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Article

Laure Pellicer

(b Montpellier, April 1, 1766; d Montpellier, March 16, 1837).

French painter, printmaker and collector. He was taught by the painter Jean Coustou (1719–91) in Montpellier before entering, in 1783, the studio of David, to whose artistic principles he remained faithful all his life. His career as a history painter began brilliantly when, in 1787, he won the Prix de Rome for Nebuchadnezzar Ordering the Execution of Zedekiah’s Children (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). This early success was consolidated by the four years he spent at the Académie de France in Rome and by the enthusiastic reception of his Death of Abel (1790; Montpellier, Mus. Fabre) at the Salon of 1791.

In 1793 his royalist sympathies forced him to move to Florence, where the poet Vittorio Alfieri and his mistress the Countess of Albany, estranged wife of the Young Pretender, introduced him to the artistic and social life of the city. In the years preceding the French invasion of Tuscany in ...

Article

Helen Weston

(b Dijon, Sept 24, 1756; d Florence, Aug 18, 1795).

French painter and engraver. He was one of the most important artists to emerge from François Devosge’s school of art in Dijon. His reputation, like that of his fellow Dijonnais artist Pierre-Paul Prud’hon, is based on a number of Neo-classical works of a pleasingly poetic character, which Devosge had encouraged. In 1776 he became the first artist from the Dijon art school to win the Prix de Rome with his painting of an uplifting moral subject, Manius Curius Dentatus Refusing the Presents of the Samnites (Nancy, Mus. B.-A.). The Dijon academy was very quickly recognized as one of the most important outside Paris. As a student there Gagneraux was directed towards examples from antiquity, the Italian Renaissance and the work of Poussin. During his four-year study period in Rome (1779–81) he worked on a copy (Dijon, Pal. Justice) of Raphael’s School of Athens (Rome, Vatican, Stanze Raffaello) to fulfil his obligation to the States of Burgundy which sponsored him. He spent most of his life in Italy, working in the company of Anton Raphael Mengs, Johan Tobias Sergel and Henry Fuseli in the 1770s and with Antonio Canova, Gavin Hamilton, Goethe and Jacques-Louis David in the 1780s. In ...

Article

[Angelika ] (Catharina )

(b Chur, Graubünden, Oct 30, 1741; d Rome, Nov 5, 1807).

Swiss painter and etcher. She was a serious and prolific painter of portraits (see fig.) and one of relatively few women artists painting in the Neo-classical style to specialize in subject pictures as well. She attracted glittering and international patronage (the family of George III in Britain, Grand-Duke Paul and Prince Nikolay Yusupov in Russia, Stanislav II Poniatowski and Stanislav Kostka Potocki in Poland, Queen Caroline of Naples, and Emperor Joseph II of Austria) and was much admired by her fellow artists. In Rome she was accepted into the Accademia di S Luca at the precocious age of 23, and in London she was a founder-member of the Royal Academy and an invited participant in virtually every important public project involving painting, from the abortive scheme to decorate St Paul’s Cathedral to the decorations for the Royal Academy’s own rooms at Somerset House and John Boydell’s Shakespeare Gallery. The final tribute paid to Kauffman in Rome at her funeral, which was arranged by ...

Article

Alan Powers

(b Paris, March 19, 1715; d St Petersburg, March 24, 1759).

French painter, furniture designer, architect and engraver. He studied with Jacques Dumont and won the Grand Prix de Peinture in 1739. He remained for eight years in Rome, where his architectural designs for the temporary centrepiece of the annual Chinea festival (1745, 1746 and 1747) are early examples of Neo-classicism, displaying a simple architectonic use of the orders that indicates his association with Giovanni Battista Piranesi in the circle of students of the Académie de France in Rome, who were highly influential in French architecture from the 1760s onwards. On his return to Paris in 1747, Le Lorrain enjoyed the patronage of the Comte de Caylus, for whom he executed engravings of ancient paintings and revived the technique of encaustic. Through de Caylus he obtained a commission from Count Carl Gustav Tessin to design quadratura representations of columns and niches for the dining-room walls of his country house at Åkerö, Sweden, in ...

Article

Mónica Martí Cotarelo

(María)

(b Puebla, 1789; d Puebla, 1860).

Mexican architect, sculptor, painter, lithographer, and teacher. He was the leading figure in Puebla in the fields of architecture, sculpture, painting, and drawing during the early 19th century. He was director of the Academia de Dibujo in Puebla from its foundation in 1814 and the first recipient of a scholarship from the academy, which allowed him to go to Paris (1824–1827), where he studied architecture, drawing, and lithography. He also visited museums, factories, and prisons, intending to introduce French developments and systems into Puebla. On his return to Mexico he devoted himself to intense public activity, architectural reform, painting, lithography, and teaching, and experiments in industrialized production. Among his most important sculptural works is the completion (1819) of the ciprés (altarpiece with baldacchino) for Puebla Cathedral, which had been left unfinished on the death of Manuel Tolsá. It combines a high altar, a sepulchral monument, and a sanctuary of the Virgin, and it is one of the most spectacular examples of Mexican neoclassicism. From ...

Article

Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

[Maler Müller]

(b Kreuznach, Jan 13, 1749; d Rome, April 23, 1825).

German painter, engraver, draughtsman, poet and Playwright. From about 1765 he was taught by Daniel Hien (1724–73), court painter to Christian IV, Duke of Zweibrücken, with 17th-century Dutch painting as his model. Müller showed a talent for realistic depiction of animals, especially horses, and landscape, including farm scenes. The Duke gave him an allowance so that, from 1769, he was able to attend the Mannheim Akademie. Müller’s friendship there with Ferdinand Kobell and Franz Kobell (1749–1822) led to a considerable mutual influence in the work of all three. Müller also established himself as a poet at this time, becoming one of the representatives of the late 18th-century German literary movement known as Sturm und Drang. In the course of the 1770s Müller wrote a celebrated series of idylls, the lyric drama Niobe and the first parts of his Fausts Leben dramatisiert, all issued in editions with his own engraved illustrations. Life drawings and etchings from this period are in Mannheim (Städt. Reiss-Mus.), Frankfurt am Main (Goethemus.) and Monaco-Ville (Archvs Pal. Princier). At this time, however, Müller’s work as a poet and dramatist was more widely known and admired than his work as an artist. His study of the famous collection of casts of antique sculptures in the Antikensaal at Mannheim, and of paintings in the picture gallery belonging to the Elector ...

Article

Athena S. E. Leoussi

(b Paris, Oct 17, 1786; d Paris, March 15, 1868).

French painter and lithographer. He was a pupil of François-André Vincent and of Jacques-Louis David. He received the Second Grand Prix de Rome in 1811 and then continued his studies in Rome. On his return from Italy he received the commission to paint the Death of Sapphira (1819) for the church of St Séverin in Paris (in situ) and at the Salon of 1819 he exhibited Love and Psyche (1817; Paris, Louvre), which was admired for its graceful and naive figures and was bought by the Duc d’Orléans (later Louis-Philippe, King of France). At the Salon of 1827 Picot exhibited the Annunciation (La Rochelle Cathedral), a richly painted work that shows the influence of Raphael. Working within the Neo-classical style, he specialized in history and genre subjects and portraits and continued to show at the Salon until 1839.

Picot received numerous commissions to decorate public buildings, including two ceiling decorations for the ...

Article

[Eduardo ]

(b Saint-Quentin, Aisne, Dec 30, 1788; d Saint-Quentin, 1875).

French painter and lithographer, active in Mexico. He studied under David and Jean-Baptiste Regnault and established his reputation in Paris as a painter of portraits, genre scenes, and historical subjects. From 1850 to 1855 he lived and worked in Mexico City, exhibiting annually at the Academia de Bellas Artes. Although he produced outstanding portraits, for example of General Mariano Arista (1851; Mexico City, Mus. N. Hist.), his most important works in Mexico were costumbrista genre scenes, of which he produced a considerable number. He presented his figures, which he painted in a Neoclassical style, as representative of different social types in suitable settings, helping to establish the terms for such subject matter evolved by Agustín Arrieta and other 19th-century Mexican artists.

Obregón, G. Tipos y paisajes mexicanos del siglo XIX. Mexico City, 1976: 6–9.Ortíz Macedo, Luis. Edouard Pingret: Un pintor romántico francés que retrató el Mexico del mediar del siglo XIX...

Article

Ekhart Berckenhagen

(b Berlin, July 25, 1725; d Berlin, June 24, 1797).

German painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was the son of the goldsmith Christian Bernhard Rode (d 1755) and the pupil of N. Müller (fl 1740s) and Antoine Pesne. From 1750 to 1752 he studied with Carle Vanloo and Jean Restout in Paris, and between 1754 and 1756 he studied in Rome and in Venice, where he produced oil sketches after Titian, Tintoretto, Pordenone and Giordano. He was a fast and prolific worker with a talent for strong composition and use of colour. This last quality became especially evident after 1770, when he began to execute his works in bright, strong-toned colours. He painted several monumental wall and ceiling paintings, mainly in the castles and palaces of the aristocracy in the area of Berlin and Potsdam. In 1771–3 he produced a series of paintings (e.g. the Ploughman Cincinnatus Chosen to be Dictator) for the house of ...

Article

Giovanna Uzzani

(b Florence, Feb 21, 1772; d Milan, Jan 29, 1850).

Italian painter, printmaker and draughtsman. After training in Florence in the Neo-classical tradition, he won a scholarship and settled in Rome between 1789 and 1794. His patron Tommaso Puccini was an intellectual and connoisseur who later became Director of the Gallerie Fiorentine. He was first attracted to the constructive rigour of François-Guillaume Ménageot, who taught at the Académie de France, but later he became interested in a more contemporary classicism in the style of David, and in particular in the rather austere variant represented by such pupils of David’s in Rome as François-Xavier Fabre. Sabatelli borrowed explicitly from Classical works, as can be seen in his reconstruction of the furnishings, clothing and hairstyles of the Roman period, and in his use of a type of drawing practised by the followers of David. His borrowings were more from the style of Classical art than from its philology, yet his paintings were nonetheless clearly liberated from tradition. There was an emphasis on severity and intensity, sparse, angular, compositions and pronounced contrasts. After a stay in Venice, he returned to Florence in ...

Article

(b Montalbano, nr Modena, Jan 15, 1730; d Bologna, July 18, 1766).

Italian painter and engraver. Jacopo Alessandro Calvi’s ‘Vita di Mauro Tesi’, preface to an early collection of the artist’s engravings, Raccolta di disegni originale di Mauro Tesi, gives a detailed account of Tesi’s life and career. The Raccolta also includes a catalogue both of Tesi’s own engravings and of those after his work, as well as a representative selection of his numerous engraved architectural designs (capriccios and vedute, theatre decorations, baldacchini and funerary monuments). According to the ‘Vita’, Tesi received some formal training, first, in decorative painting and, thereafter, in engraving in his native Bologna, but he was largely self-taught. He worked successfully as a decorative and architectural painter, both in fresco and in oil, executing vedute and ornamentation all’antica in and on churches and private and public buildings throughout Bologna, as well as in Pistoia and Florence. Most of his monumental painting has disappeared or been destroyed, with the notable exception of the frescoed chapel of SS Sacramento in S Martino Maggiore, Bologna. Tesi is perhaps best known through his association with his patron and close friend, the Venetian collector and critic ...

Article

R. H. Davis jr and Edward Kasinec

[Tomon; Toma de]

(b Nancy, Dec 21, 1754; d St Petersburg, 22–23 Aug 1813).

French architect, engraver and painter, active mainly in Russia. He was educated at the Académie Royale d’Architecture, Paris, and from 1780 in Rome, where he sketched Classical sites in the city and elsewhere in Italy. As a royalist he left France in the wake of the Revolution and settled successively in Vienna, Eisenstadt and Russia (1798). In 1800 he was elected an Academician. He was appointed court architect on 30 January 1802 and Professor of Architecture at the Imperial Academy on 11 December 1802. Thomon’s major works include the reconstruction of the Bolshoi Theatre (1803; destr. 1813), Moscow. Its design was influenced by Charles de Wailly’s Odéon in Paris: a long rectangle housing a horseshoe-shaped auditorium, with various foyers and salons filling the intervening space. The two-storey façade featured a portico of eight Ionic columns.

In St Petersburg, Thomon built the Stock Exchange (1805–10; now the ...

Article

Maria Cristina Bandera Viani

(b Florence, Nov 2, 1727; d Milan, Nov 14, 1812).

Italian painter and engraver. He trained in Florence with Agostino Veracini (1689–1762) and Francesco Conti (1681–1760), and studied architecture and stage design under Antonio Galli-Bibiena. His earliest known painting is a fresco of 1758: Heavenly Father in Glory in the Dominican church in Livorno. He enriched his art by the study of Correggio’s works in Parma, and also those of Bolognese painters, making engravings (1764–7) after paintings by Guido Reni, Agostino Carracci, Annibale Carracci, Guercino and others. These were praised in 1765 by Pierre-Jean Mariette and were later collected in an album entitled Venticinque quadri ai maestri eccellenti incisi da Giuliano Traballesi (Milan, 1796).

In 1764 he won a competition at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Parma with the painting Furius Camillus Liberating Rome from the Gallic Senones, a work that is deeply influenced by the Bolognese tradition and by the Roman classicism of Nicolas Poussin. The success of this painting won Traballesi major commissions in his native Tuscany, where the transition from Rococo to Neo-classicism had been encouraged by the reforms initiated by Leopoldo II Habsburg-Lorraine when he became Grand Duke of Tuscany in ...

Article

Ramón Gutiérrez

(b Celaya, Oct 13, 1759; d Celaya, Aug 3, 1833).

Mexican architect, painter, engraver, and sculptor. He studied painting under Miguel Cabrera at the Real Academia de las Nobles Artes de S Carlos in Mexico City but did not graduate. He subsequently took up wood-carving and engraving. He learnt the elements of architecture from the Jesuits, who gave him a copy of the writings of Jacopo Vignola. His architecture exhibits a familiarity with the classic treatises, although he never visited Europe. Tresguerras’s first major work (1780s) was the reconstruction in Neo-classical style of the convent church of S Rosa, Querétaro, originally consecrated in 1752. The dome over the crossing is set on a drum articulated by rusticated columns, which flank a series of round-headed openings. He is also credited with remodelling the interior of the convent church of S Clara, Querétaro, and with constructing the Neptune Fountain (1802–7) in the plaza in front of it. The god stands under a triumphal arch, while water pours through the mouth of a fish at his feet. Tresguerras also completed (...

Article

Joshua Drapkin

(b Montpellier, June 18, 1716; d Paris, March 27, 1809).

French painter, draughtsman and engraver. He was one of the earliest French painters to work in the Neo-classical style, and although his own work veered uncertainly between that style and the Baroque, Vien was a decisive influence on some of the foremost artists of the heroic phase of Neo-classicism, notably Jacques-Louis David, Jean-François-Pierre Peyron, Joseph-Benoît Suvée and Jean-Baptiste Regnault, all of whom he taught. Both his wife, Marie-Thérèse Reboul (1738–1805), and Joseph-Marie Vien fils (1762–1848) were artists: Marie-Thérèse exhibited at the Salon in 1757–67; Joseph-Marie fils earned his living as a portrait painter and engraver.

After spending his youth in various forms of employment, including work as a painter of faience and as an assistant to the artist Jacques Giral, Vien travelled to Paris and entered the studio of Charles-Joseph Natoire in 1740. Three years later he won the Prix de Rome and in 1744 went to the Académie de France in Rome. His participation in the energetic reappraisal of form, technique and purpose taking place in French art from the mid-1740s onwards is well demonstrated by paintings executed before and during his time in Italy. These include the ...