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Article

Freya Probst

(b Hanau, July 1874; d Berlin, July 3, 1913).

German silversmith, sculptor and painter. He attended the Zeichenakademie and the Kunstgewerbeschule in Hanau then studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule, Berlin, and the Académie Julian in Paris, before finally becoming a student of the sculptor Louis Tuaillon at the Kunstakademie, Berlin. From 1894 to 1903 he worked at the renowned silverware factory of Bruckmann & Söhne in Heilbronn, modelling goblets, cutlery, sports prizes and medals etc. In collaboration with Otto Rieth, professor at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Berlin, Amberg made a silver fountain (h. 3.2 m) for the Exposition Universelle, Paris, in 1900.

After designing the silver for the Town Hall of Aachen (1903) and spending a year in Rome (1903–4), Amberg completed his most important work, the design of the Hochzeitszug (Berlin, Tiergarten, Kstgewmus.), a table centre for the wedding of Wilhelm (1882–1951), Crown Prince of Germany and Prussia and Herzogin Cecilie von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (...

Article

Rigmor Lovring

(Hendrik)

(b Copenhagen, March 9, 1871; d Copenhagen, Jan 28, 1941).

Danish painter and metalworker . He trained at private schools of painting in Copenhagen. In 1889–1904 he travelled to Paris and Brittany several times and between 1892 and 1906 was often in Italy. Mette Gauguin (b 1850) inspired in him an interest in French art, and it was she who introduced him to Paul Gauguin and Paul Sérusier in Brittany. He was encouraged by his friend the Dutch painter Jan Verkade to convert from Judaism to Catholicism in 1893. Ballin introduced French Symbolism and Art Nouveau to Denmark, and he was valued for his knowledge of the work of Gauguin, Sérusier, the Symbolists and the Synthetists. Symbolist inspiration is apparent in one of his few paintings, At the Beach (1900; Copenhagen, M. Bredholt priv. col.)

After his conversion to Catholicism, Ballin became interested in religious artefacts and abandoned painting for metalwork. In 1899 he opened a metal workshop with the sculptor ...

Article

Bauhaus  

Rainer K. Wick

[Bauhaus Berlin; Bauhaus Dessau, Hochschule für Gestaltung; Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar]

German school of art, design and architecture, founded by Walter Gropius. It was active in Weimar from 1919 to 1925, in Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and in Berlin from 1932 to 1933, when it was closed down by the Nazi authorities. The Bauhaus’s name referred to the medieval Bauhütten or masons’ lodges. The school re-established workshop training, as opposed to impractical academic studio education. Its contribution to the development of Functionalism in architecture was widely influential. It exemplified the contemporary desire to form unified academies incorporating art colleges, colleges of arts and crafts and schools of architecture, thus promoting a closer cooperation between the practice of ‘fine’ and ‘applied’ art and architecture. The origins of the school lay in attempts in the 19th and early 20th centuries to re-establish the bond between artistic creativity and manufacturing that had been broken by the Industrial Revolution. According to Walter Gropius in ...

Article

Francis Summers

(b West Hartlepool, Cleveland, Jan 9, 1935).

English painter and printmaker. He studied at West Hartlepool College of Art (1950–55) and at the Royal Academy Schools, London, from 1957 to 1961. He taught at Goldsmiths’ College, London, for much of the 1980s and 90s. An initial interest in the paintings of Walter Richard Sickert gave way to influences from the late work of Picasso and paintings by the New York artists associated with Abstract Expressionism. Beattie’s mature work can be situated within the context of the abstraction practised by other English painters such as John Hoyland, Albert Irvin and Gillian Ayres, all of whose sensual and physical use of paint owes some allegiance to the recent American tradition. Beattie’s work of the 1980s was very gestural and characterized by its use of dark colours, as in Circus (1984; London, Tate). He later became interested in dividing the pictorial space into defined sections. The abstract forms that Beattie used were often organized into shapes resembling ziggurats, as in ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b Bradford, July 22, 1951).

English painter. He studied at the Bradford School of Art (1968–71) and then in London at Goldsmiths’ College (1971–4) and the Slade School of Fine Art (1974–6). In his early work he painted single figures in a manner that suggested extreme psychological states. His use of charcoal and intensely chromatic acrylic paint, which he makes himself, give his painting a distinctively rich, scorched appearance. Bevan developed his psychological portraiture throughout the 1980s and 90s, often working in series on individual subjects. The Prophet (1982; Munich, Staatsgal. Mod. Kst), is a large portrait of a handcuffed male with a pair of open scissors lodged in his head. The psychic state it represents is so extreme, it seems, that it can only be represented metaphorically. The social psychology of his work became more explicit in The Meeting (2.94×2.85 m, 1992; see 1993 exh. cat.), a painting of nine male figures (distributed over six canvases) singing in a mechanical, disconnected fashion. The underlying existentialism of this work recalls the paintings of Francis Bacon, Bevan’s obsession with open mouths providing another point of comparison. The tense frontal aspects also bring to mind the Expressionistic portraiture of Edvard Munch, the pose embodying states of anxiety, introspection and despair. Toward the end of the 1990s Bevan stripped his images to a bare minimum, producing a disturbing series of paintings in which disembodied heads float like scarred, trussed balloons, for instance ...

Article

Mark Jones

(b Paris, Jan 17, 1913; d Paris, 1994).

French painter, sculptor, medallist and designer. He studied in Paris, at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, and was much influenced by his friendship with Maurice Denis. He worked principally as a painter, adopting the saturated colours of Henri Matisse in landscapes and figure studies often based on observation of ‘exotic’ cultures, notably Mediterranean and North African. In the mid-1960s a new rawness emerged in his work, derived from ‘primitive’ examples and new materials associated with his experiments in other media. He executed tapestry designs for Aubusson, posters (winning the Grand Prix de l’Affiche Française in 1984), costumes and sets for ballets at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York, reliefs and murals. In 1965 he took up medal-making, expressing in his numerous metallic works for the Paris Mint that obsession with found objects which is also evident in his large-scale sculpture and in his posters.

Bénézit Roger Bezombes: Nice, débarcadère du Levant...

Article

Hans Frei

(b Winterthur, Dec 22, 1908; d Zurich, Dec 9, 1994).

Swiss architect, sculptor, painter, industrial designer, graphic designer and writer. He attended silversmithing classes at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich from 1924 to 1927. Then, inspired by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (1925), Paris, by the works of Le Corbusier and by a competition entry (1927) for the Palace of the League of Nations, Geneva, by Hannes Meyer and Hans Wittwer (1894–1952), he decided to become an architect and enrolled in the Bauhaus, Dessau, in 1927. He studied there for two years as a pupil of Josef Albers, László Moholy-Nagy, Paul Klee and Vasily Kandinsky, mainly in the field of ‘free art’. In 1929 he returned to Zurich. After working on graphic designs for the few modern buildings being constructed, he built his first work, his own house and studio (1932–3) in Zurich-Höngg; although this adheres to the principles of the new architecture, it retains echoes of the traditional, for example in the gently sloping saddle roof....

Article

S. Kontha

[Nicolas]

(b Nagyszeben [now Sibiu, Romania], Aug 13, 1906; d Budapest, Jan 27, 1990).

Hungarian sculptor, medallist, draughtsman, engraver and painter. In 1922 he moved from Transylvania to Győr, Hungary, where, while preparing to become a painter, he learnt the craft of goldsmithing and engraving from his father. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts, Budapest, in 1928–9. He also spent considerable time during these years in Italy and southern France. His taste was influenced mainly by Classical work. The drawings and paintings from this period can be regarded as preparation for his career as a sculptor, although it was not until the early 1930s that he took up full-time sculpting. At first he produced copper embossings. In 1938 a trip to Transylvania inspired him to create larger copper reliefs, such as Women Hired to Mourn (1939; Pécs, Pannonius Mus.). His first stone statue Mother (Győr, Xantus János Mus.) was sculpted in 1933. Partly because of the nature of the material, and also because of his deep knowledge of ancient Egyptian and Greek sculpture, his figure sculptures are built from basic, essential forms. His success as a sculptor enabled him in ...

Article

Hilary Pyle

(b Dublin, Nov 27, 1936).

Irish painter, sculptor and printmaker. He studied at the National College of Art in Dublin and St Martin’s School of Art and Goldsmith’s College in London. His early paintings, which included landscapes such as Winter (c. 1966; Dublin, Allied Irish Bank) and life-size nude self-portraits, were indebted to German Expressionism and to the work of Alberto Giacometti in their warm-toned colours and loose application of paint or pastel. These were followed by painted and sculpted portraits of his wife and friends in bronze or fibreglass, such as Head of L.T. (1971; Dublin, Dawson Gal.). From 1971 he concentrated on a recurring image of a small, primitive sculpture as a sign for himself, reduced in mocking fashion to a formalized bust or head. He related this fascination with identity to the character of Don Quixote, for example in the painted wood sculpture Don Quixote (1980–81; Dublin, Allied Irish Bank); sometimes he conceived of this image as two selves, as in the etching ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b Hexham, Northumberland, Feb 13, 1966).

English painter and sculptor. He completed a foundation course at Norwich School of Art (1984–5), a BFA at Bath Academy of Art (1985–8), and an MFA at Goldsmiths’ College, London (1990–92). His paintings typically reproduce the work of artists such as Frank Auerbach and Karel Appel in a slick, ‘photographic’ manner. He arrived at this manner of working after basing paintings on photographs of modernist buildings; a sense of thwarted utopianism became a central tenet in his later work. His first painting after Auerbach, Atom Age Vampire (oil on canvas, 0.82×0.72 m, 1991; priv. col., see 1996 exh. cat., p. 19), was a minutely copied, flattened rendering of the thickly impastoed original. Although such works are critical of the expressionist doctrine of emotional investment in gesture and materiality, they also retain an element of adolescent fantasy and absorption, as suggested by the title. Another strand of Brown’s art consists of copies of science fiction illustrations by Chris Foss (...

Article

Morgan Falconer

(b La Coruña, March 2, 1965).

Spanish painter active in England. After obtaining a BA in Philosophy at the Universidad de Santiago in Spain, she studied art in London at Chelsea School of Art, Goldsmiths’ College and the Slade School of Fine Art, concluding in 1996. She came to attention with oversized, ‘broken’, monochrome canvases that so dominate the spaces in which they are shown that they take on the nature of sculptural installations. The emphasis on the character of the canvases as objects, their sheer physicality, is often combined with titles that suggest human attributes. She has described her apparently abstract paintings as ‘figurative objects’. Homeless (1995; see 1998 exh. cat., unpaged), a large cream monochrome installed as if flung against the wall, suggests something of the melancholy that pervades her work; she once remarked that it was not out of anger, but sadness and frustration, that she first broke a painting; fractured stretchers barely able to support the canvas became poignant metaphors, and physical evidence of the activity of making art. Suggestions of violence or dejection are common in her work: the small blue canvas ...

Article

Philip Attwood

(b Munich, Feb 28, 1865; d Oberammergau, Aug 17, 1954).

German painter, medallist, designer and illustrator. He trained as a painter in the Munich Akademie from 1884, and initially won fame in this art with large decorative schemes on mythological or religious themes (e.g. Bacchanal, c. 1888; Munich, Villa Schülein) and portraits painted in a broad, realistic manner (e.g. Elise Meier-Siel, 1889; Munich, Schack-Gal.). He taught at the Munich Kunstgewerbeschule from 1902 to 1910. In 1905 he taught himself die-engraving and began making struck and cast medals, producing in all some 200, which combine his decorative abilities with the harsher style of his younger contemporaries (e.g. the bronze medal of Anton von Knoezinger, 1907; see 1985 exh. cat., no. 23). In 1907 and 1927 he produced models for coinage. Dasio also worked as a poster designer and book illustrator, as well as designing for stained glass and jewellery. The decorative symbolism of his earlier work in black and white (e.g. the cover for ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b Sidcup, Kent, July 8, 1966).

English painter. He trained at the Northwich College of Art and Design, Cheshire (1984–5), and Goldsmiths’ College, London (1985–8). He exhibited in an influential exhibition, Freeze, curated by fellow student Damien Hirst at Surrey Docks in London in 1988, and in 1991 he was nominated for the Turner Prize. In 1999 he was a prizewinner in the John Moores Liverpool Exhibition. His abstract paintings are made by pouring layers of household paints on to prepared canvases and boards tilted so that gravity and the consistency of the paint determine the final configuration of the areas of colour. His systematic approach, predetermining both materials and process, results in paintings whose effect is based on physical immediacy rather than any theoretical or narrative background, although the procedures of American painters of the 1950s and 60s associated with Post-painterly Abstraction, notably Morris Louis, have been cited as antecedents. His typical paintings of the early 1990s, such as ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b Edinburgh, 1970).

Scottish painter. He completed a foundation course at the Central School of Art and Design, London (1988–9), a BFA at the University of Brighton (1989–92), and an MFA at Goldsmiths’ College, London (1994–6). In 1995 Davies was included in a number of exhibitions (Multiple Orgasm, White Trash and Gothic) at the artist-run gallery, Lost in Space, London. Following these he was included in Die Yuppie Scum (London, Karsten Schubert, 1996), Sensation (London, RA, 1997), Die Young Stay Pretty (London, ICA, 1998) and Neurotic Realism (Part II) (London, Saatchi Gal., 1998). He had his first solo exhibition, New Paintings, at The Approach, London, in 1998. His painting Fun With the Animals: Joseph Beuys Text Painting (acrylic on canvas, 3.96×2.44 m, 1998; London, Saatchi Gal.) shows a large, impossibly complicated and multi-coloured diagram listing artists’ names, movements and themes. In this and other text paintings Davies comments on the vagaries and fashions of an art scene that can be reduced to a litany of key words. In ...

Article

Anna Szinyei Merse

(b Nagyenyed [now Aiud, Romania], Feb 6, 1895; d Budapest, Feb 22, 1944).

Hungarian painter, printmaker and writer. After a difficult childhood and military service during World War I, he learnt silversmithing and drawing in Dés (now Dej, Romania). From 1921 he worked in a factory in Budapest. He studied drawing in the evenings at the School of Applied Arts, then at the Free School of Artur Podolni-Volkmann (1891–1943), Budapest. Between 1924 and 1927 he worked in Milan, where he visited the museums and learnt etching, later exhibiting in Florence. As a socialist he considered art to be part of the ideological struggle. His first committed work, Fourth Order, is a series of linocuts produced soon after his return home and showing the impact of Frans Masereel. In 1928 Dési Huber held a small exhibition, and he subsequently joined the left-wing artists’ group, KÚT (Képzőművészek Új Társasága: New Society of Fine Artists), which was active from 1924 to 1949. He perfected his techniques and studied art theory, but he never gave up his money-earning activity as a factory hand....

Article

Anne Winter-Jensen

[Jules, John]

(b Lancy, May 20, 1877; d Paris, June 7, 1947).

French sculptor, metalworker, painter and designer, of Swiss birth. He trained as a sculptor from 1891 to 1896 at the Ecole des Arts Industriels in Geneva and in 1897 was awarded a scholarship by the city of Geneva that enabled him to continue his studies in Paris, where Jean Dampt, a sculptor from Burgundy, introduced him to the idea of producing designs for interior decoration and furnishing. Dunand worked on the winged horses on the bridge of Alexandre III in Paris (in situ), while simultaneously continuing his research into the use of metal in the decorative arts. His first pieces of dinanderie (decorative brassware) were exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts of 1904 in Paris. In 1906 he gave up sculpture in order to devote his time to making dinanderie and later to lacquering. His first vases (e.g. ‘Wisteria’ vase, gilt brass with cloisonné enamels, ...

Article

Emmanuel Cooper

(Kathleen Harding)

(b Warnham, Sussex, May 18, 1921; d Glasgow, Aug 16, 1963).

Scottish painter. She studied briefly at Goldsmiths’ College, London (1938–9), then at the Glasgow School of Art (1940–43). She was influenced by the Scottish Colourists, but also deeply affected by the life and atmosphere of the slums of the city. For her subject-matter she concentrated on street life, young children and the elderly, blending realism and compassion but without sentimentality. Typical is Street Kids (c. 1949–51; Edinburgh, N.G. Mod. A.). Around 1950 she began to split her time between Glasgow and Catterline, a fishing villiage on the east coast of Scotland. In Catterline she often worked outdoors, painting marine and landscape scenes in many different moods, sometimes incorporating real pieces of grass in the paint. Among some of her finest and most powerful works are fierce and bold evocations of the wind and the weather. Notable is Catterline in Winter (1963; Edinburgh, N.G. Mod. A.). She was elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in ...

Article

Martine Reid

[Tahaygen]

(b Skidegate, Queen Charlotte Islands, BC, c. 1839; d 1920).

Native Canadian Haida sculptor, metalworker and painter. He spent much of his adolescence at Kiusta with his maternal uncle Albert Edward Edenshaw, chief of the Haida Eagle clan, acquiring a considerable knowledge of Haida art and mythology. In 1882 the Eagle clan moved north to Masset, where, on the death of his uncle in 1884, he assumed his titles and privileges, including his chief’s name Edenshaw. Edenshaw was an imaginative craftsman who incorporated into his work technical and conceptual ideas from both native and non-native sources. He was a versatile and prolific artist who worked within the Northwest Coast tradition of two-dimensional design (see ). He carved both ritual and commercial objects in wood and argillite, including totem poles, masks, chests, boxes, platters and frontlets; painted designs on spruce root mats and hats, the latter often made by his wife, Isabelle; and produced silver bracelets. His commercial objects included a host of forms for non-native and market use; and his contact with a number of anthropologists and collectors resulted in a large body of well-documented, often commissioned works. The model totem poles and house models, for example, commissioned by the ethnographer and linguist ...

Article

Zachary Baker

(b Kent, Oct 4, 1966; d Scotland, March 29, 2008).

English conceptual artist, photographer, painter and installation artist. He is associated primarily with the Goldsmiths’ College group, sometimes known as the ‘Freeze Generation’, which emerged in the late 1980s during Michael Craig-Martin’s period of teaching there. In February 1988, as a second year student, Fairhurst organized a small group exhibition at the Bloomsbury Gallery of the University of London Institute of Education; it included, alongside his own work, art by fellow students Mat Collishaw, Abigail Lane and Damien Hirst. This was a kind of precursory event for the more dynamic and famous Freeze exhibition of summer 1988, curated by Hirst, in which he also participated. In the early 1990s he was involved in many seminal events and exhibitions such as A Fête worse than Death (1993), on Charlotte Road and Rivington Street, London, curated by Joshua Compston (1971–96) and Factual Nonsense, and Some Went Mad, Some Ran Away...

Article

(b Paris, Oct 1, 1912; d Paris, Sept 10, 1998).

French painter and printmaker. He worked first as an apprentice draughtsman and then as an unskilled metalworker. Having attended evening classes, though otherwise self-taught, he took part in the first Maison de la Culture show in Paris in 1936. He exhibited several works at the Salon des Surindépendants in 1937, such as the Spanish Martyr (1937; artist’s col., see 1981 exh. cat., p. 51), which showed his disgust with the Spanish Civil War (1936–9). The same year he exhibited at the important L’Art cruel show at the Galerie Billiet-Vorms in Paris. Organized by Jean Cassou, this was designed as a forum for politically-engaged art, especially that dealing with the Spanish conflict.

Fougeron was mobilized in 1938 and again in 1939, and he was taken prisoner before his demobilization in 1940. On his return to Paris he joined the Resistance, setting up a clandestine print works in 1941...