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Ann Sutherland Harris

(b Città di Castello, c. 1600–05; d Rome, 1656).

Italian painter and mosaicist. He trained in the Roman studio of Cavaliere d’Arpino. He is principally known for executing fresco decorations in several chapels in Rome to designs by Bernini. Independent commissions, such as the frescoes depicting the Life of Charlemagne (1635–7; Rome, Vatican, Sala di Carlo Magno), reveal, however, that despite his collaboration with Bernini and later with Cortona, his preference was for a restrained classical style, close to that of more conservative contemporaries such as Andrea Camassei and Giovanni Francesco Romanelli. He assisted Bernini with the vault of the Raimondi Chapel in S Pietro in Montorio (1642–4) and that of the Pio Chapel in S Agostino (c. 1644–5). He also painted the vision of clouds and angels in the vault above Bernini’s marble group of St Teresa in Ecstasy (c. 1647; Rome, S Maria della Vittoria, Cornaro Chapel). In 1650 he executed independently the decorative frescoes on the ceiling and side walls of the sacristy of S Spirito in Sassia, Rome. He also executed mosaics in St Peter’s, after his own designs and those of ...


Hana Seifertová

(b Regensburg, 1667; d Regensburg, 1719).

German painter. He travelled to England, the Netherlands, France and Italy, working for longer periods in Rome, Naples and Augsburg. He was strongly influenced by French landscape painters active in Italy, such as Gaspard Dughet and Claude Lorrain. In Agricola’s paintings the balanced arrangement of the picturesque landscape elements creates a lucid pictorial structure, and unusual light effects, such as twilight or the darkness before a storm, are used to convey a particular mood. The small scale of his figures expresses the contrast between human frailty and the forces of nature. He painted with lively local colours, especially ochres and deep greens for the rich tones of earth and vegetation. The multicoloured costumes of his figural staffage provide pictorial accents and reveal the romantic orientation of his paintings. Scenes of country people at work, for example Landscape with a Millstone (Dresden, Gemäldegal. Alte Meister), express his yearning for a return to nature. Paintings representing the life of nomadic Orientals, such as ...


Hugh Belsey

(b Cairnie, Forfar, Tayside, Oct 24, 1682; d London, June 4, 1731).

Scottish painter. He came from a professional background, and his maternal uncle, Sir John Clerk of Penicuik, may have provided Aikman with an introduction to Sir John Baptist Medina, under whom he studied painting in London from 1704. In 1707 Aikman set out on travels to Italy, Constantinople (now Istanbul) and Smyrna, on the proceeds made from the sale of his estate at Cairnie. When he returned to Edinburgh in 1711, he adopted a heavy Baroque style for his portraits: Sir William Carstares (c. 1712–15; U. Edinburgh, Old Coll., Upper Lib.) shows bravura, although the handling is coarse. The three-quarter-length portraits of Patrick, 1st Earl of Marchmont (1720; Mellerstain, Borders) and Sir Hew Dalrymple, Lord North Berwick (1722; Edinburgh, Parliament House) show a greater sophistication, which he may have acquired during a further trip to London in 1720.

Aikman was widely patronized, especially by the Duke of Argyll and his circle; after the Act of Union in ...


Catherine R. Puglisi

(b Bologna, March 17, 1578; d Bologna, Oct 4, 1660).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was a distinguished artist of the Bolognese school, deeply influenced by Annibale Carracci’s classicism, who worked in Rome as well as Bologna, painting altarpieces, frescoes and and cabinet pictures. His fame rests on his idyllic landscapes and small mythological pictures, the lyrical qualities of which earned him the soubriquet ‘the Anacreon of painters’.

The 12-year-old Albani began his studies in the Bolognese studio of the Flemish-born painter Denys Calvaert, after which he transferred (c. 1595) to the Carracci Accademia degli Incamminati, also in Bologna, where life drawing and theoretical discussion predominated. For the next four years he studied with Ludovico Carracci and through him obtained his first public commissions. These were for Bolognese palazzi and churches, such as the oratory of S Colombano, where his fresco of the Repentance of St Peter (c. 1597–8) closely imitates the dramatic and emotional qualities of Ludovico’s manner, particularly in the expressive figure of the apostle and in the nocturnal lighting. The oratory’s altarpiece, painted in the same period, showing the ...


Rüdiger an der Heiden

(b Berg, nr Starnberg, Bavaria, Jan 3, 1687; d Munich, Aug 15, 1765).

German painter and administrator. He was the son of Augustin Albrecht, a carpenter, and he was probably taught in Munich by his uncle, the painter Benedikt Albrecht (d 1730), before he went to Italy, where he is thought to have stayed in Rome and Venice. Albrecht returned to Munich in 1719 and executed his first works (all 1723–4) for the former Hofmarkkirche (now Katholische Pfarrkirche; in situ) in Schönbrunn, near Dachau. These were a ceiling fresco, Celebration of the Cross, and three altar panels, Mourning Angel (high altar), Martyrdom of St Catherine (left altar) and St Anne (right altar). He also painted two altar panels, St John of Nepomuk and St Leonard (both 1724–5; untraced), for the Katholische Pfarrkirche Mariahilf in der Au in Munich. Unlike Cosmas Damian Asam, Matthäus Günther and Johann Baptist Bergmüller, he was influenced by 16th-century Venetian and Roman models, and both in these works and in later ones he continued to look to the past for inspiration. Between ...



Enrique Valdivièso

(b Córdoba, 1643; d Madrid, 1680).

Spanish painter. He served his apprenticeship in Córdoba, where he was a pupil of Antonio del Castillo, and completed his training in Madrid in the workshop of Velázquez. He wrote a biography of Velázquez, now lost, which was used by Palomino de Castro y Velasco. Apart from brief visits to Córdoba, Alfaro spent his life in Madrid, and he was associated with the court. He painted religious scenes, but his principal activity was portraiture (both large-scale and miniature), in which he was particularly successful, developing a style influenced by Velázquez. Although he was a prolific artist, few of his paintings have survived. While young he painted a series of works depicting the life of St Francis for the cloister of the convent of S Francisco in Córdoba and also an Assumption of the Virgin for the convent of the Discalced Carmelites. For the episcopal palace at Córdoba he painted a portrait of ...


Eleonora Villa

(b ?Cantiano, 1615–20; d ?Gubbio, after 1679).

Italian painter. A pupil of Cavaliere d’Arpino, he was attracted early on by the art of Pietro da Cortona, although the full Baroque remained alien to him. He has often been confused with his father, Flaminio Allegrini (?1587–?1663), who was also a painter. The early sources state that Francesco worked in Savona Cathedral and in the Durazzi and Gavotti palaces in Genoa, yet it remains unclear whether these commissions should be attributed to him or to his father. Francesco worked mostly in Rome, where many of his canvases and frescoes are preserved in churches and palaces. Around 1650 he executed the St Catherine altarpiece in the church of SS Domenico e Sisto, Rome (in situ). Between 1652 and 1654 he was working on frescoes in the Speralli Chapel in the cathedral at Gubbio. In 1653 he took part in an important project to decorate the church of S Marco, Rome, under the supervision of ...


Margherita Palatucci

(b Barletta, 1637; d after 1695).

Italian painter. He received his first artistic training in the workshop of Carlo Rosa in Apulia, although his earliest known works, the Holy Family (1675; Barletta, S Maria della Vittoria) and a painting of the same subject attributed to him (Barletta, Pal. Monte di Pietà), reveal the influence of Cesare Fracanzano and Francesco Cozza. Altobello probably went to Naples during the 1670s and was certainly living there in 1687. Works attributed to him from this period are the Vision of St Ignatius (Naples, S Ferdinando) and a Visitation and Vision of St Francis (c. 1680; both Naples, S Maria la Nuova). They show his full acclimatization to the Neapolitan Baroque, clearly reflecting the monumentality of Giovanni Lanfranco, the tonal contrasts of Luca Giordano and the chiaroscuro of Mattia Preti; they represent the height of Altobello’s artistic development. Also attributed to his Neapolitan period is St Jerome (Naples, Pin. Pio Monte della Misericordia). Numerous canvases, listed in the inventory of ...


Helen M. Hills

(b Ciminna, Jan 24, 1634; d Palermo, July 3, 1714).

Italian architect, writer and painter. He trained as a priest in Palermo and entered the Padri Ministri degl’Infermi. Another member of this Order was Giacomo Amato, with whom he worked, although they were not related. While serving as a chaplain Amato studied geometry, architecture, optics and engraving. His earliest known artistic work is a painting on copper of the Miracle of S Rosalia (1663), the patron saint of Palermo. After 1686 he created many works of an ephemeral character. For the feasts of S Rosalia and for important political events he provided designs for lavish triumphal chariots, probably developed from those by Jacques Callot, triumphal arches and other ceremonial apparatus set up on principal roads and piazzas, and he painted hangings, papier-mâché models and massive altarpieces for the cathedral. These works influenced Amato’s permanent architecture. The spiral columns of the campanile of S Giuseppe dei Teatini, Palermo, recall the festival designs of ...


(b Voltri, Aug 24, 1584; d Genoa, Aug 18, 1638).

Italian painter. His first teacher was Orazio Cambiaso, son of Luca Cambiaso, from whom he learnt the principles of design and acquired his proficiency in the use of colour. Ansaldo’s appreciation of colour must also have owed something to Veronese, whose works he copied as a student. Orazio Cambiaso’s large canvas of St James Converting Josiah (c. 1600; Genoa, Oratory of S Giacomo delle Fucine) is one of many sources for Ansaldo’s multi-figured and highly detailed compositions, set in a deep architectural space. The elegant figures and subtle tonalities of his early works are derived also from the work of Tuscan Mannerist artists in Genoa, such as Pietro Sorri (1556–1621), Ventura Salimbeni and Aurelio Lomi (1556–1622). The sumptuous draperies and strong chiaroscuro contrasts of Giovanni Battista Paggi, who had adopted the Tuscan manner after a period in Florence, influenced Ansaldo, as did the rich impasto of Bernardo Strozzi and Simone Barabbino (...


Enrique Valdivièso

(b Seville, c. 1644; d Seville, c. 1700).

Spanish painter. A lawyer by training, he continued his profession while practising as a painter and was well educated in the humanities. Although he was a prolific artist, few of his paintings are signed; only one, the Adoration of the Shepherds (1678; Seville Cathedral, Sacristia de los Cálices), bears his name. This painting is characteristic of his style, depicting small, highly expressive figures in a setting with dramatic lighting effects. Antolínez painted spacious interior scenes and landscapes, always featuring small figures in lively attitudes. He specialized in modestly sized pictures, usually in series of eight or ten paintings of religious subjects, to which he gave a pleasing decorative effect by the addition of landscape backgrounds. Most of them were evidently painted in haste with an eye to a quick sale. His output includes many scenes of episodes from the lives of Jacob (Seville Cathedral, sacristy), Abraham and David from the Old Testament, scenes from the life of the Virgin, and New Testament scenes of the childhood of Christ (Madrid, Colegio S Anton) and of the life of Christ (Fuentes el Año, parish church). Many of these series have been dispersed into numerous different locations. Antolínez is thought to have been related to the painter ...


J. Rogelio Buendía Muñoz

(bapt Madrid, Nov 7, 1635; d Madrid, May 30, 1675).

Spanish painter. According to Palomino he was an arrogant and quarrelsome character. Although he came from a low social position the prestige he acquired procured him an important clientele: the Almirante of Castile hung works by him in a hall intended to exhibit the most important Spanish artists, and the Danish ambassador to Spain, Cornelius Lerche, gave him commissions. Although initially employing simple compositions, these became more complex during his career, and he also developed into a dynamic and brilliant colourist.

The son of a carpenter, at the age of 18 Antolínez married the daughter of the artist Julián González de Benavides, and his first apprenticeship was served with his father-in-law. He then joined the workshop of Francisco Rizi, with whom he collaborated. He became one of the most prominent Baroque painters of religious subjects, particularly that of the Immaculate Conception. This was a favourite theme in Spanish Baroque art, and the Spanish monarchy was closely connected with the proclamation of the dogma it embodied. Antolínez’s earliest treatments of the subject were in the tradition established by Jusepe de Ribera, Francisco Pacheco and Alonso Cano, but his composition eventually became freer, and he added more cherubs around the Virgin. The first version (Palma de Mallorca, Col. March), showing the influence of Alonso Cano, was signed ...



G. Komelova


(b March 14, 1716; d St Petersburg, June 12, 1795).

Russian painter. He trained at the Construction Office in St Petersburg, where his teachers included Ivan Vishnyakov, in whose team of painters Antropov later worked. He participated in the decorative painting of the Winter Palace and other imperial residences in St Petersburg and its environs. In 1752 he embarked on painting Andreyevsky Cathedral in Kiev and produced icons for its iconostasis. He returned to St Petersburg in 1758 and then trained for two years with Pietro Antonio Rotari. Soon afterwards he was appointed principal supervisor of the artists and icon painters of the Synod.

Antropov is remembered primarily as a portrait painter who worked in a realistic style that retained many traditional elements. The most notable among his portraits is that of the lady-in-waiting Anastasiya Izmailova (1759; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.), which shows the best and most typical features of his work. He conveys the sitter’s authority, energy and intelligence, suggesting the force of character of a significant figure at the court of the Empress Elizabeth. Antropov’s style is typical of the Russian Baroque. His preference for vivid local colours and his careful reproduction of detail and texture link his work to the traditions of both Russian folk art and earlier Russian portrait painting. Also notable are the portraits of the Chieftain of the Don Cossacks, ...


Natividad Galindo

(b ?Madrid, ?1635; d Madrid, Aug 9, 1704).

Spanish painter. Born deaf and dumb, he was a pupil of Antonio de Pereda and was known as ‘el sordillo de Pereda’. He was a prolific artist, although his many signed works are of unequal quality, largely because in his mature years his wife frequently obtained commissions at a low price. These compositions were copied from prints in his studio and were then only retouched or signed by Arco. Other works of higher quality and excellent technique show Pereda’s influence, particularly in the treatment of still-life objects. The human figures that he portrayed, however, usually represent a characteristic type, with a triangular-shaped face and large, bulging eyes. He was a typical representative of the Madrid school and was also a good colourist.

Arco painted mainly in oil but also used tempera and fresco, e.g. his fresco decoration of the Camarín of the hermitage of La Virgen de la Oliva, Almonacid de Toledo, with scenes from the ...


(b Madrid, 1664; d Madrid, Feb 15, 1726).

Spanish architect, painter and writer. He was trained in architecture by the Jesuits and in painting by Claudio Coello and worked mainly as an architect. Two overdoors showing multiple allegorical scenes of the Battle of Lepanto (1721; Madrid, Pal. Arzobisp.) and a St Barbara (1723; Madrid, Mus. Lázaro Galdiano) reveal Ardemans as a talented painter working in the tradition of Francisco Rizi, Juan Carreño de Miranda and Francisco de Herrera the younger, and partially influenced by Luca Giordano. His debt to Coello is apparent in a ceiling fresco attributed to him in the Capilla del Cristo de los Dolores of the Venerable Orden Tercera de San Francisco, Madrid, which shows St Francis riding in a chariot of fire with figures watching from a balcony. Also attributed to Ardemans is the portrait of Pedro Atanasio Bocanegra (c. 1689; Granada, Pal. Arzobisp.)

As an architect, Ardemans belongs to a period of transition, continuing into the 18th century the Baroque tradition of the Madrid school. He worked in Granada (...


Mario Buhagiar

[il Romano]

(b c. 1633; d 1719).

Italian painter, active in Malta. He worked exclusively in Malta, moving in the circle of Mattia Preti. Contemporary documents refer to him as ‘il Romano’, suggesting that he was of Roman origin. He was in Malta by 1666, the year in which he married. Certain of his paintings, such as St Sebastian before the Pope (Valletta, St John’s Mus.), reveal some knowledge of the work of Guercino. His output was prolific, but with a few notable exceptions his compositions are dull and his drawing weak. The Adoration of the Magi (Valletta, church of the Carmine) and the Virgin of the Rosary (Spinola Bay, church of the Immaculate Conception) are among his best works but his supreme achievement is the Last Supper (Gozo Cathedral), his last documented work. It shows him in complete control of the Baroque idiom, exploiting its theatrical possibilities, while nonetheless conveying genuine religious feeling, which is Roman rather than Neapolitan in its sobriety. D’Arena enjoyed considerable prestige and was received into the Order of St John as a lay brother. In old age he became blind. There are works by him in most Maltese churches....


[Cesari, Giuseppe]

(b Arpino, nr Sora, 1568; d Rome, July 3, 1640).

Italian painter and draughtsman . His father, Muzio Cesari, was probably a painter; his brother, Bernardino Cesari (1571–1622), became his principal assistant. Giuseppe’s precocious talent for drawing led his mother to take him to Rome in 1581–2, where he became a colour mixer under Niccolò Circignani, then directing the decoration of the third of the great Vatican Logge for Gregory XIII. Circignani promoted him to the painting team; a tiny figure of Abundance on the vault of the seventh compartment has been identified as his earliest known work. During 1583 Giuseppe also worked at the Vatican on the monochrome figure of Samson with the Gates of Gaza in the Sala Vecchia degli Svizzeri and the restoration of the Prophets and Virtues painted by the Raphael workshop in the Sala dei Palafrenieri. Towards the end of the year the Pope granted Giuseppe a salary. Probably in 1584–5 he contributed a fresco of the ...


Alfonso E. Pérez Sánchez

(b Colmenar de Oreja, Madrid, c. 1657; d Madrid, 1702).

Spanish painter . He trained in Madrid with José García Hidalgo and later in the studio of Francisco Rizi. He was Rizi’s most frequent collaborator in the last years of his master’s life, and he married a godchild of Rizi. Rizi obtained for Arredondo the title of Pintor del Rey, without salary, and on his death in 1685 Arredondo succeeded him in that capacity. In his will Rizi named him heir and left him sheets of drawings and his books relating to painting, sculpture and architecture. A large part of Arredondo’s activity under Rizi’s direction was painting scenery for the plays staged at El Buen Retiro, the palace on the outskirts of Madrid; he also contributed to temporary street decorations, notably those erected in Madrid in 1690 for the entry of Queen Mariana von Neuburg, the second wife of Charles II. On the death of Charles II (1700), Arredondo, Luca Giordano and Francisco Ignacio Ruíz de la Iglesia were appointed valuers of the King’s possessions....