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Mayching Kao

[Chen Fushan, Ch’en Fu-shan]

(b Panama, Nov 24, 1905; d 1995).

Chinese painter and art critic. Chan moved with his family to Hong Kong in 1910, becoming an active member of the Hong Kong arts scene in the 1920s. A self-taught artist of Western-style painting, Chan painted realistic watercolours of the local scenery. From the early 1960s he experimented with a variety of styles and techniques inspired by international avant-garde movements, ranging from geometric abstractions painted with a spray gun to configurations achieved by splashing and dribbling paint on canvas. In the 1970s Chan won critical acclaim for his dreamlike fantasy paintings populated with colourful creatures, both real and imaginary, and inspired by the hustle and bustle of Hong Kong life. Chan has been called the myth-maker of Hong Kong, and his complex iconography as well as his heterogeneous artistic origins are significant for the light they shed on the cultural history of Hong Kong.

Luis Chan: Fifty Years of Artistic Career...


Lelia Delgado

(b Canton, June 16, 1937).

Venezuelan painter of Chinese birth. In 1956 he entered the Escuela de Artes Plásticas ‘Julio Arraga’ in Maracaibo, and in 1958 he travelled to Paris to study at the Ecole Supérieure des Beaux-Arts. He returned to Venezuela in 1962 and held his first one-man show in 1963 at the Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas. During the 1960s he was associated with Art informel. His fundamentally gestural painting comprises an intensely personal calligraphy, in which Asian and American influences are blended. His murals and large-format works executed between 1964 and 1965 earned him the Venezuelan Premio Nacional de Pintura, and he was a joint representative of Venezuela in the seventh Bienale de São Paulo.

F. Paz Castillo and P. Rojas Guardia: Diccionario de las artes plásticas en Venezuela (Caracas, 1973), p. 121Tiempo de Hung (exh. cat., Porlamar, Mus. Francisco Narváez, 1989)De Venezuela: Treinta años de arte contempóraneo (1960–1990)/From Venezuela: Thirty Years of Contemporary Art (1960–1990)...


W. Iain Mackay

(b Lima, 1932).

Peruvian painter. He was born to a Japanese father and a Peruvian mother, and the influence of the former came to have some bearing on his art. He studied at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima until 1960, and from 1962 to 1964 he attended the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, where he studied graphic art; he went on to study design in Rio de Janeiro. His painting style developed from realism towards abstraction, and it is characterized by a variety of textures, subtle colors, and the suggestion of vast spaces (e.g. Endlessly Spacious, 1962; Washington, DC, A. Mus. Americas); his later works include references to Surrealism.

Villacorta Paredes, J. Pintores peruanos de la República. Lima, 1971, pp. 125–126.Lavalle, J. A. de and Lang, W. Pintura contemporánea, II: 1920–1960, Col. A. & Tesoros Perú. Lima, 1976, pp. 170–173.Mabe, Manabu, Morais, Frederico, Yamamoto, Katsumi, and ...


Roberto Pontual

(b Kumamoto 1924; d Sept 22, 1997).

Brazilian painter of Japanese birth. At the age of ten he was taken by his family to Brazil, where he first worked in the coffee plantations in the interior of São Paulo State. After moving to the state capital he painted his first pictures c. 1945. Initially, he painted still-lifes and landscapes influenced by Braque and Picasso, such as Still-life (1952; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.), but he developed a calligraphic abstraction of compact brushstrokes, abrupt lines and dramatic bursts of paint generally against monochrome backgrounds. Even at his most abstract he continued to use referential titles alluding to the real world and to human emotions, as in Agony (1963; Washington, DC, A. Mus. Americas).

F. Aquino: Museu Manchete (Rio de Janeiro, 1982), pp. 22–9J. Maurício: ‘Abstração’ [Abstraction], Seis décadas de arte moderna na Coleção Roberto Marinho [Six decades of modern art in the Roberto Marinho Collection] (Rio de Janeiro, 1985), pp. 350–61...


Xavier Moyssén

(b Cuautitlán, Jalisco, Feb 2, 1918).

Mexican painter, draughtsman and sculptor. Although identified with the Mexican school of painting, he was also greatly influenced by oriental art—his father was Japanese and his mother Mexican—especially in his landscapes and in ink drawings in the traditional manner of Japanese artists. He experimented with diverse techniques of painting and had notable success working with high-temperature colour ceramics, for example in ...


Gustavo Navarro-Castro

(b Tucupita, Dec 1, 1938).

Venezuelan painter and printmaker. He first studied at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas ‘Cristóbal Rojas’, Caracas (1954–9). Between 1962 and 1965 he studied engraving in China; this period was of fundamental importance for perfecting his engraving techniques and for developing the use of black and white that is so characteristic of his work. Late in 1968 he travelled to Poland to study at Warsaw University, returning in 1976 to Venezuela, where he was awarded the national prize for plastic arts in 1978. Work by Palacios from this period can be seen in the Galería de Arte Nacional, Caracas, for example Diágolo Interior de la Famile Hereje (ink, crayon and charcoal on paper, 1981) and Diálogo Horizontal y la Fauna Mayor (ink, crayon and charcoal on paper, 1981). From 1986 he lived in New York. His large-scale figurative work deals constantly with recreating the world of his childhood through a personal mythology, using oneiric images and creatures....


Nelly Perazzo

(b Buenos Aires, Oct 1, 1927).

Argentine painter, graphic designer, teacher and critic. After studying in Japan from 1935 to 1951 he returned to Argentina, remaining there until his move to New York in 1963. His paintings from 1952 were in the style of Art informel, with a calligraphic emphasis demonstrating his sympathy with oriental art, but around 1960 he moved towards a more gestural abstraction in works such as Painting No. 20 (1961; Buenos Aires, Mus. A. Mod.), using thicker paint and more subdued colours.

In 1964 Sakai began to use more geometric shapes in his pictures, and he continued to do so on moving in 1965 to Mexico, where he remained until 1977. His example opened the way to geometric abstraction in Mexico, where there was no real tradition of such work. In 1976, shortly before returning to New York, he began a series of paintings using the formal repetition of parallel undulating lines of strongly contrasting colour. From ...


W. Iain Mackay

(b Barranca, nr Paramonga, April 1, 1932).

Peruvian painter. He was born to a Japanese father and a Peruvian mother. He attended the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima, where he was taught by, among others, Sabino Springuett, Ricardo Grau and Juan Manuel Ugarte Eléspuru. His work was inspired partly by travels through Ecuador, Mexico and Peru, but in its symbolism it also reflected his admiration for the works of Bosch, El Greco, Klee and Miró; with its subtle range of tones and textures and its undefined forms it also expressed elements of his Japanese heritage. In the 1960s Shinki Huamán began to explore further the use of tone as a means of conveying space, while figurative elements reflected the Surrealist interest in the subconscious (e.g. Night, Day and You, 1968; Lima, Banco de Crédito del Perú).

J. Villacorta Paredes: Pintores peruanos de la República (Lima, 1971), pp. 122–4J. A. de Lavalle and W. Lang...