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C. J. A. Wansink

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Christiaan Schuckman

(Outgertsz.)

(b Haarlem, fl 1620–34; d The Hague, ?1634).

Dutch engraver. He was the son of Outgert Arisz. Ackersloot (fl 1631). In 1624 he became the brother-in-law of the artist Cornelis van Kittensteyn (1600–38). After a stay in Paris in 1620, he was back in his native Haarlem by 1624. His oeuvre comprises 18 engravings, dating from 1624 to 1633. He eventually became a skilful reproductive engraver; among his best works are the portraits of Frederik Hendrik and Amalia van Solms after Adriaan van de Venne (both 1628), the Ceres Changing Stellio into a Lizard after Jan II van de Velde (i) and the book illustrations after Pieter Jansz. Saenredam’s early drawings for Samuel Ampzing’s Beschryvinge en de lof der stad Haerlem (‘Description and praise of the city of Haarlem’; Haarlem, 1628). He is last documented in The Hague in 1634.

Hollstein: Dut. & Flem.; NKL; Thieme–Becker F. G. Waller: Biographisch woordenboek van Noord Nederlandsche graveurs...

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Blanca García Vega

Spanish family of printmakers. Jerónimo Aguesca (fl Huesca, 1638–44), an etcher, was commissioned to illustrate the Conclusiones (scholarly theses) produced by the Universidad Sertoriana in Huesca with numerous handsomely decorated coats of arms. He executed various religious engravings and made the plates of archaeological remains for Juan Francisco Andrés’s Monumento de los Santos Mártires Justo y Pastor (Huesca, 1644). He signed his works Jerónimo Aguesca Oscae, Aguesca F. or simply Oscae. His brother, Lorenzo Aguesca, engraved the vignettes for Vicencio Juan de Lastanosa’s Museo de las medallas desconocidas de España (Huesca, 1645). Jerónimo’s daughter, the engraver Teresa Aguesca (b Huesca, 1654) became famous for producing, at the age of nine, an engraving of St Anthony and the Christ Child (1663). She also collaborated with her father on a large number of coats of arms and armorial bearings.

A. Gallego: Historia del grabado en España...

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Christiaan Schuckman

(b Mijdrecht, c. 1652; d after 1683).

Dutch etcher and draughtsman. His birthplace and date are inscribed on his mezzotint portrait of his father, Johannes ab Almeloveen (1678; Hollstein, no. 38), who was a preacher in Mijdrecht. Jan’s other 37 prints are all etchings, mainly landscapes. In his topographical views of Dutch rivers and occasionally the Rhine, van Almeloveen followed the tradition of established masters. Twenty of these landscapes are based on designs by Herman Saftleven, including a series of twelve depictions of Dutch villages such as Langerack and an unusual diamond-shaped series of the Four Seasons. The remaining, less lively compositions were made after his own designs. An annotation on one of his landscape drawings (Leiden, Rijksuniv., Prentenkab., AW #1008) indicates that on 8 August 1680 he was working at Frankfurt an der Oder, but he was presumably in Utrecht for most of the period from 1678 to 1683, when he dated his last known print, one in a series of six landscapes (Hollstein, 21–6)....

Article

Mechthild Muller

(von)

(b Nuremberg, bapt March 25, 1650; d Munich, Jan 1, 1703).

German engraver and draughtsman. He mainly produced portraits, in the form of engravings, drawings and grisaille miniatures executed with a brush. From 1671 he was copper-engraver to Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria, who supported him when he undertook further training in Liège under Michel Natalis (1610–68) and in Paris under Nicolas de Poilly. From the latter Amling learnt how to use and arrange line to produce a very wide range of effects; he also picked up the stiff, two-dimensional look of de Poilly’s figures. He must surely have come into contact with Robert Nanteuil in Paris; he shared with him a delight in detail that appears photographic and a veristic style of reproduction.

Amling generally shows his sitters in three-quarter view, following a formulaic composition. Sometimes their features are exaggerated, as for example in the portraits on parchment of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, and his wife ...

Article

Jan Johnson

(b Mantua, 1558–9; d 1629).

Italian woodcutter and printer. He was the only printmaker to produce a significant number of chiaroscuro woodcuts in Italy in the second half of the 16th century; he also reprinted chiaroscuro woodblocks originally cut 60 or 70 years earlier. He made at least 35 prints in both black and white and colour (many multiple-sheet), using a sophisticated style of cutting characterized by thin, closed contours. Based in Florence in 1584–5 and from 1586 in Siena, by 1590 he was also finding work in his native Mantua, where he is documented as establishing a workshop. He reproduced the designs of artists in diverse media with great fidelity: for example he made several prints (1586–90) after Domenico Beccafumi’s intarsia pavement designs in Siena Cathedral, three prints (1584) from different angles of Giambologna’s marble sculpture of the Rape of the Sabines (Florence, Loggia dei Lanzi; see fig.), as well as of the bas-relief on the base of the same group and of Giambologna’s relief of ...

Article

Blanca García Vega

(fl 1588–1617).

Spanish engraver and etcher. Although he lived in Oropesa until 1598, completing woodcuts for Alonso Villegas’s Flos sanctorum … (Madrid, 1588), Angel had already established contacts in Toledo. There he joined the Cofradía del Santísimo Sacramento in 1590 and finally settled in the city in 1598. In Toledo he gained a reputation among the humanist circles; in addition to Villegas, such writers as Juan de Narbona and Jerónimo Ceballos commissioned engraved portraits to accompany their books. The accomplished strength and presence he achieved is evident in such works as the oval portrait of Cardinal Tavera, which appeared in Pedro Salazar de Mendoza’s Chronica del Cardenal Juan de Tavera (Toledo, 1603). Angel’s last known engraving is dated 1617.

A. M. de Barcia: Catálogo de los retratos de personajes españoles que se conservan en la Sección de Estampas de Bellas Artes de la Biblioteca Nacional (Madrid, 1901) J. Ainaud de Lasarte...

Article

Tatsushi Takahashi

(b Leiden, c. 1618; d ?Batavia [Jakarta] after July 11, 1664).

Dutch writer, painter and etcher. He is now known chiefly as the author of Lof der schilder-konst (Dut.: Praise of painting). Originally a lecture given to Leiden artists on 18 October 1641, St Luke’s Day, it was published the following year. At present virtually no works of art are attributed to this Philips Angel except the etching Head of an Old Man (1637), a rather coarse imitation of Rembrandt. Although nothing is known about his training, this etching and certain ideas within Lof der schilder-konst suggest that Angel had been in contact with Rembrandt shortly before becoming a master painter in Leiden in 1638. The first half of this small book enumerates the most famous painters from antiquity to Angel’s contemporaries and makes the traditional comparisons between painting, sculpture and poetry. The second half discusses the skills necessary for a good painter. The latter section is more original as the author occasionally refers to such new genres as seascapes, battle scenes and guardroom scenes. His interest in the exact depiction of appearances has a close relation to the extremely minute renderings for which Gerrit Dou and other Leiden painters became famous....

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Carl Van de Velde

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Duncan Kinkead

(b Villanueva de los Infantes, Ciudad Real, Nov 3, 1633; d Seville, Jan 12, 1703).

Spanish painter and etcher . He is first documented in Seville in 1652 and entered the painters’ guild there on 16 June 1656. His mature style is predominantly influenced by the work of Murillo and, to a lesser extent, that of Juan de Valdés Leal. In 1675, with Bernardo Simón de Pineda, Arteaga y Alfaro designed the new altarpiece in the Royal Chapel in Seville Cathedral. His first independent commission dates from 1676, yet his finest work is the set of nine Old Testament scenes from 1690 (Seville Cathedral). Although he also worked as a gilder, the trade in painting with the New World was an important source of income for him. He was a prolific but not gifted etcher, producing prints from 1661 until the year of his death. His exact relationship to the etcher Bartolomé Arteaga (fl 1627) is unclear. Francisco de Arteaga (d 1679), Matías’s son (not his brother), was also an etcher. In Seville, Arteaga y Alfaro served the guild and the Real Academia de Santa Isabel de Hungría in various posts....

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Blanca García Vega

(b Huesca, c. 1650; d Huesca, 1711).

Spanish engraver, painter, architect, mathematician and astronomer . He founded the chair of mathematics at the University of Huesca, designed the façade of the university and from 1690 was responsible for overseeing the whole of its construction. He executed an etching of this façade, as well as others showing allegories referring to the city and the university. Artiga wrote scientific and literary works, including an unpublished treatise entitled Fortificación elemental, which he illustrated. He also illustrated Vicencio Juan de Lastanosa’s Tratado de la moneda jaquesa (Saragossa, 1681) and engraved some further architectural views as well as images of antique Roman fragments and archaeological remains. In addition, he produced religious engravings, and a number of paintings have been attributed to him by Ceán Bermúdez.

Bénézit; Ceán Bermúdez A. Gallego: Historia del grabado en España (Madrid, 1979), p. 192 E. Páez Ríos: Repertorio (Madrid, 1981–3), i, pp. 70–71 C. Guitart Aparicio: ‘Geografía de la arquitectura barroca en Aragón’, ...

Article

Marion Hagenmann-Bischoff

[Franciscus]

(b Brussels, c. ?1570–80).

Flemish goldsmith, draughtsman, sculptor, copper engraver and embosser, active in Germany . As a skilled goldsmith from Brussels, he is documented at Augsburg between 1598 and 1604, and from 1603 as a tax-paying citizen; before this he was probably living in Friedberg nearby. After he is recorded as paying taxes three years in advance, traces of Aspruck fade away in 1604. Since he was not accepted as a master craftsman by the Augsburg goldsmiths’ trade, he worked with them as a ‘free artist’. His skills included draughtsmanship, modelling and casting as well as copper engraving, which he also taught to goldsmith apprentices and journeymen. Aspruck’s drawings from 1597 to 1601 show an individual style influenced by Hendrick Goltzius and Bartholomäus Spranger, for example Venus and Amor (1598; Hamburg, Ksthalle). He also sketched for other engravers, as is known, first of all, from the surviving publishing production of the Antwerp engraver Dominicus Custos in Augsburg. In ...

Article

Ismael Gutiérrez Pastor

(b Mechelen, Flanders, c. 1585–90; d ?Madrid, c. 1650).

Spanish engraver and medallist of Flemish birth. From the beginning of the 17th century until 1609 he lived in Toledo, where, under the supervision of El Greco, he worked as an engraver and printed (1605–6) such works of his master as SS Peter and Paul (1603–7; Stockholm, Nmus.) and St Francis and Brother Leo (c. 1600–05; Ottawa, N.G.). Other engravings from this period include frontispieces for Historia de … Nuestra Señora de Valvanera (Ávila, 1607) by Francisco de Ariz and the Index librorum prohibitorum (Madrid, 1612) by Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas, the Archbishop of Toledo. From 1609 to 1636 he was engraver at the Casa de Moneda in Segovia, where he created designs for currency and made the printing plates. He also executed engravings for Obras espirituales (Alcalá de Henares, 1618) by St John of the Cross and the frontispiece for Historia … de Segovia...

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Maxime Préaud

French family of artists. Its history (see fig.) began with two engravers: Charles [Karl] Audran (b Paris, c. 1594; d Paris, 1674), who is thought to have trained in Italy with Matthäus Greuter (1564/6–1638) and produced much work of inconsistent quality, and his brother Claude Audran I (b Paris, c. 1592 or 1597; d Lyon, 18 Nov 1677), who made undistinguished book illustrations and portraits. Claude’s eldest son, Germain (b Lyon, 6 Dec 1631; bur Lyon, 4 May 1710), was also an engraver of book illustrations and portraits and taught at the Académie des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts in Lyon. The family’s most prominent members were Claude I’s two younger sons: (1) Claude Audran II, a painter, and particularly (2) Girard Audran, an engraver. The next generation produced artists of some distinction in three of Germain’s sons: (3) Claude Audran III, a painter, and ...

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[Óbidos, Josefa d’]

(b Seville, c. 1630; d Óbidos, July 22, 1684).

Portuguese painter and engraver. She was the daughter of the Portuguese painter Baltazar Gomes Figueira (1597–1674) and a Spanish lady, Doña Catarina de Ayala y Cabrera. After the restoration of the Portuguese monarchy in 1640 the family moved to Coimbra. Here Josefa began her apprenticeship under her father, a painter of landscapes, still-lifes and religious works, who in 1644 painted the retable of Nossa Senhora da Graça, Coimbra, in the naturalist-tenebrist style he had learnt in Seville in the circles of Juan del Castillo, Juan de Roelas and Francisco de Zurbarán.

Josefa’s first known work is an engraving of St Catharine (1646; Lisbon, Mateus José de Arriaga Xavier da Costa priv. col., see 1984 exh. cat., pl. 1). In 1647 she painted on copper the Mystic Marriage of St Catharine (Lisbon, Mus. N.A. Ant.), which, despite the artificial lighting, dainty figures and the almost obsessive piety, shows her promise as a painter in oils. The fine painting on copper of ...

Article

C. van Tuyll van Serooskerken

(b Parma, June 28, 1585; d after Sept 13, 1619).

Italian painter and etcher . His formation as an artist took place within the Carracci circle. According to Malvasia, he may have attended the Carracci Academy in Bologna, before returning to Parma in 1600 as the pupil of Agostino Carracci when the latter entered the service of Ranuccio I Farnese, 4th Duke of Parma. After Agostino’s death in 1602, Badalocchio and his fellow pupil Giovanni Lanfranco were sent by the Duke to Rome in order to complete their training in the studio of Annibale Carracci, who was then working in the Palazzo Farnese. Badalocchio remained with Annibale until the latter’s death in 1609. He participated in most of the projects that occupied the studio assistants during those years, such as the frescoes on the walls of the Galleria in the Palazzo Farnese and those previously in the Herrera Chapel in S Maria di Monserrato, Rome (now detached and divided between Madrid, Prado, and Barcelona, Mus. A. Catalunya), although his precise share in them is still debated. His first signed works are etchings, one (...

Article

(b Emden, East Frisia [now Germany], Dec 28, 1630; d Amsterdam, 6–7 Nov, bur Nov 12, 1708).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, calligrapher and printmaker of German origin. He was the son of Gerhard Backhusz. (Backhusen) of Emden, and he trained as a clerk in his native town. Shortly before 1650 he joined the Bartolotti trading house in Amsterdam, where his fine handwriting attracted attention. He practised calligraphy throughout his life (examples in Amsterdam, Rijksmus.; Dresden, Kupferstichkab.; London, BM). During his early years in Amsterdam he also displayed his skilled use of the pen in drawings, mainly marine scenes, done in black ink on prepared canvas, panel or parchment. He probably derived this technique and subject-matter from Willem van de Velde (ii) the elder’s pen drawings of the 1650s. Bakhuizen continued to produce pen drawings until the 1660s, some depicting recognizable ships and existing views, such as his Ships Leaving Amsterdam Harbour (Amsterdam, Kon. Coll. Zeemanschoop), others depicting unidentified locations, as in the View of a Dutch Waterway (Amsterdam, Ned. Hist. Scheepvaartsmus.)...

Article

Felicia Lewandowski

(b Verona, Aug 12, 1666; d Verona, April 21, 1740).

Italian painter and printmaker. His altarpieces and history paintings, which unite late Baroque classicism with Venetian colour, brought new life to north Italian painting. The son of Lucia Boschetti and Francesco Balestra, a wealthy merchant, he studied literature, rhetoric and the humanities, but, after lessons in drawing and perspective with Giovanni Zeffis (d 1688) and one Monsignor Bianchini (1646–1724), he moved to Venice in 1687 and trained with Antonio Bellucci. In 1691 he transferred to Rome, where he studied with Carlo Maratti, whose art continued a classical tradition that can be traced back to Raphael, and where he also absorbed the work of Annibale Carracci and Domenichino. In 1694 Balestra’s large drawing of the Fall of the Giants (Rome, Gal. Accad. N. S Luca) won first prize in a competition at the Accademia di S Luca. In 1695 he returned to Verona, where he was acclaimed as the chief exponent in the Veneto of Maratti’s late Baroque classicism. His pictures of this period were mainly small religious works, such as the ...