1-20 of 1,501 results  for:

  • Painting and Drawing x
  • 1600–1700 x
Clear all

Article

(b Cologne, 1552; d Prague, March 4, 1615).

German painter and draughtsman, active also in Italy and Bohemia. One of the foremost painters of the circle gathered at the Prague court of Emperor Rudolf II (see Habsburg, House of family, §I, (10)), he synthesized Italian and Netherlandish influences in his portraits and erudite allegories.

Hans’s surname is derived from his father’s native town. According to Karel van Mander, he probably studied c. 1567–73 with the portrait painter Georg Jerrigh, who had trained in Antwerp. Von Aachen subsequently became a member of the Cologne guild of painters. He travelled to Italy c. 1574, first working in Venice as a copyist and for the painter Gaspar Rem (1542–1615/17), before going in 1575 to Rome, where he copied antique sculptures and the works of Italian masters; he also painted an Adoration of the Shepherds for the church of Il Gesù in Rome (1580s; untraced, but known from an engraving (...

Article

Eleanor Sims

[Shaykh ‛Abbāsī]

(fl 1650–84).

Persian painter. He was one of a small group of artists working in Iran in the second half of the 17th century who painted in an eclectic manner that drew on European images and Mughal Indian styles (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(a)). He appears to have been the earliest of this group, which included Muhammad Zaman and ‛Aliquli Jabbadar, to integrate these ‘exotic’ elements into his work. He invariably inscribed his work with the punning Persian phrase Bahā girift chū gardīd Shaykh ‛Abbāsī (‘It [He] acquired worth when he became Shaykh ‛Abbasi’). The honorific it contains (‛Abbasi; also a type of coin, whence the pun) suggests that he was in the service of Shah ‛Abbas II (reg 1642–66). He also signed paintings during the reign of Shah Sulayman (reg 1666–94).

Shaykh ‛Abbasi illustrated manuscripts and painted miniatures on single leaves of paper and, almost certainly, on lacquered papier-mâché objects, such as penboxes and mirror cases. More than 15 of his known paintings are signed, 8 in one manuscript (Baltimore, MD, Walters A. Mus., MS. W.668), and 25 can be attributed to him. His subjects include portraits of Safavid and Mughal rulers and of the Virgin and Child copied from European prints. His style is unmistakable, combining sure draughtsmanship with pale, transparent colour washes. Unlike Muhammad Zaman, he had a minimal interest in illusionism, restricting himself to darkening the edges of trees and buildings along one side (usually the right). His figures, especially heads and faces, are Indian in appearance as well as in the stippled manner in which they are drawn. His later pictures seem more Indian than his earlier work; Zebrowski proposed a connection with Golconda painting (...

Article

Ann Sutherland Harris

(b Città di Castello, c. 1600–05; d Rome, 1656).

Italian painter and mosaicist. He trained in the Roman studio of Cavaliere d’Arpino. He is principally known for executing fresco decorations in several chapels in Rome to designs by Bernini. Independent commissions, such as the frescoes depicting the Life of Charlemagne (1635–7; Rome, Vatican, Sala di Carlo Magno), reveal, however, that despite his collaboration with Bernini and later with Cortona, his preference was for a restrained classical style, close to that of more conservative contemporaries such as Andrea Camassei and Giovanni Francesco Romanelli. He assisted Bernini with the vault of the Raimondi Chapel in S Pietro in Montorio (1642–4) and that of the Pio Chapel in S Agostino (c. 1644–5). He also painted the vision of clouds and angels in the vault above Bernini’s marble group of St Teresa in Ecstasy (c. 1647; Rome, S Maria della Vittoria, Cornaro Chapel). In 1650 he executed independently the decorative frescoes on the ceiling and side walls of the sacristy of S Spirito in Sassia, Rome. He also executed mosaics in St Peter’s, after his own designs and those of ...

Article

‛Abid  

Jeffrey A. Hughes

[‛Ābid]

(fl c. 1615–58).

Indian miniature painter, son of Aqa Riza and brother of Abu’l-Hasan. Both his father and his brother worked for the Mughal emperor Jahangir (reg 1605–27). Although ‛Abid probably began working in the royal atelier c. 1615, all of his known signed works are datable to the reign of Shah Jahan (reg 1628–58). His style varied somewhat from that of his celebrated older brother, but ‛Abid’s work also stayed within the strict formalism of the Persian-derived courtly concerns for symmetry, technical perfection and minute detail. Within these constraints, ‛Abid’s portraits of court figures are injected with an animation that creates characterization of individual personalities and intensifies the narrative. ‛Abid was an accomplished colourist, whose vivid use of colour seems to contrast with the realism of his subjects, primarily battle and court scenes. His known paintings are relatively few; most are from the Padshāhnāma of c. 1636–58 (Windsor Castle, Royal Lib., MS. HB.149, fols 94...

Article

C. J. A. Wansink

In 

Article

J. P. Losty

(b 1588; fl 1600–30).

Indian painter.

In 1618 the Mughal emperor Jahangir (reg 1605–27) wrote in his memoirs that Abu’l-Hasan’s ‘work was perfect…At the present time he has no rival or equal… Truly he has become Nadir al-Zaman (“Wonder of the age”)’. Some of this artist’s paintings are among the greatest in Mughal art. He was born in Jahangir’s household in 1588, the son of the erstwhile Safavid artist Aqa Riza. Abu’l-Hasan’s earliest known work, a drawing based on Albrecht Dürer’s St John and executed when he was only 12 (Oxford, Ashmolean), already shows in its naturalism the trend of his mature work. A single painting in a manuscript of the fable-book Anvār-i Suhaylī (‘Lights of Canopus’), probably done in 1604 (London, BL, Add. MS. 18579), develops the naturalism of his portraiture but still contains a Safavid landscape based on his father’s work; his sense of respect for the latter is indicated by his signing himself here ‘the dust of Riza’s threshold’. He maintained throughout his career the meticulous finish of the Safavid style (...

Article

Article

Bernhard Schnackenburg

In 

Article

(bapt Antwerp, Jan 16, 1587; d Antwerp, Oct 30, 1661).

Flemish painter. He was the son of the composer Emanuel Adriaenssen and brother to the painters Vincent Adriaenssen (1595–1675) and Niclaes Adriaenssen (1598–1648/9). In 1597 he was apprenticed to Artus van Laeck (d 1616) and in 1610 became a master in the painters’ guild. In 1632 he took on Philips Milcx as apprentice, and in 1635 he painted the coats of arms of the 17 provinces on the triumphal arches in honour of the new governor. Adriaenssen’s many signed and often dated oil paintings on wood and canvas are all still-lifes, mainly of food on tables with copper- and tinware, glass and pottery (e.g. Still-life with Fish, 1660; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). There are four paintings of vases of flowers, but vases of flowers, as well as single flowers on the table, also appear in other still-life combinations. Only two canvases are known in which he worked with figure painters: a garland of flowers around a painting of the ...

Article

Article

B. P. J. Broos

(b Delft, 1627; d ?Amsterdam, after 1687).

Dutch painter. He specialized in still-lifes, as did his uncle and teacher Evert van Aelst of Delft (1602–57), whose name survives only in inventories and who died in poverty. Willem’s earliest known work, a Still-life with Fruit (1642; destr., ex-Suermondt-Ludwig-Mus., Aachen), is likely to have been influenced by his uncle’s style. On 9 November 1643 he enrolled in the Delft painters’ guild and from 1645 to 1649 was in France, where he painted the Still-life with Fruit (1646; Stockholm, E. Perman priv. col.). From 1649 to 1656 he worked in Florence as court painter to Ferdinando II de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. There he met his fellow countrymen Matthias Withoos and Otto Marseus van Schrieck, the latter also a still-life painter, who probably influenced van Aelst’s detailed and smooth style, and with whom van Aelst returned to the Netherlands in 1656—first briefly to Delft before settling in Amsterdam in ...

Article

D. Brême

(b Paris, 1640; d Copenhagen, Nov 16, 1715).

French painter, also active in Denmark and England. He was probably a pupil of Jacob Ferdinand Voet (1639–?1700) and practised chiefly as a portrait painter. Having failed with his first submission to the Académie Royale in 1672, he was received (reçu) as a member in 1675 on submission of portraits of the sculptors François Girardon (untraced) and Michel Anguier (Versailles, Château). As a Protestant, he fled to London (where he became a denizen in October 1681) and as a result was expelled from the Académie Royale in 1682. He may also have travelled to the Netherlands but by 1685 had settled in Copenhagen, where he became chief court painter to Christian V (reg 1670–99) and then to Frederick IV (reg 1699–1730). Most of his portraits for the Danish court were destroyed in 1794, in the fire at Christianborg Castle. In 1699 he provided painted decorations for the funeral of Christian V, and between ...

Article

Hana Seifertová

(b Regensburg, 1667; d Regensburg, 1719).

German painter. He travelled to England, the Netherlands, France and Italy, working for longer periods in Rome, Naples and Augsburg. He was strongly influenced by French landscape painters active in Italy, such as Gaspard Dughet and Claude Lorrain. In Agricola’s paintings the balanced arrangement of the picturesque landscape elements creates a lucid pictorial structure, and unusual light effects, such as twilight or the darkness before a storm, are used to convey a particular mood. The small scale of his figures expresses the contrast between human frailty and the forces of nature. He painted with lively local colours, especially ochres and deep greens for the rich tones of earth and vegetation. The multicoloured costumes of his figural staffage provide pictorial accents and reveal the romantic orientation of his paintings. Scenes of country people at work, for example Landscape with a Millstone (Dresden, Gemäldegal. Alte Meister), express his yearning for a return to nature. Paintings representing the life of nomadic Orientals, such as ...

Article

Catherine R. Puglisi

(b Bologna, March 17, 1578; d Bologna, Oct 4, 1660).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was a distinguished artist of the Bolognese school, deeply influenced by Annibale Carracci’s classicism, who worked in Rome as well as Bologna, painting altarpieces, frescoes and and cabinet pictures. His fame rests on his idyllic landscapes and small mythological pictures, the lyrical qualities of which earned him the soubriquet ‘the Anacreon of painters’.

The 12-year-old Albani began his studies in the Bolognese studio of the Flemish-born painter Denys Calvaert, after which he transferred (c. 1595) to the Carracci Accademia degli Incamminati, also in Bologna, where life drawing and theoretical discussion predominated. For the next four years he studied with Ludovico Carracci and through him obtained his first public commissions. These were for Bolognese palazzi and churches, such as the oratory of S Colombano, where his fresco of the Repentance of St Peter (c. 1597–8) closely imitates the dramatic and emotional qualities of Ludovico’s manner, particularly in the expressive figure of the apostle and in the nocturnal lighting. The oratory’s altarpiece, painted in the same period, showing the ...

Article

Enrique Valdivièso

(b Córdoba, 1643; d Madrid, 1680).

Spanish painter. He served his apprenticeship in Córdoba, where he was a pupil of Antonio del Castillo, and completed his training in Madrid in the workshop of Velázquez. He wrote a biography of Velázquez, now lost, which was used by Palomino de Castro y Velasco. Apart from brief visits to Córdoba, Alfaro spent his life in Madrid, and he was associated with the court. He painted religious scenes, but his principal activity was portraiture (both large-scale and miniature), in which he was particularly successful, developing a style influenced by Velázquez. Although he was a prolific artist, few of his paintings have survived. While young he painted a series of works depicting the life of St Francis for the cloister of the convent of S Francisco in Córdoba and also an Assumption of the Virgin for the convent of the Discalced Carmelites. For the episcopal palace at Córdoba he painted a portrait of ...

Article

Robert Skelton

[Muḥammad ‛Alī Muzahhib]

(fl c. 1600–10).

Persian painter, active in India. He has been identified from three inscribed works bearing his name: a Seated Poet (Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.), a Seated Youth (Washington, DC, Freer) and the drawing of A Girl in the Binney Collection (San Diego, CA, Mus. A.). The latter, signed Muhammad ‛Ali Jahangir Shahi with the presumed regnal date 5 (ad 1610–11), shows that he worked for the Mughal emperor Jahangir (reg 1605–27) early in his reign. The painting of a Young Prince Riding (Geneva, Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan priv. col.) has also been attributed to him. This is close in style to the painting in the Freer Gallery of Art, and the two share a competent but bland indebtedness to the work of Farrukh Beg. The equestrian portrait of Ibrahim ‛Adil Shah II, attributed to Muhammad ‛Ali by S. C. Welch, is now known to be a signed work of ...

Article

Simon Lee and Guilhem Scherf

French family of artists. (1) Etienne Allegrain was a landscape painter who worked predominantly in the tradition of classical scenes established in the mid-17th century by Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain. His brother Jean-Baptiste Allegrain (1644–before 1714) was a sculptor, while his son Gabriel Allegrain (i) (1679–1748) was also a landscape painter, whose works (e.g. Landscape with Apollo and the Sibyl, Tours, Mus. B.-A.) can be distinguished from those of his father only with difficulty. Gabriel’s son (2) Christophe-Gabriel Allegrain was a sculptor who was much influenced by his more illustrious contemporary and brother-in-law Jean-Baptiste Pigalle. Christophe-Gabriel’s own son Gabriel Allegrain (ii) (1733–after 1779) was a sculptor who worked in the naval dockyard at Rochefort.

Simon Lee

(b Paris, 1644; d Paris, April 2, 1736).

Painter and draughtsman. He was possibly the pupil of Henri Mauperché and in 1676 was admitted (...

Article

Eleonora Villa

(b ?Cantiano, 1615–20; d ?Gubbio, after 1679).

Italian painter. A pupil of Cavaliere d’Arpino, he was attracted early on by the art of Pietro da Cortona, although the full Baroque remained alien to him. He has often been confused with his father, Flaminio Allegrini (?1587–?1663), who was also a painter. The early sources state that Francesco worked in Savona Cathedral and in the Durazzi and Gavotti palaces in Genoa, yet it remains unclear whether these commissions should be attributed to him or to his father. Francesco worked mostly in Rome, where many of his canvases and frescoes are preserved in churches and palaces. Around 1650 he executed the St Catherine altarpiece in the church of SS Domenico e Sisto, Rome (in situ). Between 1652 and 1654 he was working on frescoes in the Speralli Chapel in the cathedral at Gubbio. In 1653 he took part in an important project to decorate the church of S Marco, Rome, under the supervision of ...

Article

Vitor Serrão

(b Lisbon, 1634; d Lisbon, 1695).

Portuguese painter. He was a member of the Irmandade de S Lucas, the guild of painters in Lisbon. An able portrait painter, Almeida won the praise of Felix da Costa. He painted the portrait of Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich (Hinchingbrooke House, Cambs) in 1663, when the English admiral and diplomat visited Lisbon for the wedding of Catherine of Braganza; the Earl described the portrait in his diary as ‘an extraordinary like Picture’. Almeida was a knight of the royal household and was in contact with such painters as António de Sousa (fl 1658–87), court painter to Peter II. He also assessed private collections, notably that of the Bishop of the Algarve, José de Menezes, about which he wrote a report in 1680. He is also known to have painted religious subject-matter, but these works are untraced.

F. da Costa Meesen: Antiguidade da arte da pintura (MS.; 1696); ed. ...

Article

(b Brussels, before 1573; d Brussels, between Jan 15, 1625 and Dec 11, 1626).

Flemish painter. The earliest document referring to him is a receipt dated 26 May 1593 for the gilding and decoration of the Garnier family monument in Notre-Dame-du- Sablon in Brussels. The records of the Brussels painters’ guild, which survive only from 1599 onwards, do not mention his admission as a master but show that he took on four apprentices between 1599 and 1625, the last being Pieter van der Borcht. In 1599–1600 he entered the service of Archduke Albert and Archduchess Isabella, who entrusted him with many important commissions. In 1603 and 1604 van Alsloot received two payments from them for the design and weaving of two-and-a-half laps of tapestry with grotesques. This has often been taken, erroneously, to indicate that he held a prominent place in the development of Brussels tapestry manufacturing.

Like Jacques d’Arthois, Lucas Achtschellinck (1626–99) and Lodewyk de Vadder, van Alsloot belonged to the school of Brussels landscape artists who drew much of their inspiration from the Forêt de Soignes. In several of van Alsloot’s works, which are generally topographically accurate, it is possible to identify places that still survive, especially near the abbeys of Groenendael and Ter Kameren. Some paintings, for example ...