the landscapes of Fontanesi. Andrade’s pastoral scenes at dawn or dusk are seen through morning mists or against sunsets, or they depict uninhabited countryside. Most of these works, for example ...

Article

H. A. Meek, Harold Meek and Marion Meek

The stabilization, repair or reconstruction of buildings of historic, cultural or architectural significance. The history of building conservation is beset with ideological and aesthetic problems, including whether it should be practised at all and, if so, to what extent restoration should supervene in the original structure. Modern conservation principles, as set out in the Venice Charter (1964; see §3 below), are based on specific alternative approaches. Preservation involves minimal intervention, ensuring the stabilization and maintenance of remains in their existing state and retarding further deterioration. Restoration involves returning the fabric to a known earlier state of greater significance by removing accretions or by reassembling existing components, but without the introduction of new material. Reconstruction involves returning the fabric as nearly as possible to a known earlier state and is distinguished by the introduction of materials—new or old—to the fabric. Architectural conservation may include any of these approaches or a combination of more than one, as well as the adaptation or modification of a building to suit proposed new and compatible uses....

Article

Alexandru Beldiman

(b Bucharest, Oct 27, 1902; d 1994).

Romanian restorer, architect and architectural historian . He studied (1922–8) at the High School of Architecture, Bucharest, under Petre Antonescu and Paul Smărăndescu. In 1928 he obtained a two-year bursary to study at the Accademia di Romania, Rome, where he specialized in architectural restoration. He attended the courses of Gustavo Giovannoni at the faculty of architecture at the Università La Sapienza, Rome, and studied Italian restoration projects. From 1930 he worked for the Historical Monuments Commission in Bucharest. Among his early restoration projects were the 18th-century churches of Kretzulescu (1932–9) and Antim (1945), Bucharest, and during this period he also designed a number of original works, such as the Gordon Hayward Villa (1936–7) in Cîmpina, the church in Balcic, and the Pherekyde and Constantinescu houses (1938), also in Balcic. Notable later restorations include the 17th-century monastery church (1943–4) at Iası, the church (...

Article

(b Sarrebourg [now Saarburg, Germany], Oct 14, 1834; d Paris, Feb 28, 1915).

French architect, restorer, teacher and writer. His architectural training began in 1854 in the studio of Henri Labrouste and then, when it was disbanded in 1856, in that of Viollet-le-Duc, which had been opened largely at Baudot’s request. His academic training was limited to a brief period (1856–7) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. From 1856 until the death of Viollet-le-Duc in 1879 Baudot’s life was that of a disciple, first as a student and later as a collaborator on restoration work (especially at Notre-Dame in Paris and the cathedral of Clermont-Ferrand). This patronage, while provoking strong antagonism from certain quarters, made it easy for him to enter professional life. Between 1869 and 1872 Baudot, possibly supported by Viollet-le-Duc who sat on the panel of judges, won first prize in three competitions for new churches: at Rambouillet (built in 1869), Levallois (1870; unexecuted) and Grenoble (...

Article

Philippe Durey

(b Le Havre, June 21, 1750; d Paris, April 15, 1818).

French sculptor, draughtsman and engraver. He arrived in Paris in 1765 to become a pupil of Augustin Pajou. Although he never won the Prix de Rome, he appears to have travelled to Rome in the early 1770s. About 1780 or 1781 he was involved in the decoration of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux’s Hôtel Thélusson, Paris. From 1784 to 1785 he carried out work at the château of Compiègne, including the decoration of the Salle des Gardes, where his bas-reliefs illustrating the Battles of Alexander (in situ) pleasantly combine a Neo-classical clarity of composition with a virtuosity and animation that are still Rococo in spirit.

Beauvallet was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1789. During the French Revolution he was a passionate republican and presented plaster busts of Marat and of Chalier (1793–4; both destr.) to the Convention. He was briefly imprisoned after the fall of Robespierre in ...

Article

Amedeo Bellini

(b Milan, Nov 13, 1854; d Rome, Aug 8, 1933).

Italian architect, teacher, restorer and writer. He attended both the Politecnico in Milan and the Accademia di Brera, studying as a pupil of Camillo Boito. He graduated in 1875 and the following year enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where he attended Jean-Louis Pascal’s atelier, and came into contact with Charles Garnier, Gabriel-Jean-Antoine Davioud and Théodore Ballu. He also cultivated the interest in engraving that he had acquired under the painter Luigi Conconi and exhibited at the Salon of 1877. In 1880 Beltrami won the competition organized by the municipality of Milan for a monument (unexecuted) to the anti-Austrian uprising of 1848 and was appointed to the chair in architecture at the Accademia di Brera. The following year he also shared first prize with Carlo Ferrario (1833–1907) in a competition organized by the Accademia di Brera for a new façade for the cathedral. Between 1880 and 1886...

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Strasbourg, March 2, 1815; d Paris, March 20, 1896).

French architect and restorer. After training as a mason, he visited Munich in 1836 and then studied architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of Henri Labrouste. He soon joined the group of Gothic Revival architects that formed around Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus and Eugène-Emanuel Viollet-le-Duc, and from 1843 he worked for the Commission des Monuments Historiques, with which he spent a large part of his career. He built very little, apart from the church of Ste Eugénie at Biarritz, but restored a large number of buildings, including the cathedrals of Toul and Laon (see Laon, §1, (i)) and the churches at Montiérender, Avioth (Notre-Dame), Chaumont (St Jean-Baptiste) and Guebwiller (St Léger). Boeswillwald began his career in the administration of diocesan buildings as Inspecteur (1845) at Notre-Dame, Paris, with Lassus and Viollet-le-Duc. He was successively appointed diocesan architect to Luçon (1846), Bayonne (...

Article

Giuliana Ricci and Amedeo Bellini

(b Rome, Oct 30, 1836; d Milan, June 28, 1914).

Italian architect, teacher, restorer and writer. Boito was an important figure in many ways in the cultural life of Italy, and especially Milan, in the second half of the 19th century. He not only taught at the Accademia di Brera and the Istituto Tecnico Superiore for nearly 50 years but also took part in competitions (both as competitor and adjudicator), wrote articles on architecture and restoration for newspapers and periodicals, as well as numerous reports for private individuals and the government, and was active in numerous professional associations. He also served on numerous commissions, particularly after his appointment as Director of the Accademia di Brera in 1897.

Giuliana Ricci

Boito entered the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice in 1850 and won a prize there in 1852. In 1854 he entered the Studio Matematico at the Università degli Studi in Padua, and in 1855 he qualified as a professional architect. In ...

Article

Frank Arneil Walker

(b Cologne, Oct 18, 1845; d Zagreb, April 17, 1926).

German architect, active in Croatia. He was educated in Cologne, then continued his architectural studies in Vienna, where he entered the studio of Friedrich von Schmidt, and was later in Rome. Under Schmidt he worked on the restoration of the Stephansdom in Vienna, and in 1876 he was put in charge of similar work in Croatia, implementing Schmidt’s designs (1875–82) for the cathedral at Đakovo and his project (1876–82) to restore St Mark’s, Zagreb. His most notable restorations were at the church of Marija Bistrica (1878–83) and at Zagreb Cathedral (1879–1902), but his rather purist approach often failed to respect the organic accretions of later periods, and he destroyed many provincial Baroque buildings, for example in the Gornji Grad and Kaptol districts of Zagreb (and elsewhere). An earthquake in Zagreb in 1880 gave Bollé his greatest opportunities in terms of both architecture and urban planning. In addition to further restoration work and a number of new neo-Gothic and neo-classical churches he built several urban housing blocks and public buildings in a Renaissance Revival style reminiscent of works in Vienna. Of these the city’s Crafts School (...

Article

Ye. I. Kirichenko

(Yevgrafovich)

(b Ufa, 1870; d Moscow, Jan 29, 1946).

Russian architect, architectural historian, restorer and exhibition organizer. He studied (1887–91) at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Moscow, and then at the Technische Hochschule, Zurich, where he completed his studies in 1894. He designed the Russian craft pavilion at the Exposition Universelle (1900) in Paris with A. Ya Golovin and with the painter Konstantin Korovin. The work largely reflected the search for a distinct national style, particularly the revival of Russian timber architecture and tent-roofed churches (for illustration see Mir Iskusstva). His own churches, built for the Old Believers community, are in Bogorodsk (now Noginsk; 1900–02), Tokmakov Lane, Moscow, Gavrilov Lane, Moscow, and in Orekhovo-Zuyevo and Kuznetsy near Moscow, all built in 1906–9. Two later examples are at Kuznetsov (1911) near Kashin, near Moscow, and in Riga (1913–14). They are picturesque compositions, complex in form with expressive contrasts in texture and colour. Similar in approach are his country houses, including those for ...

Article

Chris Brooks

(b London, Sept 7, 1814; d London, Feb 23, 1900).

English architect and designer. He committed his feelings and creative energies to the High Anglicanism of the Oxford Movement from the early 1840s and to its expression through the revival of Gothic architecture and design, then vociferously advocated by the Ecclesiological Society, of which he became an active member. Butterfield’s extensive output was almost exclusively confined to the building and restoration of churches and associated buildings, such as vicarages and schools.

He was the eldest son of a London chemist, and his parents were Nonconformists. From 1831 to 1833 Butterfield was articled to a Pimlico builder, Thomas Arber, from whom he must have derived the detailed understanding of practical building that was to be basic to his architectural practice. Between 1833 and 1836 he was the pupil of E. L. Blackburne, a London architect with strong antiquarian interests, and in 1838–9 he became assistant to a Worcester architect, probably Harvey Eginton, whose practice included church building and restoration. During this period Butterfield must have begun to acquire the profound knowledge of medieval architecture that was to underlie all his work. In ...

Article

Alexandru Beldiman

(b Vienna, May 23, 1899; d Iaşı Nov 1, 1960).

Romanian architect, urban planner, painter, theorist and restorer. Descended from a Wallachian family of statesmen and scholars, he studied (1920–29) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, with Gustave Umbdenstock and G. Gromort. His work consistently showed Neo-classical and Renaissance influences, from the Palladian-style Chrissoveloni Bank (1928; with A. Schmiedigen), Bucharest, to the substantial number of buildings he completed in Romania during the 1930s. In many of these the classicist forms overlaid a sophisticated functionality in the planning, for example the IAR aeroplane factory (1933), Braşov. He also designed houses (e.g. in Amza Square, Bucharest, 1935), hotels (e.g. the Hotel Bellona on the Black Sea coast, 1934) and churches, such as those at Tetcani and Flǎmânda (1939), and he participated in the production of the master plan of 1935 for Bucharest. He was commissioned to design the Romanian Pavilion for the World’s Fair, New York (...

Article

Jean van Cleven

(b Courtrai [Flem. Kortrijk], May 20, 1819; d Beloeil, March 10, 1886).

Belgian architect. One of the most distinguished Belgian architects of the second half of the 19th century who designed in several styles, he won a first prize at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels in 1845 and specialized in the study of medieval architecture under Joseph Jonas Dumont. Around 1852 he established himself in Bruges, where he collaborated with Jean-Baptiste Charles François Bethune on the chapel of the Sisters of Charity (1858); before 1861, however, he moved to Beloeil, where he was employed on alterations to the Prince de Ligne’s château (which was then largely rebuilt following a fire in 1900). Carpentier was most influential in the field of ecclesiastical architecture. His churches at Beloeil (1862), Châtelet (1867; destr. by fire 1937), Thollembeek (1869), Antoing (1869) and Awenne (1881) show a personal interpretation of High Victorian Gothic, whereas St Remacle (...

Article

A. Elena Charola and Inge Rörig-Dalgaard

Good-quality bricks are among the most durable building materials available. Nonetheless, as they weather over time they will eventually return to the clay from which they were made. Deterioration is caused by several factors such as the presence of soluble salts, air-pollution, freeze-thaw cycling, biological action, and incompatible mortars used in their setting. The following discussion deals specifically with the conservation of exposed brick masonry and does not include brick veneer.

The presence of soluble salts, such as sodium chloride (NaCl, halite), either in the brick, mortar, or the ground where the wall foundation is set, as well as deicing salts, can cause rapid deterioration in a very short time when alternating wet–dry cycles occur. Water dissolves salt crystals, carrying their ions into porous bodies of bricks. When dry conditions prevail, the water migrates back to the surface and evaporates, causing the salts to recrystallize causing the damage. The degree of this damage is related to the amount of salt that recrystallizes, the conditions under which the recrystallization occurs, the number of wetting and drying cycles to which the masonry is exposed, as well as changes in temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH). Some bricks, if not fired properly, may inherently contain salts, such as sodium sulfate which can crystallize as an anhydrous salt (Na...

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Amiens, Sept 12, 1835; d Paris, Feb 2, 1904).

French architect and writer. He was a pupil of Eugène-Emanuel Viollet-le-Duc and began his career by building the Hôtel de Ville (1862–5) at Roanne, the church (c. 1865) at Vougy in the Loire and the château of Fleyriat (1868–9) in the Ain. Subsequently he built the churches of Villers and Saint-Cyr-lès-Vignes (Loire) and, more importantly, the Comptoir d’Escompte (1878–82) in the Rue de Rougemont, Paris. During the same period Corroyer also studied medieval architecture and was commissioned to restore the churches at Lamballe, Saint-Pol-de-Léon and Dol. He undertook commissions at Dinan (1872) and Pleyben (1873) and restored churches at Ham, Nesle and Athies (Somme) and the château of Chamarande (Loire), which belonged to the Vicomte de Vougy. In 1878 he began the restoration of Mont-Saint-Michel Abbey but was dismissed in 1888 after a local intrigue. Corroyer also worked for the Service des Edifices Diocésains as diocesan architect to Soissons (from ...

Article

E. A. Christensen

(b Laxfield, Suffolk, Oct 24, 1787; d London, Oct 13, 1847).

British architect, designer, writer and collector. He trained as a builder and from 1814 worked independently as an architect in London, his practice consisting mainly of church restorations. He published many books on design and architecture: his designs for ornamental metalwork appeared as Ornamental Metal Worker’s Director (1823), and his lithographs of Gothic mouldings, finials and other details, published as Working Drawings of Gothic Ornaments ([1824]), provided architects with models for Gothic capitals and carvings; his publications on architecture include Westminster Hall (1822) and Plans…of the Chapel of King Henry the Seventh (1822–9).

During the 1840s Cottingham designed a variety of pieces of Gothic furniture for his friend, John Harrison of Snelston Hall, Derbys, some of which incorporated fragments of authentic Gothic carving. His design (London, V&A) for a drawing-room cabinet for Snelston Hall, although not strictly archaeological, was based on existing examples of Gothic detailing. Cottingham’s discovery of a series of medieval tiles in the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey stimulated a revival of encaustic tiles, subsequently produced by such firms as Minton; he designed such tiles for ...

Article

(b Bruges, Sept 27, 1838; d Bruges, Sept 2, 1909).

Belgian architect. He trained at the Municipal Academy of Fine Arts, Bruges, under Jean-Baptiste Rudd (1792–1870). In 1870 he was appointed City Architect in Bruges and Professor of the Academy, becoming Director in 1889. In 1879 he became a member of the Provincial Committee of the Royal Commission of Monuments. He was involved in the restoration of most of the major historical monuments in Bruges: the Chapel of the Holy Blood (1870 and 1877), the Registry (1873–83), the Toll House (1879), the Gruuthuse Palace (1883–95), the Town Hall (1894–5 and 1903–4), St John’s Hospital (1905–9) and the west façade of Notre-Dame (1907–8). In addition he restored several houses in the historic town centre. His approach to restoration was drastic, consisting in the completion of a project according to the intentions of the original master builder or architect and the removal of later additions that destroyed the stylistic unity....

Article

J. M. Richards

(Melchior)

(b London, Sept 11, 1919).

English architect and conservator. He studied at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University of London (1938), and the Architectural Association School, London (1946–9). After working in architects’ offices in London and Norwich (1949–54), he entered private practice in Norwich and, in partnership (1954–77) with David Mawson, designed several buildings in the area such as Trinity Presbyterian Church (1954), some warehouses, housing and educational buildings including a group (1969) for the University of East Anglia, Norwich. Feilden was more widely known for his conservation and restoration work on historic buildings. In 1955 he took charge of a restoration programme for Norwich Cathedral and was subsequently appointed Cathedral Architect (1963–77). He also served as Surveyor to York Minster (1965–77), carrying out a major restoration programme, and as Surveyor to St Paul’s Cathedral, London (1969–77), where he planned and supervised repair and restoration work at a time when the fabric of the cathedral was in increasing danger from ground settlement, pollution and traffic vibration. His conservation work was notable both for its technical expertise and its scholarship. A member of the Ancient Monuments Board from ...

Article

Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Barcelona, 1845; d Barcelona, 1924).

Spanish Catalan architect, restorer and teacher. He studied at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura in Madrid and then continued his preparation in Barcelona under Elías Rogent before becoming a professor in the city’s newly created Escuela de Arquitectura (1871), teaching art history and design. With Rogent he specialized in the restoration of such great architectural ensembles as Tarragona Cathedral (1883), frequently using brick and generally adopting a historicist approach influenced by the rationalist theories of Viollet-le-Duc. Other noteworthy achievements include the reinforcement of the cupola of the basilica del Pilar in Saragossa and the construction of the cimborio of Barcelona Cathedral, in a perfect neo-Gothic style. Font i Carreras also built numerous mansions for the aristocracy and wealthy bourgeoisie of Catalonia and was responsible for the Palace of Fine Arts in the Exposició Universal (1888) in Barcelona. In the course of his successful career he also became an associate member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, Madrid, and in Barcelona was elected to membership of the Academia de S Jorge and the Academia de Ciencias y Artes; he was also President of the Asociacíon de Arquitectos de Cataluña and of the Comisión Provincial de Monumentos....