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Jan Jaap Heij

(b The Hague, Aug 18, 1871; d Amsterdam, Oct 19, 1934).

Dutch printmaker and painter. He trained at the Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague, where he subsequently taught graphic art (1893–1911). In 1911 he succeeded Pieter Dupont as professor in graphics at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam under the directorship of Antoon Derkinderen. In the early years of his career Aarts produced some paintings using the pointillist technique, mostly landscapes (The Hague, Gemeentemus.); he also carved some sculptures in wood. He is, however, best known for his graphic work. In technique and subject-matter, his prints have a great deal in common with those of Dupont. As the latter’s successor he devoted himself to the revival of engraving, which his predecessor had reintroduced; his own experiments in this medium (in particular his scenes with diggers and beggars, all c. 1900) are considered milestones in early 20th-century Dutch printmaking. He also applied his skills to etching, lithography, woodcutting and wood-engraving; of the latter his ...

Article

Leah Lipton

(b Killingly, CT, Feb 3, 1800; d Florence, March 27, 1880).

American painter and lithographer. He studied briefly with Alexander Robertson (1768–1841) in New York and copied portraits by John Trumbull and Samuel Waldo. From 1821 to 1825 he painted portraits in Killingly, CT, and Providence, RI. He received encouraging advice from Gilbert Stuart in Boston, probably in 1825, and by 1828 was a prominent portrait painter and lithographer there. Portraits such as Mrs Jared Sparks (1830; Cambridge, MA, Harvard U.) demonstrate a well-developed sense of pattern and design but display some deficiency in draughtsmanship, with conventional shapes used to determine the sitter’s features.

From 1831 to 1833 Alexander travelled and painted in Italy. After returning to Boston, he exhibited 39 paintings in 1834 at Harding’s Gallery, many of which were derived from the Italian trip. His unusually theatrical portrait of Senator Daniel Webster (1835; Hanover, NH, Dartmouth Coll., Hood Mus. A.) shows the effect of his exposure to Romanticism; Webster is presented with fiery eyes and wild hair, silhouetted against a dramatic sky. When Dickens visited America in ...

Article

Patrick Conner

(b Maidstone, Kent, April 10, 1767; d Maidstone, July 23, 1816).

English painter, engraver, draughtsman and museum official. The son of a coachbuilder, he was apprenticed to Julius Caesar Ibbetson before enrolling in 1784 at the Royal Academy Schools, London. In 1792 he accepted the post (previously declined by Ibbetson) of draughtsman to George, 1st Earl Macartney, on his embassy to China. As the embassy returned by inland waterway from Beijing to Canton, Alexander made detailed sketches of the Chinese hinterland—something achieved by no British artist previously and by very few subsequently. These sketches formed the basis for finished watercolours (e.g. Ping-tze Muen, the Western Gate of Peking, 1799; London, BM) and for numerous engravings by both himself and others. For over fifty years his images of China were widely borrowed by book illustrators and by interior decorators in search of exotic themes.

Alexander was also a keen student of British medieval antiquities, undertaking several tours in order to make drawings of churches and monuments; many of these were reproduced in the antiquarian publications of ...

Article

Vivian Atwater

(b 1762; d Paris, Dec 27, 1817).

French printmaker. During the last two decades of the 18th century he followed Jean-François Janinet and Louis-Marin Bonnet in popularizing the technique of multiple-plate colour printing for the progressive tonal intaglio processes of mezzotint, aquatint, stipple and crayon manner. Alix produced many illustrations of contemporary Parisian life and fashion but was best known for his colour aquatint portraits of celebrated figures of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic period. In 1789 he provided 18 sheets for an engraved portrait collection published by Levacher de Charnois, which documented members of the French National Assembly. Alix also produced colour prints of such Revolutionary heroes as Jean-Paul Marat, Marie-Joseph Chalier and Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier, after pastel drawings by Jacques-Louis David and other artists. Chief among such prints, which were widely distributed to promote patriotic zeal, were Alix’s portraits of the boy heroes Joseph Barra and Agricola Viala. One of his best works of the period is a portrait of ...

Article

David Alexander and Stephen Deuchar

English family of artists of Danish descent. The earliest member active in England was Sefferien Alken (1717–82), who was a wood-carver, gilder and stone-carver employed by William Chambers. His son (1) Samuel Alken was an engraver. Four of Samuel Alken’s sons, Samuel Alken (1784–c. 1825), (2) Henry (Thomas) Alken, George Alken (c. 1794–?1837) and Sefferien John Alken (1796–1857), were sporting artists. In the next generation Henry Alken’s sons Samuel Henry (Gordon) Alken (1810–94), known as Henry Alken junior, and Sefferien Alken (1821–73) were also artists.

Gunnis F. Siltzer: The Story of British Sporting Prints (London, 1928, rev. 1979) S. Mitchell: The Dictionary of Equestrian Artists (Woodbridge, 1985)

David Alexander

(b London, Oct 22, 1756; bur; London, Nov 9, 1815).

Engraver. He entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, as a sculptor in 1772. In 1779...

Article

Chr. Will

[Augustus]

(b Amsterdam, April 19, 1838; d Amsterdam, Jan 10, 1927).

Dutch painter and lithographer. He attended evening classes in drawing at the Felix Meritis School in Amsterdam and on 27 May 1854 sat the entrance exam at the city’s Koninklijke Academie. Lodewijk Royer, the director, gave him lessons in figure drawing and taught him about Greek art. As a student at the Academie he won several prizes. In 1855 he took up lithography under the influence of the French lithographer Adolphe Mouilleron (1820–81), whom he had seen at work in Amsterdam in 1854. He wanted to become a professional lithographer, and from 1858 to 1859 he was in Paris in order to learn the art at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Mouilleron’s direction. He made copies after paintings in the Louvre and the Musée du Luxembourg and visited Barbizon. In Paris he met Fantin-Latour and Courbet, but his special admiration was reserved for Ingres, Delacroix and Decamps. In the 1850s and 1860s Allebé frequently sought inspiration in the countryside, staying at ...

Article

Sepp Kern

(von)

(b Vienna, Aug 28, 1812; d Vienna, March 12, 1905).

Austrian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He was perhaps the most productive and accomplished watercolour painter in German-speaking Europe in the 19th century. On his frequent travels he produced local views, landscapes and interiors, often commissioned by aristocratic patrons. He studied with his father, Jakob Alt (1789–1872), a landscape and watercolour painter and one of the first to use the new technique of lithography. From the age of six Rudolf accompanied him on study trips, and, together with Alt’s other children, he coloured his father’s drawings. During his student days at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1825–32), Rudolf joined his father on further journeys and collaborated in his studio. In 1832 he won a prize, which simultaneously freed him from military service and marked the beginning of his independent artistic activity. In the same year he produced his first oil painting, after his own watercolour, of the ...

Article

Monica E. Kupfer

(b Santiago de Veraguas, March 25, 1869; d Panama City, Nov 12, 1952).

Panamanian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He is known chiefly as the designer of the national flag (1903) of Panama. He studied business administration and had a long career in public office. When Panama became independent in 1903, he became Secretario de Hacienda and in 1904 Consul-General ad-honorem to Hamburg. In 1908 he moved to New York, where he studied with Robert Henri, who strongly influenced his style of vigorous drawing, loose brushwork, distorted expressionist images and sombre colours, as in Head Study (1910; Panama City, R. Miró priv. col.; see Miró). He produced most of his work between 1910 and 1914 and again after the late 1930s; his main subject was the human figure, but he also painted portraits, landscapes and still-lifes. On his return to Panama in the 1930s he worked as an auditor in the Contraloría General. After his retirement he resumed painting and produced some of his most passionate works, such as ...

Article

Radu Bogdan

(b Cîmpulung-Muscel, March 20, 1831; d Bucharest, Aug 19, 1891).

Romanian painter, sculptor and printmaker. After mastering the principles of painting in Craiova and Bucharest, where he studied under Constantin Lecca (1807–87) and Carol Valştein (1795–1857), he left for Paris around 1850. There he attended the studio of Michel-Martin Drolling and, after Drolling’s death, that of François-Edouard Picot. In 1853 he made his public début at the Paris Salon with a Self-portrait (Bucharest, Mus. A. Col.). A year later he travelled to Constantinople (now Istanbul), where the Sultan bought his painting the Battle of Olteniţa (1854; Istanbul, Dolmabahce Pal.). Aman then went to the Crimea, where he documented the Battle of Alma (Bucharest, N. Mus. A.) in a painting shown at the Exposition Internationale in Paris (1855). The autumn of the same year and the spring of the following year were spent in Wallachia, where the prince, Barbu Ştirbei, honoured Aman with a minor nobiliary title and a grant to enable him to continue his studies in France. In ...

Article

(b Chevry-Cossigny, Seine-et-Marne, Nov 13, 1858; d ?Paris, 1935–6).

French painter, pastellist and printmaker. He studied from 1880 under the academic painter Henri Lehmann at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris; there he befriended Georges Seurat with whom he shared a studio for several years. He also studied under Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, working as his assistant on the Sacred Grove (1884; Lyon, Mus. B.-A.). In 1886 he obtained a travel scholarship to Rome and on his return befriended Symbolist poets such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul Verlaine and Philippe-Auguste Villiers de l’Isle Adam. While the poets sought to subvert language in order to express new sensations, Aman-Jean relied on pictorial and iconographic traditions. He specialized in pictures of languid young women turned in profile to the left or gazing into space, as in Girl with Peacock (1895; Paris, Mus. A. Déc.), using broken brushstrokes and colour contrasts that by then had largely shed their avant-garde connotations. Typical works such as the colour lithograph ...

Article

Blanca García Vega

(b Barcelona, 1768; d Madrid, Oct 20, 1841).

Spanish Catalan engraver. He was assistant professor at the Escuela de Artes, Barcelona, in 1787 and received a scholarship from the Junta de Comercio to study engraving in Madrid (1790–95) under Manuel Salvador Carmona. In 1793 he was awarded first prize for engraving by the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, for his portrait of Ventura Rodríguez after the painting by Goya (1784; Stockholm, Nmus.), and in 1797 he was made an Academician. In 1803 he made the engraving the Ostrich Hunt; he also produced book illustrations, religious engravings and reproductions of paintings. His success led to his appointment as Grabador de Cámara in 1815, in which position he executed a portrait of Ferdinand VII (1821) after drawings by Vicente López y Portaña. On the death of Salvador Carmona in 1820, Ametller Rotllan was made Director de Grabado at the Real Academia, a post he held until his death....

Article

Christiana Payne

Group of British painters and engravers active in the 1820s and 1830s. Samuel Palmer, the central figure of the group, first referred to ‘the Ancients’ in a letter to George Richmond in May 1827. They were drawn together by their admiration for William Blake and for ‘the grand old men’—artists of the Renaissance, especially Dürer and Michelangelo—in preference to ‘the moderns’, the naturalistic landscape painters of the day. They met at Blake’s house in London, stayed with Palmer in Shoreham, Kent, and continued their association with monthly meetings in London in the 1830s. The work of Palmer, Richmond and Edward Calvert in the 1820s and early 1830s represents their aesthetic ideals most fully: it is generally small in scale and elaborately worked, employing archaic media and a primitive, linear style. Their subject-matter was drawn from the Bible, or from a vision of a golden age of pastoral innocence and abundance that had both Christian and Vergilian overtones....

Article

David Tatham

(b New York, April 21, 1775; d Jersey City, NJ, Jan 17, 1870).

American wood-engraver. Anderson was the first important American wood-engraver. He was self-taught and made woodcuts for newspapers at the age of 12. Between c. 1792 and 1798, when he studied and practised medicine, he engraved wood as a secondary occupation, but following the death of his family in the yellow fever epidemic of 1798, he abandoned medicine and worked as a graphic artist. He was an early follower of Thomas Bewick’s white-line style. He usually engraved the designs of others, such as Benjamin West, but he was a skilful and original draughtsman, as can be seen in his illustrations for Durell’s edition of Homer’s Iliad (New York, 1808). He exhibited frequently at the American Academy and was a founder-member of the National Academy of Design (1825). Anderson spent his long and prolific career in New York, engraving mainly for book publishers and magazines but also producing pictorial matter for printed ephemera. He worked steadily until the late 1850s, cut his last blocks in ...

Article

Mark Jones

(b Bordeaux, Nov 4, 1761; d Paris, Dec 10, 1822).

French medallist, engraver and illustrator. He was first apprenticed to the medallist André Lavau (d 1808) and then attended the Académie de Peinture et de Sculpture in Bordeaux. In 1786 he travelled to Paris and entered the workshop of Nicolas-Marie Gatteaux. His first great success was a large, realistic and highly detailed medal representing the Fall of the Bastille (1789); because it would have been difficult and risky to strike, he produced it in the form of single-sided lead impressions or clichés, coloured to resemble bronze. The following year he used this novel technique again, to produce an equally successful companion piece illustrating the Arrival of Louis XVI in Paris. Andrieu lay low during the latter part of the French Revolution, engraving vignettes and illustrating an edition of Virgil by Firmin Didot (1764–1836). He reappeared in 1800, with medals of the Passage of the Great St Bernard...

Article

(b Lyon, Aug 28, 1818; d Lyon, April 29, 1898).

French painter and printmaker. He was a student of François Grobon (1815–1901) and Augustin Thierriat (1789–1870) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Lyon. Appian made a speciality of charcoal studies from nature in which colours were transposed into tonal values. From 1852 he worked from nature at Crémieu, together with Corot, Charles-François Daubigny, Auguste Ravier, Louis-Hector Allemand (1809–86) and Louis Carrand. He had by this time achieved financial independence and devoted himself completely to painting.

Appian depicted an enormous range of subjects, visiting the Pyrenees, the Auvergne, the Bugey and Italy: he often favoured views of still waters and the Mediterranean such as The Beach (1870; Lyon, Mus. B.-A.). His scenes are frequently dotted with little figures in the style of his friend Corot. The style of this prolific and meticulous production remained rather static until 1877, when Appian abandoned his earlier sombre palette and became a virtuoso colourist, producing work with a glistening enamel-like quality. In ...

Article

(Gooch)

(b Shalford, Essex, 1854; d 1924).

English mezzotint engraver. He worked in London from the late 1870s until 1903. His early work includes prints after Luke Fildes (e.g. Roses, exh. RA 1877) and Frederic Leighton. Although he continued to engrave contemporary work, he achieved prominence with his prints after 18th- and early 19th-century English portrait painters, copying works by, among others, ...

Article

William Hauptman

In 

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R. W. A. Bionda

[Flor; Pieter Florentius Nicolaas Jacobus]

(b Surabaya, Java, June 9, 1864; d The Hague, June 9, 1925).

Dutch painter, illustrator and printmaker. He moved to the Netherlands c. 1875, and was taught first by Johan Hendrik Frederik Conrad Nachtweh (1857–1941). He attended the Rijksacademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam from 1883 to 1888, studying under August Allebé and Barend Wijnveld (1820–1902). He then spent a year studying life drawing at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp under Charles Verlat before returning to Amsterdam, where he initially applied himself to painting landscapes in the countryside around The Hague and in Nunspeet in Gelderland in the style of the Hague school.

Arntzenius settled in The Hague in 1892. He was particularly active as a painter of Impressionist townscapes in both oil and watercolour from c. 1890 to 1910. His crowded street scenes with their misty, rainy atmosphere, such as The Spuistraat (The Hague, Gemeentemus.), were particularly successful and despite their greater emphasis on intimacy and tonality are reminiscent of the work of George Hendrik Breitner and Isaac Israëls. Arntzenius may have collaborated with ...

Article

Joan Hichberger

(b London, 1775; d ?London, ?1831–3).

English painter and printmaker. At the age of nine he was taken to live in St Petersburg by his uncle, James Walker, who was an engraver in the service of Catherine II, Empress of Russia. Atkinson subsequently gained the patronage of the Empress and her son, Paul I (reg 1796–1801), executing a series of paintings on Russian history (e.g. Victory of the Cossacks of the Don over the Tartars) for them. He returned to England in 1801 and by 1808 was exhibiting as an Associate at the Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colours, showing such literary and patriotic pictures as Shakespeare’s ‘Seven Ages’. A series of his soft-ground etchings, The Miseries of Human Life, by One of the Wretched (London, BM), was published in London in 1807. He also produced sets of engravings of military costumes, such as A Picturesque Representation of the Naval, Military and Miscellaneous Costumes of Great Britain...

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Anthony Dyson

(b Salisbury, April 4, 1817; d 1889 or 1890).

English engraver. He was active mainly in London, where he was apprenticed for seven years to the eminent engraver Samuel Cousins. Like his teacher, he engraved many plates after the works of John Everett Millais (e.g. the Black Brunswicker, 1860, Port Sunlight, Lady Lever A.G.; declared for publication on 16 June 1864 jointly by Henry Graves & Co. and Moore, McQueen & Co.) and Edwin Landseer (e.g. In Time of War and In Time of Peace, ex-Tate, London, destr.; published in 1864 by Henry Graves & Co. and Thomas Agnew). Francis Grant, William Powell Frith and Franz Xavier Winterhalter are among the other artists whose work he reproduced, but perhaps his best-known plate (untraced), published in 1877 by Thomas McLean, is that after Flora by Valentine W. Bromley (1848–72). One of his last plates was engraved in collaboration with Cousins: a reproduction in mezzotint of Millais’s Perfect Bliss...