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Francis Summers

(b West Hartlepool, Cleveland, Jan 9, 1935).

English painter and printmaker. He studied at West Hartlepool College of Art (1950–55) and at the Royal Academy Schools, London, from 1957 to 1961. He taught at Goldsmiths’ College, London, for much of the 1980s and 90s. An initial interest in the paintings of Walter Richard Sickert gave way to influences from the late work of Picasso and paintings by the New York artists associated with Abstract Expressionism. Beattie’s mature work can be situated within the context of the abstraction practised by other English painters such as John Hoyland, Albert Irvin and Gillian Ayres, all of whose sensual and physical use of paint owes some allegiance to the recent American tradition. Beattie’s work of the 1980s was very gestural and characterized by its use of dark colours, as in Circus (1984; London, Tate). He later became interested in dividing the pictorial space into defined sections. The abstract forms that Beattie used were often organized into shapes resembling ziggurats, as in ...


S. Kontha


(b Nagyszeben [now Sibiu, Romania], Aug 13, 1906; d Budapest, Jan 27, 1990).

Hungarian sculptor, medallist, draughtsman, engraver and painter. In 1922 he moved from Transylvania to Győr, Hungary, where, while preparing to become a painter, he learnt the craft of goldsmithing and engraving from his father. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts, Budapest, in 1928–9. He also spent considerable time during these years in Italy and southern France. His taste was influenced mainly by Classical work. The drawings and paintings from this period can be regarded as preparation for his career as a sculptor, although it was not until the early 1930s that he took up full-time sculpting. At first he produced copper embossings. In 1938 a trip to Transylvania inspired him to create larger copper reliefs, such as Women Hired to Mourn (1939; Pécs, Pannonius Mus.). His first stone statue Mother (Győr, Xantus János Mus.) was sculpted in 1933. Partly because of the nature of the material, and also because of his deep knowledge of ancient Egyptian and Greek sculpture, his figure sculptures are built from basic, essential forms. His success as a sculptor enabled him in ...


Hilary Pyle

(b Dublin, Nov 27, 1936).

Irish painter, sculptor and printmaker. He studied at the National College of Art in Dublin and St Martin’s School of Art and Goldsmith’s College in London. His early paintings, which included landscapes such as Winter (c. 1966; Dublin, Allied Irish Bank) and life-size nude self-portraits, were indebted to German Expressionism and to the work of Alberto Giacometti in their warm-toned colours and loose application of paint or pastel. These were followed by painted and sculpted portraits of his wife and friends in bronze or fibreglass, such as Head of L.T. (1971; Dublin, Dawson Gal.). From 1971 he concentrated on a recurring image of a small, primitive sculpture as a sign for himself, reduced in mocking fashion to a formalized bust or head. He related this fascination with identity to the character of Don Quixote, for example in the painted wood sculpture Don Quixote (1980–81; Dublin, Allied Irish Bank); sometimes he conceived of this image as two selves, as in the etching ...


Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Sept 16, 1781; d Guatemala City, Nov 21, 1845).

Guatemalan painter, printmaker, and medallist. He entered the mint in 1795 as an apprentice engraver but on the recommendation of its director, Pedro Garci-Aguirre, also became Master Corrector at the Escuela de Dibujo de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, Guatemala City, in 1796, holding the post until 1804. He continued working at the mint until 1809 and demonstrated outstanding skill both as a medallist and engraver of coins and as an engraver and etcher. He returned to the mint in 1823 as second engraver, remaining in the post until his death.

Despite the quality of his work as a printmaker and medallist, Cabrera gained artistic recognition especially as a miniature painter, working mostly in watercolour on ivory in a meticulous technique. He produced some miniatures on religious themes and others of birds, but the majority, measuring no more than 50 mm in height or width, were portraits of members of the Guatemalan aristocracy and bourgeoisie. It is not known exactly how many he produced, but from the middle of the 1830s he began to number them, starting from 500; the highest known number of the approximately 200 authenticated miniatures is 745. Although he suffered some illness, he was most productive during the last five years of his life. An evolution can be discerned from his earliest works, dating from ...


Silvia Glaser and Werner Wilhelm Schnabel



Philip Attwood

(b Munich, Feb 28, 1865; d Oberammergau, Aug 17, 1954).

German painter, medallist, designer and illustrator. He trained as a painter in the Munich Akademie from 1884, and initially won fame in this art with large decorative schemes on mythological or religious themes (e.g. Bacchanal, c. 1888; Munich, Villa Schülein) and portraits painted in a broad, realistic manner (e.g. Elise Meier-Siel, 1889; Munich, Schack-Gal.). He taught at the Munich Kunstgewerbeschule from 1902 to 1910. In 1905 he taught himself die-engraving and began making struck and cast medals, producing in all some 200, which combine his decorative abilities with the harsher style of his younger contemporaries (e.g. the bronze medal of Anton von Knoezinger, 1907; see 1985 exh. cat., no. 23). In 1907 and 1927 he produced models for coinage. Dasio also worked as a poster designer and book illustrator, as well as designing for stained glass and jewellery. The decorative symbolism of his earlier work in black and white (e.g. the cover for ...


Anna Szinyei Merse

(b Nagyenyed [now Aiud, Romania], Feb 6, 1895; d Budapest, Feb 22, 1944).

Hungarian painter, printmaker and writer. After a difficult childhood and military service during World War I, he learnt silversmithing and drawing in Dés (now Dej, Romania). From 1921 he worked in a factory in Budapest. He studied drawing in the evenings at the School of Applied Arts, then at the Free School of Artur Podolni-Volkmann (1891–1943), Budapest. Between 1924 and 1927 he worked in Milan, where he visited the museums and learnt etching, later exhibiting in Florence. As a socialist he considered art to be part of the ideological struggle. His first committed work, Fourth Order, is a series of linocuts produced soon after his return home and showing the impact of Frans Masereel. In 1928 Dési Huber held a small exhibition, and he subsequently joined the left-wing artists’ group, KÚT (Képzőművészek Új Társasága: New Society of Fine Artists), which was active from 1924 to 1949. He perfected his techniques and studied art theory, but he never gave up his money-earning activity as a factory hand....


(b Amsterdam, Aug 19, 1621; d Amsterdam, bur Sept 29, 1674).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was the son of the goldsmith Jan Pietersz. van den Eeckhout and ‘a great friend’ as well as a pupil of Rembrandt, according to Houbraken, who commented that van den Eeckhout painted in the style of his master throughout his career. This is certainly true of van den Eeckhout’s (biblical) history paintings, but less so of either his portraits, which gradually displayed more Flemish elegance, or his genre pieces (from 1650), in which he followed various trends; he adapted his style to suit his subject with sensitive versatility. He was also a gifted colourist and an artist of great imagination, superior in both these respects to such better-known Rembrandt pupils as Ferdinand Bol and Nicolaes Maes. Moreover, he was extremely productive, and there is at least one dated painting for virtually every year between 1641 and 1674. In addition, he created a large body of drawings comprising histories, figures, landscapes and genre scenes executed in various media, including watercolour. He also made several etchings, mostly studies of heads, such as the ...


(b Paris, Oct 1, 1912; d Paris, Sept 10, 1998).

French painter and printmaker. He worked first as an apprentice draughtsman and then as an unskilled metalworker. Having attended evening classes, though otherwise self-taught, he took part in the first Maison de la Culture show in Paris in 1936. He exhibited several works at the Salon des Surindépendants in 1937, such as the Spanish Martyr (1937; artist’s col., see 1981 exh. cat., p. 51), which showed his disgust with the Spanish Civil War (1936–9). The same year he exhibited at the important L’Art cruel show at the Galerie Billiet-Vorms in Paris. Organized by Jean Cassou, this was designed as a forum for politically-engaged art, especially that dealing with the Spanish conflict.

Fougeron was mobilized in 1938 and again in 1939, and he was taken prisoner before his demobilization in 1940. On his return to Paris he joined the Resistance, setting up a clandestine print works in 1941...


Christiane Andersson

(b Solothurn, c. 1485; d ?Basle, 1527–9).

Swiss draughtsman, goldsmith, die-cutter, engraver, woodcut and stained-glass designer, painter and glass painter. He was the most original and gifted artist of the early Renaissance in German-speaking Switzerland. His highly imaginative drawings, created as independent works of art, are works of exceptional quality, vitality, expressiveness and often humour. For northern European art, Graf played an important role in the liberation of drawing from its traditionally subsidiary status as preparatory study for works of art in other media.

Graf was trained as a goldsmith by his father, Hug Graf (d 1527–30), and remained active in this profession throughout his career. Although almost none of his goldsmith work is preserved, examples such as the silver engraved plates (1519; London, BM; Zurich, Schweizer. Landesmus.) from a reliquary bust executed for a monastery in the canton of Lucerne are of a high quality. He received additional training (1507–8) from the goldsmith ...


Paula Furby

(b Adelaide, Dec 8, 1919; d Adelaide, May 11, 2004).

Australian painter, printmaker, enamellist and teacher. Hick studied at the Girls’ Central Art School and South Australian School of Arts and Crafts (SASAC) (1934–7) and Adelaide Teachers College (1939–40). She later taught at SASAC between 1941–5 and 1962–4. Hick was a leader in the modernization of South Australian cultural life in the 1940s. She was a founder-member of the Contemporary Art Society (CAS) and the Adelaide Theatre Group. She helped to revive printmaking in Adelaide and she also exhibited jointly with Jeffrey Smart in Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney and with the CAS, the Royal South Australian Society of Arts and with Dorrit Black’s Group 9.

Hick studied and travelled in London and the Continent in 1948–50 and made a study tour of the USA in 1968. She then lived in Adelaide except for 12 years in Brisbane between 1978–90. Her work is figurative, often with humorous or trenchant social comment. Her major theme was the dispossession of indigenous Australians. Hick’s art is notable for its technical brilliance and depth of feeling expressed (e.g. ...


Octavia Nicholson


(b Bristol, June 7, 1965).

English sculptor, installation artist, painter, and printmaker. He was a leading figure in the group of ‘Young British Artists’ who emerged, predominantly in London, in the 1990s. He studied at Goldsmiths’ College, London (1986–9), and in 1988 curated the exhibition Freeze, which provided a new platform to show his own work and that of many of his Goldsmiths’ contemporaries, some of whom have since become internationally renowned. His works are explicitly concerned with the fundamental dilemmas of human existence; his constant themes have included the fragility of life, society’s reluctance to confront death, and the nature of love and desire, often clothed in titles which exist somewhere between the naive and the disingenuous. The works typically make use of media that challenge conventional notions of high art and aesthetic value and subject-matter that critiques the values of late 20th-century culture.

Dead animals are frequently used in Hirst’s installations, forcing viewers to consider their own and society’s attitudes to death. Containers such as aquariums and vitrines are also hallmarks of his work; reflecting the formal influence of Minimalism and certain sculptures by Jeff Koons, they are used as devices to impose control on the fragile subject-matter contained within them and as barriers between the viewer and the viewed. ...


Shannen Hill

(b Dulwich, June 27, 1920).

South African painter and printmaker of English birth. He earned an Arts and Crafts Certificate at Goldsmiths College, University of London, in 1951 and a National Diploma in Design in 1953, the same year in which he emigrated to South Africa. Considered one of the country’s greatest painters, his works are in many national collections and have been exhibited internationally. His best known work explores the the human condition sardonically, depicting people as self-concerned, lacking conscience and infinitely unaware of their own fallibility. Richly painted, his pieces consistently convey a paradox between beauty and grotesqueness. Alfred Jarry’s play Ubu Roi inspired Hodgins’s treatment of historical tyrants and businessmen as composite brutal and absurd characters. The distorted figure in Ubu: The Official Portrait (1981; Johannesburg, A.G.) satirizes officials, their ceremonies and their pretense to rule justly. Hodgins’s bright, energetic palette conveys a certain clownishness, while his compositions and disfigured forms tell of an underlying evil. In an etched series called ...


M. J. C. Otten

(bapt Amsterdam, Sept 10, 1645; bur Haarlem, June 15, 1708).

Dutch etcher, draughtsman, painter, sculptor, medallist and writer. He is best known for his political caricatures of Louis XIV of France and for his prints glorifying William III, Stadholder of the Netherlands and King of England. De Hooghe is an important representative of the late Dutch Baroque. His style is characterized by strong contrasts of lights and darks and an expressive composition. In his prints he combined contemporary personalities with allegorical figures. His prints are numerous, but few of his drawings survive and his paintings are rarer still. De Hooghe’s first commission for an etching probably came from Constantijn Huygens the elder, secretary to William III; this was Zeestraet (1667; Hollstein, no. 287). In 1668 de Hooghe was in Paris, where he produced some book illustrations, but he returned to Amsterdam, where from 1670 to 1691 he illustrated the annual newsheet Hollandsche Mercurius. He regularly produced such political prints as ...


Marion Hagenmann-Bischoff

(b Middelburg, ?c. 1585; d Stuttgart, 1624).

Dutch goldsmith, engraver and painter. He was the son of an emigrant family domiciled at Frankfurt am Main from 1602. By 1610 the Stuttgart Kunstkammer of Duke John Frederick of Württemberg (reg 1608–28) already contained naturalistic animal sculptures made of wax and feathers, which the Augsburg goldsmith Johannes Schwegler produced in collaboration with ‘young Hulsio’. Similarly, Hulsen was also already engaged in the project to build a grotto for the Duke at Stuttgart before he became a court artist in 1611. Hulsen participated in the planning of the grotto, as well as furnishing it with paintings and sculptures, until the end of his life. In 1613 the engineer Gerhard Philippi (d 1621) had been charged with the work for the grotto and its ornamental fountains, and after his death, this reponsibility passed to Hulsen who left the project unfinished in 1624. Hulsen’s technical knowledge even with regard to fortifications engineering is verified by a lost wooden model, for which he was paid by the Nuremberg council in ...


Phylis Floyd

French term used to describe a range of European borrowings from Japanese art. It was coined in 1872 by the French critic, collector and printmaker Philippe Burty ‘to designate a new field of study—artistic, historic and ethnographic’, encompassing decorative objects with Japanese designs (similar to 18th-century Chinoiserie), paintings of scenes set in Japan, and Western paintings, prints and decorative arts influenced by Japanese aesthetics. Scholars in the 20th century have distinguished japonaiserie, the depiction of Japanese subjects or objects in a Western style, from Japonisme, the more profound influence of Japanese aesthetics on Western art.

There has been wide debate over who was the first artist in the West to discover Japanese art and over the date of this discovery. According to Bénédite, Félix Bracquemond first came under the influence of Japanese art after seeing the first volume of Katsushika Hokusai’s Hokusai manga (‘Hokusai’s ten thousand sketches’, 1814) at the printshop of ...


Silvia Glaser and Werner Wilhelm Schnabel



Silvia Glaser and Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

[Kellerdahler; Kellerdaller; Kolertal]

German family of goldsmiths, medallists, engravers, draughtsmen and painters. Three generations are documented in Dresden between 1554 and 1662. Johann Kellerthaler I (b c. 1530), a master in Dresden in 1554, was formerly assigned various engravings of Martin Luther, Charles V etc, now known to be the work of Jobst Kammerer (fl 1552–8). His brother Christoph Kellerthaler I (c. 1535–1592/1612), a master by 1573 and an elder of the goldsmiths’ guild in 1579, did various works for the Electors Augustus, Christian I and Christian II of Saxony: in the Dresden Frauenkirche, some chains (1572), silver cutlery sets (1584), cups (1588) and a chalice (1598) can tentatively be assigned to him. Christoph took on his three sons as apprentices between 1576 and 1589; these were (1) Johann Kellerthaler II, Christoph Kellerthaler II (fl 1587–1639...


Maxime Préaud

French family of artists. Laurent Leclerc (1590-1695) was a goldsmith from Metz. The most prominent members of the Leclerc family were his son (1) Sébastien Leclerc (i) and Sébastien’s son (2) Sébastien Leclerc (ii). Another son of Sébastien Leclerc (i), Louis-Auguste Leclerc (b Paris, 30 Nov 1699; d Copenhagen, 8 March 1771), was a sculptor and pupil of Antoine Coyzevox; from 1735 he worked in Denmark, becoming professor at the Kongelige Akademi for de Skønne Kunster in Copenhagen. His son and pupil Jacques-Sébastien Leclerc (b Paris, c. 1734; d Paris, 17 May 1785) became a painter, producing small-scale amorous scenes; from 1778 he taught at the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris.

(b Metz, bapt Sept 26, 1637; d Paris, Oct 25, 1714).

Printmaker, draughtsman and military engineer. He probably learnt the rudiments of drawing and engraving from his ...


Marianne Grivel

(b Limoges, c. 1505; d Limoges, 1575/7).

French Enameller, etcher, painter and miniature painter. He was the best-known enameller of Renaissance France and may have learnt that trade in the Pécinaud workshop in Limoges. Encouraged by the Bishop of Limoges, Jean de Langeac, who probably put him in touch with the court of Francis I, Limosin produced painted enamels on copper in all forms, including plates and plaques with mythological and religious subjects (see fig.), tableware and caskets. His chief speciality was the interpretation in enamels of portrait drawings by artists of the school of Jean and François Clouet, such as that of Anne de Montmorency (Paris, Louvre).

Limosin’s earliest enamels were inspired by German engravings; in 1532 he copied Albrecht Dürer’s Small Passion series (Paris, Mus. Cluny). From 1535, however, he turned more towards Italian art and that of the Fontainebleau school, using, for instance, motifs from Raphael’s Legend of Psyche, engraved by the Master of the Die, for a large plate (Paris, priv. col., see Lavedan, p. 85) enamelled with the ...