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Werner Broda

[Hans von Ulm]

(fl Ulm, 1413–61).

German painter. He belonged to an artist family of which several generations were documented in 15th-century Ulm. According to municipal tax lists, ‘Ackerlin, painter’ was a master by 1413. He received payments from the masons’ lodge of Ulm Cathedral from 1415. In 1441 the cathedral lodge in Berne paid ‘Master Hans of Ulm’ for the production and delivery of stained-glass windows: this Hans is identified with Acker (see also Gothic, §VIII, 5). The Berne Passion window (1441; Berne Cathedral, chancel), his only surviving documented work, demonstrates the capabilities of mid-15th-century German glass painting in dealing with box-shaped hall-church interiors. Its Apostle figures still belong to the tradition of the ‘Soft style’, inspired by Bohemian art, while the style of their robes is reminiscent of those in the chancel windows of Ulm Cathedral. The appearance of a landscape background reveals the influence of the glass paintings (c....

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Gennaro Toscano

(b Sassoferrato, c. 1470; d Cupramontana, c. 1540).

Italian painter and possible woodcutter. He spent his early years in Sassoferrato, where his family owned a ceramics workshop. Around 1497 he probably visited the Veneto region, since his Virgin and Child with Saints (Padua, Mus. Civ.) painted that year shows the strong influence of painters active there such as Cima da Conegliano. The painting also reflects the Bolognese style of Francesco Francia and that of the Romagnian Marco Palmezzano. In Venice, Agabiti may have made woodcuts after the illustrations for Francesco Colonna’s Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (Venice, 1499). By 1502 he had returned to the Marches, where he executed a painting (untraced) for S Rocco, Jesi, the town where in 1507 he is documented as residing. After 1510 he was again in Sassoferrato, where in 1511 he signed and dated both the Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints (Sassoferrato, Gal. A. Mod. & Contemp.) and the Nativity in S Maria del Piano. In ...

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Riccardo Passoni

[Alladio, Gian Giacomo d’]

(b Alba; fl 1495–1515; d before 1528).

Italian painter. Inscriptions on his altarpieces indicate he was born in Alba. He probably trained elsewhere; his early works, with the exception of the portrait of Andrea Novelli, Bishop of Alba (Isola Bella, Mus. Borromeo), cannot be traced to a precise location. His patrons were mainly from the Paleologo court at Casale Monferrato, where he was the official painter. His earliest signed and dated work is the triptych of the Virgin Enthroned between SS John the Evangelist, James the Greater, John the Baptist and Thomas Aquinas and Two Donors (1495; Turin, Mus. Civ. A. Ant.), and it and the Virgin and Child between SS Nicholas and Martin (Rome, Pin. Capitolina) show the influence of Lombard painters, particularly Ambrogio Bergognone; some writers have suggested that this may indicate a journey through central Italy, perhaps to Rome.

By 1496 Alba’s Virgin Enthroned between SS Hugh and Anselm had been placed in the Certosa di Pavia (...

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Anna Nilsén

[Albertus Pictor]

(fl c. 1460; d after 1509).

Painter and textile designer, active in Sweden. He was probably of German origin. He married in 1473 and was a burgher of Stockholm, where he ran a workshop for liturgical embroidery. Apparently well-to-do, during the years 1501–7 he paid a higher tax than any other painter in Stockholm. About this time he also seems to have delivered an altarpiece to the Brigittine convent of Naantali (Swed. Nådendal) in Finland. He is last mentioned in 1509, when he played an instrument, probably the organ, at the Corpus Christi Guild of Stockholm.

Albert thus had many talents, but his main field must have been wall painting. His earliest works are in Södermanland and include the signed wall paintings in the church at Lid, where he also painted his self-portrait. It has been conjectured that Albert may have been an apprentice of a Master Peter, whose existence is deduced from a presumed signature in the church at Ösmo, but this theory is very tenuous. About 35 churches with paintings by Albert or his workshop are known in the provinces of Södermanland, Västmanland and Uppland. Some of the best-preserved paintings are in the churches at Floda (Södermanland), Kumla (Västmanland), Härkeberga, Härnevi, Almunge and Odensala (Uppland)....

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Maria Cristina Chiusa

(di Guido)

(b ?Ferrara, ?1390s; d before 1449).

Italian painter. His early career is hard to determine; Vasari improbably described him as a pupil of Agnolo Gaddi. He must have been well known in Ferrara before working for the condottiere Braccio Fortebraccio at Montone in Umbria, where he is documented in either 1420 or 1423. Frescoes at S Francesco in Montone depicting the Life of St Francis are almost certainly by him. In the same year he was in Urbino, where Vasari reported that he was working on frescoes (destr.) at S Francesco. The frescoes in the chapel of S Martino in S Maria, Carpi (the Sagra di Carpi), are of a similar date. They show a style in which formal elements deriving from Serafino Serafini are put into a Late Gothic context, under the influence of work by Gentile da Fabriano seen in central Italy. Other work by Alberti from between 1419 and 1431 includes the triptych of the ...

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Paul Davies and David Hemsoll

(b Genoa, Feb 14, 1404; d Rome, April 1472).

Italian architect, sculptor, painter, theorist and writer. The arts of painting, sculpture and architecture were, for Alberti, only three of an exceptionally broad range of interests, for he made his mark in fields as diverse as family ethics, philology and cryptography. It is for his contribution to the visual arts, however, that he is chiefly remembered. Alberti single-handedly established a theoretical foundation for the whole of Renaissance art with three revolutionary treatises, on painting, sculpture and architecture, which were the first works of their kind since Classical antiquity. Moreover, as a practitioner of the arts, he was no less innovative. In sculpture he seems to have been instrumental in popularizing, if not inventing, the portrait medal, but it was in architecture that he found his métier. Building on the achievements of his immediate predecessors, Filippo Brunelleschi and Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, he reinterpreted anew the architecture of antiquity and introduced compositional formulae that have remained central to classical design ever since....

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Mathieu Hériard Dubreuil

[Gil Master]

(b ?Mallorca; fl 1408–47).

Spanish painter. First documented in Valencia in 1408, he was active as a painter in Barcelona in 1415, in Mallorca in 1420 (described as ‘painter of Majorca’), in Valencia between 1421 and 1432 and in Mallorca from 1433; he is last recorded in Mallorca in 1447. Of his documented commissions, only two fragmentary works can be identified: the wings of an altarpiece of St Michael (Lyon, Mus. B.-A.), painted in 1421 for the town of Jérica (Valencia), and two predella panels of the Death of the Virgin and St Thomas Receiving the Virgin’s Girdle from an altarpiece of the Virgin executed in 1442 in Mallorca (Alcudia, Mus. Parroq.). Other works have been attributed to Alcanyis on the basis of stylistic comparisons with these panels, and he has been identified as the Gil Master, an artist named after the fragmentary altarpiece—consisting of an Ascension and St Vincent (both New York, Hisp. Soc. America) and a ...

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Jeannette Towey

(b Göttweich, Austria, c. 1430; d Ascoli Piceno, the Marches, between Sept 18, 1497 and Nov 22, 1498).

Italian painter of Austrian birth. He is first documented in 1477 in his adopted home of Ascoli Piceno. A badly preserved fresco of the Virgin and Child with Saints in the church of the Madonna delle Rose in Torre San Patrizio, near Ascoli, has been attributed to him; it is dated 1466, providing possible evidence of his presence in the area two years before his master, Carlo Crivelli, was first documented there. Alemanno’s style was based on Crivelli’s work of the 1470s and hardly evolved at all throughout his career. His expressionistic, anatomical distortion may be derived from Giorgio Schiavone. The Virgin and Child Enthroned and the St Lucy (both Montefortino, Pin. Com.), which formed part of a dismembered polyptych dating from c. 1470, are typical of his work, with their dark outlines and strong hatching in both shadows and highlights.

Alemanno produced mostly polyptychs with the Virgin and Child enthroned, framed by standing saints on separate panels, or small-scale, half-length Virgin and Child pictures, ultimately deriving in form from similar compositions by Donatello. An exception is the ...

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Cecilia Alessi

(b ?Montalcino, 1421; d Siena, after 1491).

Italian painter. In 1453 he was living in Siena in the district called the Chompagnia di Realto et Chartagine, where he had a painter’s studio (‘buttiba de l’arte de dipentori’; Siena, Pal. Piccolomini, Archv Stato, Lira, MS. 139.c.50). He was chiefly employed by the Sienese Republic but also worked for Pope Pius II in 1460 (see Müntz), for the diplomat Leonardo Benvoglienti, for the Ottieri della Ciaia family and for Sinolfo di Castellottieri. In 1455 Alfei was paid by the magistrates of Siena for his painting of Monte Argentario near Orbetello (Siena, Pal. Piccolomini, Archv Stato, Balia, MS. 1.c.215), work that Alessi suggests may be recognized in the Town by the Sea and the Castle by the Sea (both Siena, Pin. N.), previously attributed to Ambrogio Lorenzetti and to Sassetta. In 1473 the Sienese Republic recommended Alfei to the papal legate, Cardinal Roverella, on the occasion of the artist’s visit to the Marches; the Cardinal’s reply confirms that Alfei executed works there. Alessi and Scapecchi have proposed that the anonymous ...

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Alessandro Conti

(b Florence, before March 12, 1446; d Lucca, 1496).

Italian painter and illuminator. He was a Camaldolite monk; his appointment, from 1470, as Abbot of Agnano, Arezzo, and Val di Castro, Fabriano, was disputed, since he never resided at either abbey. His work is known from a signed triptych of the Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints (1460–67) in SS Martino e Bartolomeo at Tifi, Arezzo (in situ). It shows the influence of the most fashionable Florentine artists of the time, such as Neri di Bicci, and such artists from the Marches as Giovanni Boccati and Gerolamo di Giovanni da Camerino. The most noteworthy aspect of the altarpiece, however, is its chromatic quality. This undoubtedly derives from the work of Piero della Francesca and has made it possible to identify Amedei as the collaborator to whom Piero entrusted the small predella scenes and pilaster figures of the polyptych of the Misericordia (Sansepolcro, Pin.), a work that can be dated by the final payments made in ...

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Amund  

Anna Nilsén

(fl 1494).

Swedish painter. He signed the wall paintings in the nave of the church at Södra Råda, Värmland, in 1494. Wall paintings in some 20 churches in Götaland have been attributed to him on the basis of stylistic comparison with the works at Södra Råda. In 1494 Amund may have been at the end of his career; his style has many features characteristic of the first half of the 15th century, as does the iconographic content of his work, with such didactic themes as the Creed and the Seven Deadly Sins. His rather naive drawing style and robust sense of humour make his paintings very expressive. It has been suggested that Amund may have been a monk, but this cannot be proved.

B. G. Söderberg: Svenska kyrkomålningar från medeltiden [Swedish church paintings from the Middle Ages] (Stockholm, 1951), pp. 191–200 Å. Nisbeth: Bildernas predikan [The pictorial sermon] (Stockholm, 1986), pp. 141–7...

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Patrick M. de Winter

(fl 1456–91).

?Italian painter, active in France. His work is known only through documents. He is first recorded at the court of Charles, Duke of Orléans, in Blois in January 1456, when he was paid for painting two chariots with the motto Rien ne m’est plus and for including gilt red and blue curtains, for the use of the Duke’s wife, Mary of Cleves (1426–86). In 1457 André coloured and gilded sculptures of SS Hadrian and Sebastian by Jean Hervieu, which the Duchess gave to a chapel dedicated to St Catherine at Champbourdon (Loiret). In 1471 he provided at a cost of 110 livres a large altarpiece of the Birth of the Virgin installed in the chapel of the château of Montils-les-Tours. In 1472 André sold to the Duchess for 100 écus a gilt and polychrome altarpiece (‘à ymages enlevez’) of the Passion, which she intended for the chapel at Coucy-le-Château. According to Durrieu, André also supplied a panel of the ...

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Gaudenz Freuler

In 

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Marco Collareta

( fl c. 1475–?1519).

Italian engraver and painter. A painter named Zoan Andrea is recorded in a letter of September 1475 written to Ludovico II Gonzaga, 2nd Marchese of Mantua, by Simone Ardizoni da Reggio, a painter and engraver. Simone claimed that he and Zoan Andrea had been brutally assaulted on the orders of Andrea Mantegna. Mantegna was enraged to hear that the two had remade some of his prints. Their exact crime is not clear, but it has been suggested that they had re-engraved Mantegna’s original plates. Given this connection with Mantegna’s circle of engravers, it is likely that Zoan Andrea can be identified with the anonymous artist who signed himself za on 20 engravings, the earliest of which show a strong dependence on Mantegna, both in technique and composition. The three monogrammed engravings closest to Mantegna are of Hercules and Deianira (b. 2509.005), Judith and Holofernes (b. 2509.001) and an ...

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William Hood

[Fra Giovanni da Fiesole; Guido di Piero da Mugello]

(b nr Vicchio, c. 1395–1400; d Rome, Feb 18, 1455).

Italian painter, illuminator and Dominican friar. He rose from obscure beginnings as a journeyman illuminator to the renown of an artist whose last major commissions were monumental fresco cycles in St Peter’s and the Vatican Palace, Rome. He reached maturity in the early 1430s, a watershed in the history of Florentine art. None of the masters who had broken new ground with naturalistic painting in the 1420s was still in Florence by the end of that decade. The way was open for a new generation of painters, and Fra Angelico was the dominant figure among several who became prominent at that time, including Paolo Uccello, Fra Filippo Lippi and Andrea del Castagno. By the early 1430s Fra Angelico was operating the largest and most prestigious workshop in Florence. His paintings offered alternatives to the traditional polyptych altarpiece type and projected the new naturalism of panel painting on to a monumental scale. In fresco projects of the 1440s and 1450s, both for S Marco in Florence and for S Peter’s and the Vatican Palace in Rome, Fra Angelico softened the typically astringent and declamatory style of Tuscan mural decoration with the colouristic and luminescent nuances that characterize his panel paintings. His legacy passed directly to the second half of the 15th century through the work of his close follower Benozzo Gozzoli and indirectly through the production of Domenico Veneziano and Piero della Francesca. Fra Angelico was undoubtedly the leading master in Rome at mid-century, and had the survival rate of 15th-century Roman painting been greater, his significance for such later artists as Melozzo da Forlì and Antoniazzo Romano might be clearer than it is....

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Pere Freixas

(b Girona [Sp. Gerona], 1409; d Girona, 1452).

Catalan painter. He was trained in the workshop of the Borrassà family and collaborated with some of its members, working principally in the city of Girona and its surroundings. He had two sons, also painters, Miguel Antigó (fl 1452–6) and Rafael Antigó (fl 1458), as well as a daughter, Margarita. He is first mentioned in 1432, when he painted the altarpiece of St Catherine for the chapel of that name in Girona Cathedral and also completed an altarpiece of the Virgin, begun by Francesc Borrassà I (d 1427), for the chapel of Vilademany Castle. In 1435 he painted an altarpiece for the chapel of S Roc in the parish church of Vilablareix and another of St Andrew for the church at Sant Gregori. His last documented works are altarpieces for the churches of St Vicenç at Espinelves and of St Vicenç at Maià de Montcal (...

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Helen Geddes

(di Ancona)

(fl Ancona, 1472–1510).

Italian painter. His only autograph work is the signed and dated altarpiece of the Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints (1472; Pittsburgh, PA, Carnegie Inst.) from S Francesco delle Scale, Ancona. Other paintings attributed to him on the basis of this work include the Massimo Altarpiece (main panel, Rome, Pal. Massimo alle Colonne), a lunette of SS Lucy, Anthony, and Bernardino (Montefortino, Pin. Com.), St Mary Magdalene, St Francis (both Oxford, Ashmolean), a Pietà (Jesi, Pin. Civ.), and an Annunciation with Saints (Urbino, Pal. Ducale). His works are indebted to Francesco Squarcione, Carlo Crivelli, Marco Zoppo, and Cosimo Tura. The influence of Piero della Francesca is also apparent in the light and landscape of the autograph altarpiece, which has figures of great inner tension and strange beauty.

G. Hedberg: ‘In Favour of Nicola di Maestro Antonio d’Ancona [sic]’, Minneapolis Institute of Arts Bulletin, vol. 62 (1975–6), pp. 84–99 D. Pennacchioli...