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Gennaro Toscano

(b Sassoferrato, c. 1470; d Cupramontana, c. 1540).

Italian painter and possible woodcutter. He spent his early years in Sassoferrato, where his family owned a ceramics workshop. Around 1497 he probably visited the Veneto region, since his Virgin and Child with Saints (Padua, Mus. Civ.) painted that year shows the strong influence of painters active there such as Cima da Conegliano. The painting also reflects the Bolognese style of Francesco Francia and that of the Romagnian Marco Palmezzano. In Venice, Agabiti may have made woodcuts after the illustrations for Francesco Colonna’s Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (Venice, 1499). By 1502 he had returned to the Marches, where he executed a painting (untraced) for S Rocco, Jesi, the town where in 1507 he is documented as residing. After 1510 he was again in Sassoferrato, where in 1511 he signed and dated both the Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints (Sassoferrato, Gal. A. Mod. & Contemp.) and the Nativity in S Maria del Piano. In ...

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Marco Collareta

( fl c. 1475–?1519).

Italian engraver and painter. A painter named Zoan Andrea is recorded in a letter of September 1475 written to Ludovico II Gonzaga, 2nd Marchese of Mantua, by Simone Ardizoni da Reggio, a painter and engraver. Simone claimed that he and Zoan Andrea had been brutally assaulted on the orders of Andrea Mantegna. Mantegna was enraged to hear that the two had remade some of his prints. Their exact crime is not clear, but it has been suggested that they had re-engraved Mantegna’s original plates. Given this connection with Mantegna’s circle of engravers, it is likely that Zoan Andrea can be identified with the anonymous artist who signed himself za on 20 engravings, the earliest of which show a strong dependence on Mantegna, both in technique and composition. The three monogrammed engravings closest to Mantegna are of Hercules and Deianira (b. 2509.005), Judith and Holofernes (b. 2509.001) and an ...

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Jetty E. van der Sterre

(fl Basle, 1485; d 1524).

German engraver and printer. He established himself in Basle in 1485 but subsequently worked as a printer in Strasbourg (1487, 1488), Pforzheim (1500–10), Tübingen (1511–17) and Hagenau (1516–22). Although a few of his prints bear dates between 1501 and 1506, stylistically his work belongs to the 15th-century tradition....

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Lucy Whitaker

(b ?1436; ? bur Florence, Dec 12, 1487).

Italian goldsmith and engraver . According to Vasari, he was a follower of Maso Finiguerra and engraved a series of 19 prints after designs by Botticelli. These illustrate an edition of Dante’s Divine Comedy published in 1481. A group of prints in the same Fine Manner style is attributed to Baldini. His designs incorporate figures and motifs derived from Botticelli, Piero Pollaiuolo and also German printmakers, such as the Master E.S. and Martin Schongauer, but particularly from Finiguerra. Baldini’s Fine Manner style developed from Finiguerra’s niello print technique; the rendering of spatial recession in the large Judgement Hall of Pilate (435×598 mm) suggests it was designed by Finiguerra. With the other prints, however, it shares the decorative quality and emphasis on pattern characteristic of Baldini.

Prints attributed to Baldini include the series of Planets (c. 1465), based on northern woodcuts, and a series of Prophets and Sibyls (early 1470s), as adapted from the characters in a mystery play; the exotic costumes reflect those worn in festival processions. Antonio Bettini’s ...

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Jay A. Levenson

(b ?Venice, c. 1460–70; d Mechelen or Brussels, before July 17, 1516).

Italian painter and printmaker . He was the first Italian Renaissance artist of note who travelled to the courts of Germany and the Netherlands. His earliest known works appear to date from the late 1490s, suggesting that he was born c.1460–70. The birthdate of c. 1440 traditionally assigned to him reflects the misinterpretation of a document of 1512 in which his patron, Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands, awarded him a stipend because of his ‘weakness and old age’. In fact, at this date a man could be described as ‘old’ while in his fifties or even younger (Gilbert).

Barbari probably trained with Alvise Vivarini in Venice in the 1490s. His earliest dated work, the celebrated bird’s-eye View of Venice, a monumental woodcut produced between 1497 and 1500, can be securely attributed to him on the basis of style (12 extant copies, e.g. London, BM; original blocks in Venice, Correr). It also bears the caduceus, with which Barbari signed nearly all his works. Two other large woodcut compositions, the ...

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[Giampietrino]

(fl c. 1471/4–1513).

Italian illuminator and engraver. In 1894 he was tentatively associated with his principal work, the Hours of Bona Sforza (London, BL, Add. MSS 34294, 45722 and 62997), and became known as the Master of the Sforza Book of Hours or the Pseudo-Antonio da Monza; in 1956 he was conclusively identified by his signature psbr io petr biragvs ft on the frontispiece of a copy (Warsaw, N. Lib., Inc. F. 1347) of Giovanni Simonetta’s life of Francesco Sforza, the Sforziada, published first in Latin and then in Italian translation at Milan in 1490.

Three choir-books from Brescia Cathedral dated c. 1471–4 (Brescia, Pin. Civ. Tosio-Martinengo, nos 22, 23 and 25) are the earliest known works signed by Birago. It has been suggested that he was active in Venice during the 1480s. Miniatures attributed to him appear in a Breviary of the Venetian Barozzo family, printed on parchment by Nicolas Jenson at Venice in ...

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Tilman Falk

German family of artists. The Augsburg painter (1) Thoman Burgkmair was the father of one of the city’s most important artists, (2) Hans Burgkmair I. Hans married Anna Allerlay, a furrier’s daughter, in 1497; their son Hans Burgkmair II (c. 1500–62) took over the family workshop in 1531, but his only known works are a few designs for woodcut book illustrations (Hollstein, nos 1–4) and some miniature paintings, mostly after his father’s works (e.g. a series of tournament participants, Munich, Staatl. Graph. Samml.)

Hollstein: Ger.; Thieme–Becker H. Pallmann: Hans Burgkmair des Jüngeren Turnierbuch von 1529 (Leipzig, 1910)

(b Augsburg, 1444–6; d Augsburg, 1525).

Painter. Around 1460 he was apprenticed to Johannes Bämler, scribe, miniature painter, and later an important book printer in Augsburg. Marriage c. 1469 with the daughter of a sculptor allowed Burgkmair to become a member of the Augsburg painters’, glaziers’, and sculptors’ guild, in which he played a leading role. When the guild acquired its own house in ...

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Ingeborg Krummer-Schroth

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Ingeborg Krummer-Schroth

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Paula Nuttall

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(b ?Brescia, c. 1460; d ?Rome, c. 1520).

Italian engraver. His career can be traced through 27 engravings with his signature (usually io.an.b or io.an.bx) and many others attributed to him. He appears to have begun work in the circle of Andrea Mantegna, and a number of engravings of the Mantegna school are generally assigned to him, including three prints after Mantegna’s Triumph of Caesar (b.17b, 18b, 19b) and a version of the Four Dancing Ladies (b. 29b). This early phase probably ended about 1506, when the school dispersed after the death of Mantegna. A transition period is suggested by a group of prints that demonstrate the technical conventions of Mantegna with stylistic influence from the work of Benedetto Montagna: Nativity (b. 4); Virgin and Child (b. 9); St Barbara (b. 12); and Justice (b. 27). In the Virgin and Child the view of a distant landscape may have been inspired by the engravings of Albrecht Dürer, which arrived in northern Italy in this period. Giovanni Antonio executed four copies of ...

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Marco Collareta

(fl c. 1490–1520).

Italian engraver and draughtsman. Among the Italian engravings datable to c. 1500 is a Resurrection known in two different states, the first signed opvs peregrino and the other de opus peregrini ces . Scholars are generally agreed in accepting this as the signature of Peregrino da Cesena, despite the fact that no artist by this name is known from documents or other sources. About 40 marked engravings have been attributed to Peregrino, and about 35 unsigned or unmarked engravings appear to be by the same hand. Peregrino appears to have been the pupil, in Bologna, of Francesco Francia, to whom are attributed several nielli, which are stylistically close to the works bearing Peregrino’s mark. These latter have generally been described as Niello print, but the fact that the inscriptions—as well as the relationship between right and left—are the correct way round, identifies them as proper engravings, albeit executed in the manner of nielli. Certain drawings bound into a volume containing three of Peregrino’s engravings (Paris, Louvre, Cab. Estampes) have also been attributed to him....

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Hans-Joachim Eberhardt

[Liberale di Jacopo dalla Biava]

(b Verona, c. 1445; d Verona, 1527–9).

Italian illuminator, painter and woodcut designer. His father, the baker Jacopo, came from Monza; his mother, Jacoba, was the daughter of the Veronese painter Zeno Solimani (fl c. 1438) and sister of the painter Nicolò Solimani (fl c. 1462–1493). The latter, according to Vasari, was Liberale’s teacher (but mistakenly called Vincenzo di Stefano in the Vite). Liberale is documented in Verona in 1455 and 1465, but works from this period are not known. His career thereafter may be divided into two periods: as a young artist he was based in Siena, where his work on a group of choir-books for the cathedral demonstrates his originality as an illuminator; in or soon after 1476 he returned to Verona, where he established himself as one of the city’s major painters. During both periods he travelled and worked in other centres.

Called to Siena before 1467 by the Olivetans, Liberale illuminated four choir-books (Chiusi, Mus. Cattedrale, Cods A, Q, R and Y) for the abbey of Monte Oliveto Maggiore. The miniatures show a mixture of styles: Sienese influences, especially the Late Gothic ornament of Sano di Pietro, are combined with such stylistic components from the Veneto and Emilia as sculpturally modelled, animated draperies, expressive physiognomies and tense, nervous gestures. Liberale worked as an illuminator for Siena Cathedral from ...

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Robert A. Koch

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Nicoletta Pons

[Alunno di Domenico]

(fl Florence, c. 1475–c. 1500/05).

Italian painter, draughtsman and designer. His only documented works are the seven predella panels for Domenico Ghirlandaio’s altarpiece of the Adoration of the Magi (Florence, Gal. Osp. Innocenti), painted in 1488 for S Maria degli Innocenti, the church of the Foundling Hospital, Florence (Bruscoli). Berenson (1903), before he knew the artist had been identified, grouped a body of work around the painter of the Innocenti panels under the name Alunno di Domenico (‘pupil of Domenico’). Later archival work (Pons) revealed that Bartolomeo di Giovanni was not the same person as Bartolommeo di Giovanni di Miniato, a bookseller and brother of the illuminators Gherardo and Monte del Foro, as Venturi proposed. Nor is it likely that he was the same person as the Bartolomeo di Giovanni Masini, who was a painter of banners (sargie) cited in the Red Book of the Compagnia di S Luca, Florence (Fahy, ...

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Frans Jozef van der Vaart

[de Hameel; de Hamel; Duhameel; Duhamel; du Hamel; Duhamiel; Dumeel; van Hameel]

(b c. 1449; d Antwerp, before Jan 27, 1507).

South Netherlandish architect and engraver. He is first mentioned in a contract drawn up on 19 October 1478 between the church-wardens of the St Janskerk, ’s Hertogenbosch, and Jan Quaywante, a stone supplier, which was witnessed by Loetsmeester (stone dresser) de Hameel. In the same year he joined the Brotherhood of Our Lady. His first wife, Margriet van Auweningen (d 1484), is commemorated on a gravestone possibly made by du Hameel in the St Janskerk. In late 1494 or early 1495 he moved to Leuven, where he was appointed ‘the town’s workman stone mason’ and master of the works of the St Pieterskerk. In 1496 he was imprisoned in Mechelen as a hostage for debts owed there by the city of Leuven. In 1500 he became an external citizen of Antwerp. On 12 December 1505 he made his will, and on 27 January 1507 masses were arranged in memory of the late (...

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Marco Collareta

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Feliciano Benvenuti

(b Forlì; fl c. Venice, 1480–1528).

Italian publisher, printer and woodcutter. He went to Venice c. 1480, where, with his brother Giovanni de’ Gregoriis, he set up a press that produced many of the most admired illustrated books of the time (e.g. Boccaccio’s Decameron, 1492; for illustration see Boccaccio, Giovanni). From 1505 to 1528 he ran the press on his own. In 1517 he published a five-block edition of Titian’s Triumph of Christ (e.g. Bassano del Grappa, Mus. Civ.; and see 1976–7 exh. cat., no. 2) and two other woodcuts designed by Titian: the Virgin and Child with SS John the Baptist and Gregory the Great (see 1976–7 exh. cat., no. 13), which also bears the monogram of Lucantonio degli Uberti, and a Martyrdom of St Cecilia, which is signed and dated.

F. Mauroner: Le incisioni di Tiziano (Venice, 1943/R 1982)Tiziano e la silografia veneziana del cinquecento (exh. cat., ed. M. Muraro and ...

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