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Article

Vincent Lieber

(b Geneva, May 18, 1668; d Geneva, May 25, 1743).

Swiss miniature painter and collector, active in France. He is said to have shown precocious signs of great talent. In 1688 he established himself in Paris as a miniature painter; his talent secured him the protection of such patrons as Philippe II, Duc d’Orléans and later Regent of France, and his mother, Elisabeth-Charlotte, Duchesse d’Orléans. Arlaud advised the Duc d’Orléans on the purchase of paintings from the collection of Christina, Queen of Sweden. Later, he himself acquired various works of considerable quality, eventually building up an interesting collection. As he was in contact with Hyacinthe Rigaud and Nicolas de Largillierre, his style naturally reflected their manner, as well as the prevailing taste. He generally executed miniatures in gouache, such as Madame de la Baume (Geneva, Mus. Horlogerie & Emaillerie), sometimes adding highlights in pastels, as in the case of his Self-portrait (1727; Florence, Uffizi). This technique, which was a novelty when Arlaud adopted it, has unfortunately aged badly, and the effect achieved, which was much appreciated at the time, has since become blurred. Arlaud was received at the English court in ...

Article

Michelle Lespes

[Camelot]

(b Douai, Jan 12, 1702; d Paris, March 4, 1766).

French painter and collector . His father, Jean-Baptiste Havet, a doctor of Armenian origin, died when Aved was a child. He was brought up in Amsterdam by his step-father, a captain in the Dutch Guards. At 16 he is said to have become a pedlar or ‘camelot’ (hence the nickname given to him by his French acquaintances) travelling through the Netherlands, drawing portraits at fairs. In 1721, after spending short periods in the Amsterdam studios of the French engraver Bernard Picart and of the draughtsman François Boitard (1652–1722), he left the Netherlands to work in the Paris studio of the fashionable portrait painter Alexis-Simon Belle. At this time he met other notable painters including Carle Vanloo and the portrait painters Maurice-Quentin de La Tour, Jean-Baptiste Perroneau and Jean-Etienne Liotard. He also formed a deep and lasting friendship with Jean-Siméon Chardin, with whom he may have collaborated on occasion; they used similar techniques, and he may have encouraged Chardin to turn from still-life painting to figure painting in the 1730s....

Article

David Blayney Brown

(Howland)

(b Great Dunmow, Essex, Nov 6, 1753; d Coleorton, Leics, Feb 7, 1827).

Amateur painter and draughtsman, collector and patron. He was the quintessential amateur, whose interests extended to literature and drama as well as to art; he became the leading arbiter of taste of his day. The painter Thomas Hearne described him as the ‘supreme dictator on works of art’. While Beaumont strongly supported new trends in poetry and did much to foster the careers of William Wordsworth and Samuel Coleridge, he maintained essentially 18th-century standards in his connoisseurship. His love of art had begun at Eton College, where he was taught drawing by Alexander Cozens; it was confirmed in 1771 by a meeting with the engraver William Woollett and Hearne, then Woollett’s pupil. Subsequently Beaumont was guided by a succession of distinguished artists including John Robert Cozens, Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, Richard Wilson, Thomas Jones, Joseph Farington, Benjamin West, Thomas Girtin and John Constable. His own work, of which there is a large collection in the ...

Article

(b Toulouse, 1766; d Paris, 1826).

French dealer, restorer and painter. He may have begun his career as a protégé of Henri-Auguste de Chalvet, a collector and Associate Member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse. His first teachers were Pierre Rivalz and Lambert-François-Thérèse Cammas. He moved to Paris shortly before the French Revolution but went almost immediately to London, where he established himself as a portrait painter, exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1794 and 1795. He returned to Paris in 1796 and that year sent three portraits to the Salon. In 1799, he exhibited the curiously Romantic Girl Surprised by a Storm (New York, Brooklyn Mus.). The following year he achieved popular success with Woman of Property Begging (England, priv. col.). His talents as a portrait painter were particularly admired: surviving examples are Adrien Segond (1812; Paris, Louvre) and Dieudonné Jeanroy (1812; U. Paris V, Fac. Médec.). His style of painting reflected contemporary admiration for highly finished works in the manner of 17th-century Dutch artists....

Article

L. Fornari Schianchi

(b Arcisate di Como, 1727; d Parma, Nov 4, 1792).

Italian stuccoist, printmaker, painter and collector. Before studying anything else he learned stucco decoration from his father Pietro Luigi (d 1754), who worked in Germany from 1743 until his death. Stucco work always remained Bossi’s main activity, alongside that of printmaking, especially etching. His experiments in the latter field followed in the tradition of the great Venetian printmakers. He was encouraged by Charles-François Hutin, who was in Dresden from 1753 to 1757 and whom he followed to Milan and Parma. His first etching, based on a work by Bartolomeo Nazari (1693–1758), was done in Milan in 1758. From 1759 on he was in Parma, where he produced some plates for the Iconologie tirée de divers auteurs (1759) by Jean-Baptiste Boudard, and where he executed the stucco trophy decoration for the attic of S Pietro, the construction of which began in 1761. From this date Bossi also collaborated with the designer ...

Article

Simonetta Prosperi Valenti Rodinò

(b Busto Arsizio, Nov 11, 1777; d Milan, Dec 15, 1815).

Italian painter, collector and writer. He studied painting at the Accademia di Brera in Milan. Between 1785 and 1801 he lived in Rome, where he met such Neo-classical artists as Angelica Kauffman and Marianna Dionigi (1756–1826) as well as writers, scholars and archaeologists, notably Jean-Baptiste Séroux d’Agincourt, Giovanni Gherardo de Rossi (1754–1827) and Ennio Quirino Visconti. While in Rome he studied Antique and Renaissance works, making copies of the statues in the Museo Pio-Clementino and the frescoes by Raphael and Michelangelo in the Vatican, also furthering his studies of the nude in the Accademia di Domenico Conti and making anatomical drawings of corpses in the Ospedale della Consolazione. On his return to Milan in 1801 he became secretary to the Accademia di Brera, a post he held until 1807. During this period he devoted all his efforts to the restructuring of the Brera, providing it with new statutes and a major library and also founding the adjoining art gallery. He prevented numerous works from being smuggled abroad or dispersed and was responsible for their inclusion in the ...

Article

Giles Waterfield

(b London, 1756; d London, Jan 7, 1811).

English painter and art collector of Swiss descent. Born to a family of Swiss watchmakers in London, Bourgeois was apprenticed as a boy to P. J. de Loutherbourg. The latter heavily influenced his art, which was to elevate him to membership of the Royal Academy in 1793. Bourgeois specialized in landscape and genre scenes and achieved recognition in his own day with works such as Tiger Hunt and William Tell (both c. 1790; London, Dulwich Pict. Gal.), but his works are no longer regarded as of any note.

Bourgeois was linked from an early age with Noël Desenfans, who in effect adopted him when his father left London for Switzerland. Desenfans promoted Bourgeois’s reputation as an artist and involved him in his own activities as a picture dealer. Bourgeois became passionately interested in buying paintings, and in the last 15 years of his life bought considerable numbers, sometimes creating financial problems for the partnership. His taste was characteristic of the traditional Grand Manner of his time, concentrating on the great names of the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly academic works and paintings of the Netherlandish schools....

Article

Andrew W. Moore

(b Norwich, Dec 22, 1768; d Norwich, April 22, 1821).

English painter, printmaker, collector and teacher. The son of a journeyman weaver, he was apprenticed to a coach and sign painter, Francis Whisler, from 1783 to 1790. He presumably continued in this trade and during the 1790s consolidated his artistic training. Early local influences upon Crome included William Beechey and John Opie, but the friendship of Thomas Harvey, a patron, collector and amateur artist, was the most significant. Harvey’s collection included works by Dutch 17th-century masters such as Aelbert Cuyp, Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema, and also works by Gainsborough and Richard Wilson. The earliest record of Wilson’s influence is provided by two oils entitled Composition in the Style of Wilson (untraced), dated 1796 and 1798 in Crome’s Memorial Exhibition of 1821. The Dutch influence was also strong throughout Crome’s career. Crome’s early acquaintance with Harvey and his collection almost certainly encouraged him to become a collector, and the Yarmouth banker ...

Article

Marie-Claude Chaudonneret

(b Paris, c. 1774; d Paris, bur Dec 3, 1860).

French painter, bronze-founder and collector. He was born into a family of bronze-founders. He studied in Jacques-Louis David’s atelier and on David’s arrest in 1794 accompanied him on his way to prison and with 16 of his fellow students signed an address to the National Convention calling for his master’s release. He exhibited for the first time at the Salon of 1798 both the full-length Portrait of a Man Skating, or the portrait of Bertrand Andrieu (Paris, Hôtel de la Monnaie), a rather stiff and awkward treatment of the subject in comparison with, for instance, Gilbert Stuart’s Skater (1782; Washington, DC, N.G.A.), and the Deluge (Gray, Mus. Martin), inspired by the poems of Salomon Gessner (1730–88) (the episode in which Phanor carries the fainting Semira). Delafontaine considered this painting to be his masterpiece. At the Salon of 1799 he showed the portrait of Alexandre Lenoir, a somewhat gauche, full-length depiction of the creator of the Musée des Monuments Français (Paris, Louvre). The portrait of ...

Article

(b Orléans, March 7, 1715; d Orléans, Dec 25, 1800).

French collector and painter. He briefly studied painting in Orléans under Jacques Dominé (1676–1752). In 1733 he moved to Paris, where his masters were Nicolas Bertin and Charles-Joseph Natoire. Having become director of the drawing school of Louis, Duc de Rohan-Chabot (1710–91), he met distinguished artists and collectors, including Joseph Vernet, Jean-Baptiste Descamps, Joseph-Marie Vien, Hubert Robert and Claude-Henri Watelet. Towards the end of the 1730s Desfriches returned to Orléans to direct his family’s import business. He painted seven panels with views of the river Loiret for the dining-room of his country house, La Cartaudière, and made numerous topographical drawings, including a vast panorama of Orléans (Orléans, Mus. B.-A.). His early drawings were in lead or black chalk with highlights of coloured crayon and sepia or bistre washes. Later, working on papier-tablette, a grey-blue, coated drawing-paper he had invented, which permitted great delicacy of execution, he produced less finished drawings, many of which he mounted on wooden snuff-boxes and presented to friends....

Article

Laure Pellicer

(b Montpellier, April 1, 1766; d Montpellier, March 16, 1837).

French painter, printmaker and collector. He was taught by the painter Jean Coustou (1719–91) in Montpellier before entering, in 1783, the studio of David, to whose artistic principles he remained faithful all his life. His career as a history painter began brilliantly when, in 1787, he won the Prix de Rome for Nebuchadnezzar Ordering the Execution of Zedekiah’s Children (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). This early success was consolidated by the four years he spent at the Académie de France in Rome and by the enthusiastic reception of his Death of Abel (1790; Montpellier, Mus. Fabre) at the Salon of 1791.

In 1793 his royalist sympathies forced him to move to Florence, where the poet Vittorio Alfieri and his mistress the Countess of Albany, estranged wife of the Young Pretender, introduced him to the artistic and social life of the city. In the years preceding the French invasion of Tuscany in ...

Article

Ju-Hsi Chou

[Kao Feng-han; hao Nanfu Shanren]

(b Jiaozhou (modern Jiao xian), Shandong Province, 1683; d ?Shandong Province, 1748–9).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, seal-carver, collector and poet. The son of a minor official in charge of local education, Gao developed an interest in poetry, painting and seal-carving in his early youth, when he also began to collect old seals and inkstones. The great poet Wang Shizhen took a liking to him and left instructions before his death that Gao be admitted into the ranks of his disciples. A relative of the poet, Wang Qilei, also provided Gao with some formal instruction in the art of painting, beyond what he could learn from his father, an amateur painter of orchids and bamboo. Gao’s official career did not begin until 1729, when he took up an appointment as assistant magistrate of She xian, Anhui Province. In 1734 a new assignment took him to Taizhou, east of Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province. In 1736, having become entangled in a legal dispute involving a chief commissioner of the salt gabelle, he was briefly imprisoned; this and his deteriorating health, which resulted in the paralysis of his right hand, inevitably led to his resignation from officialdom....

Article

Richard Jeffree

(b Nièvre, 1686; d London, before April 3, 1770).

English painter, printmaker, collector and curator of French birth. A nephew of the French-born portrait painter Louis Goupy (c. 1674–1747), he visited Malta early in his career, producing four panoramic views of the port of Valletta (Melbourne Hall, Derbys), later engraved by Antoine Benoist. In 1711 he was among the first subscribers to Godfrey Kneller’s Academy in London. Goupy’s speciality from then on appears to have been the production of small copies in pastel or gouache of Old Master paintings; they were widely admired and initially fetched high prices. Through his acquaintance with Marco Ricci, Goupy painted sets for productions by the Royal Academy of Music during the 1720s. These included several operas by George Frideric Handel, with whom he developed a close friendship; it ended with the publication of the True Representation and Character of the Charming Brute (1730), the print made after Goupy’s savage caricature (gouache; Cambridge, Fitzwilliam) of the composer as a bewigged hog playing the organ....

Article

Mary Ann A. Powers

(b London, 1754; d Livorno, Nov 4, 1804).

English painter and draughtsman. He was the nephew of the engraver Charles Grignion (1717–1810), and at the age of 11 he received a premium for drawing from the Society of Artists. He studied with Giovanni Battista Cipriani and was admitted to the Royal Academy Schools in 1769. He received the Gold Medal in 1776 for his Judgement of Hercules (untraced), and continued to exhibit portraits and mythological subjects until 1782, when he left for Rome on a Royal Academy travel scholarship. Grignion remained in Italy for the rest of his life, devoting himself to the study of the Antique and the production of large historical compositions, including the Death of Captain Cook (exh. RA 1784; untraced). While in Rome, Grignion collected drawings by his friends John Deare and Robert Fagan. He received several commissions from visiting Englishmen. Among these were an oil study of Homer Reciting his Poems at the Tomb of Achilles...

Article

A.-G. Wahlberg

(b Borås, Älvsborg, Feb 23, 1739; d Liège, May 15, 1793).

Swedish painter and collector. In 1753 he attended Uppsala Universitet to study medicine and natural history. In 1755 he went on a study trip abroad, led by his drawing-master Lars Brisman. While in Germany (1756–9) he studied miniature painting with Eichhardt in Berlin and with Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Richard (1725–70) in Hamburg. After this trip, he decided to become a professional portrait painter, and in 1759 he enrolled at the Kungliga Akademi för de Fria Konsterna in Stockholm, studying drawing with the French sculptor Pierre-Hubert Larchéveque (1721–78) and painting with Gustaf Lundberg. He attracted the attention of C. F. Adelcrantz, who in 1766 gained for him a commission for the pastel portrait of Princes Karl and Fredrik Adolf. In that year he also executed a miniature portrait of Crown Prince Gustav on the occasion of his engagement to Princess Sophia Magdalena of Denmark. Also in ...

Article

Frans Grijzenhout

(bapt Amsterdam, June 21, 1744; d Haarlem, Jan 23, 1831).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, Curator and collector. He was the son of a sculptor of modest means, and presumably he, together with his brothers, first trained in his father’s workshop. In 1765 Wybrand became an active member of the Amsterdam Drawing Academy, where from 1772 to 1774 he won top prizes. Until 1772 he worked as a landscape painter in the Amsterdam wallpaper factory of Johannes Remmers. The staffage in Hendriks’s landscapes was added by Willem Joseph Laquy (1738–98). In 1772 Hendriks bought his own small wallpaper factory in Amsterdam, which he ran until 1776. Around 1775 he made a short trip to England with Hendrik Meijer (1737–93), a Haarlem painter, etcher and wallpaper manufacturer, and in 1776 moved to Haarlem, where he painted still-lifes and made watercolour copies after 17th-century masters for collectors. From 1782 to 1785 Hendriks was in Ede, where he drew and painted mostly landscapes. He returned to Haarlem in ...

Article

Linda Whiteley

(b Cherbourg, March 2, 1766; d Paris, Jan 7, 1836).

French dealer, collector, museum official and painter. He studied under Charles Landon and Jean-Baptiste Regnault. In 1793 he began to deal in pictures and until 1812 spent part of his time travelling abroad (mainly in Italy) to increase his knowledge of art. In October 1816 he was appointed Commissaire-expert des Musées Royaux, a post he held until his death. Between 1810 and 1830 he assembled an eclectic collection, purchasing either privately or at sales, among them the posthumous sales (1826 and 1827) of Vivant Denon. His tastes in Italian art ranged from the work of Fra Angelico to that of the 17th-century Bolognese masters, and he also bought several works by such 17th-century French artists as Poussin (Life Spent in the Environs of Rome), Philippe de Champaigne (Assumption of the Virgin, 1660), Charles Le Brun and Eustache Le Sueur. He owned paintings by the 18th-century French artists ...

Article

Anne Puetz

(b Dublin, Feb 7, 1675; d London, March 17, 1737).

Irish painter, collector and connoisseur. In 1697 he set off on the Grand Tour. In Rome he decided to become a professional painter and remained for some time in the studio of Carlo Maratti, apparently becoming one of this favourite students. Upon his return from Italy in 1700 he spent several years in Dublin, and later in London, as a portrait painter. Although his few documented portraits, such as Sir Justinian Isham (1710; Lamport Hall, Northants), are not particularly distinguished, he rapidly acquired the reputation of a leading master as well as several important patrons, notably Henry Herbert, 9th Earl of Pembroke, and William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire. Such influential connections obtained him posts that, together with a wealthy marriage, allowed him to abandon painting. He built up a collection of drawings, prints, books and medals and was regarded as one of the foremost connoisseurs of the period. His collection contained prints and drawings from such great collections as those of ...

Article

Ellen G. Miles

(b Devonshire, ?1701; d Twickenham, Jan 26, 1779).

English painter and collector. He was one of the foremost portrait painters in England in the mid-18th century. His work combines the high-keyed colours of the Rococo with poses derived from such artists as van Dyck, Kneller and his own teacher and father-in-law, Jonathan Richardson. He painted at least 400 portraits, about 80 of which were engraved. Among his many pupils were Joseph Wright of Derby, John Hamilton Mortimer and Joshua Reynolds. Hudson was a member of the group of artists including Hogarth, Allan Ramsay, Francis Hayman and the sculptor John Michael Rysbrack who met at Old Slaughter’s Coffee House in the mid-1740s and who promoted Thomas Coram’s Foundling Hospital, of which they were governors, as the first public exhibiting space for artists in London.

The earliest record of Hudson as a painter is in the accounts of the Courtenay family of Devon, where he is described in 1728 as ‘Mr. Hudson ye Limner’. Among his earliest recorded works were three portraits of the Courtenays (untraced) and a ...

Article

(b Florence, 1703; d Florence, Aug 16, 1778).

Italian collector, dealer, painter and writer of English parentage. He studied painting with Anton Domenico Gabbiani (whose life he later wrote). Like his master, he specialized as a religious painter and copyist, but such works as The Annunciation (Florence, S Jacopo Soprarno) are no more than competent reworkings of Gabbiani, and Hugford enjoyed only local fame. In 1729 he became a member of the Florentine Accademia del Disegno (and in 1762 was elected its provveditore). He also taught at the Accademia di S Luca, where Francesco Bartolozzi and Giovanni Battista Cipriani were among his pupils. In the late 1720s Hugford began to form a collection of paintings, engravings and drawings and to act as an intermediary and dealer in art. In 1729 and 1737 he exhibited a collection of drawings that he attributed to Hans Holbein the younger. These have since been identified as French drawings of the school of François Clouet, which had been sorted and annotated by ...