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Lucy Whitaker

(b ?1436; ? bur Florence, Dec 12, 1487).

Italian goldsmith and engraver . According to Vasari, he was a follower of Maso Finiguerra and engraved a series of 19 prints after designs by Botticelli. These illustrate an edition of Dante’s Divine Comedy published in 1481. A group of prints in the same Fine Manner style is attributed to Baldini. His designs incorporate figures and motifs derived from Botticelli, Piero Pollaiuolo and also German printmakers, such as the Master E.S. and Martin Schongauer, but particularly from Finiguerra. Baldini’s Fine Manner style developed from Finiguerra’s niello print technique; the rendering of spatial recession in the large Judgement Hall of Pilate (435×598 mm) suggests it was designed by Finiguerra. With the other prints, however, it shares the decorative quality and emphasis on pattern characteristic of Baldini.

Prints attributed to Baldini include the series of Planets (c. 1465), based on northern woodcuts, and a series of Prophets and Sibyls (early 1470s), as adapted from the characters in a mystery play; the exotic costumes reflect those worn in festival processions. Antonio Bettini’s ...


Marianne Grivel

(b Thionville, 1507, or Lunéville, 1515; d Rome, c. 1565).

French engraver. He was probably related to a family of goldsmiths from Nancy, but his working life was spent in Italy. He produced many engravings for publishers in Rome and specialized mostly in reproducing Italian paintings, views of ancient Rome and to a lesser extent portraits. He worked for the engraver and publisher Tommaso Barlacchi in 1541 and 1550, producing Joseph Interpreting Pharaoh’s Dreams (Robert-Dumesnil, no. 2), the Ascension (rd 14) and Christ Delivering Souls from Limbo (rd 15) after Raphael. He also worked for Antonio Salamanca, for whom he made versions of paintings by Raphael, Michelangelo (e.g. Virgin of Sorrows, 1547; rd 18) and Baccio Bandinelli (e.g. Struggle between Reason and the Passions, 1545; rd 36).

After 1547 Beatrizet seems to have worked for Antoine Lafréry, for whom he made engravings of views of Roman monuments and antique sculptures—for example The Pantheon (rd 103) and the ...


Jérôme de la Gorce

(b Saint-Mihiel, Lorraine, bapt June 4, 1640; d Paris, Jan 24, 1711).

French designer, ornamentalist and engraver. The Berain family moved to Paris c. 1644. Berain’s father, also called Jean Berain, and his uncle Claude Berain were master gunsmiths. In 1659 Berain published a series of designs for the decoration of arms, Diverses pièces très utiles pour les arquebuzières, reissued in 1667. In 1662 he engraved for the guild of locksmiths a series of designs by Hugues Brisville (b 1633), Diverses inventions nouvelles pour des armoiries avec leurs ornements. It would seem that by this date Berain’s skill as an engraver was well known. Around 1667 he decorated and signed a hunting gun (Stockholm, Livrustkam.; see Arms and armour §II 2., (iii)) for Louis XIV, which probably served as his introduction to the court. Through the influence and support of Charles Le Brun, in 1670 Berain was employed by the crown as an engraver. In January 1671 he received 400 livres in payment for two engravings (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Est.) recording the ceiling decoration by Le Brun of the Galerie d’Apollon in the Louvre, Paris, for which he also designed the painted stucco grotesques. In ...


Françoise Jestaz

(b Verona or Parma, c. 1500–05; d ?Kraków, Aug 26, 1565).

Italian engraver, goldsmith and medallist, active also in Poland. He is first recorded in 1526 in the entourage of Marcantonio Raimondi in Rome. There the printer and publisher Baviera introduced him to Rosso Fiorentino, whose allegory Fury he engraved (b. 58). Caraglio continued to collaborate with Rosso and engraved several suites, such as the Labours of Hercules (b. 44–9), Pagan Divinities in Niches (b. 24–43) and Loves of the Gods (b.9–23; two after Rosso and eighteen after Perino del Vaga). After the Sack of Rome (1527), Caraglio took refuge in Venice, where he made engravings after Titian (b. 3, 64). His presence is recorded there until 1537.

By 1539 Caraglio was in Poland, probably at the recommendation of his friend Pietro Aretino, who had contacts in the court of Bona Sforza (1494–1557), wife of Sigismund I, King of Poland. By ...


Tadeusz Chrzanowski

(fl 1670; d Jan 30, 1707).

Polish goldsmith, engraver and writer. He produced engraved frontispieces for J. Liberius’s book The Blessed Virgin Mary’s Sea Star (1670) and his own work St Elegius’s Life … (1687). He is noted in the guild records from 1689. Few of his silver pieces have been identified, as he did not use name marks. The impressive monstrance in St Mary’s church in Kraków is attributed to him. Works that are certainly by him include the ‘robes’ on the painting of the Holy Virgin in the Dominican church in Kraków and the small plate from the tabernacle in St Anne’s, Kraków. Ceypler’s most important work is an octagonal reliquary for the head of St Jan Kanty (1695; Kraków, St Anne), signed in Latin. It was designed by King John III’s court painter, Jerzy Eleuter Szymonowicz-Siemiginowski (c. 1660–1711), and was executed by Ceypler with the help of his pupil, ...


Marianne Grivel

(b ?Paris, c. 1519; d Paris, 1583).

French goldsmith, medallist, draughtsman and engraver. He was recorded as a journeyman goldsmith in Paris in 1546 and was appointed to the royal mint in January 1552. He was, however, removed in June that year. A number of medals, including one of Henry II (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Médailles), are attributed to him. He did not become an engraver until about 1557; his first dated prints, a series of 12 plates illustrating the Old Testament (Linzeler and Adhémar, nos 3–14) and two designs for hand mirrors (l & a 308–9), were made in 1561. He found his models in the work of such Italian artists of the Fontainebleau school as Rosso Fiorentino, Nicolò dell’Abate and especially Luca Penni, rather than in that of Francesco Primaticcio. The year 1569 seems to have marked the peak of Delaune’s Fontainebleau production, with about ten prints inspired by the Italian masters. As a Calvinist he left Paris at the time of the St Bartholomew’s Eve massacre on ...


Dorothy Limouze

Dutch family of artists. Zacharias Dolendo (b Leiden, between 1561 and 1573; d Leiden, before 1604) was an engraver. Only dated prints document the activity of this artist, whose early death was attributed by van Mander to drinking and wild behaviour. He was nevertheless a more accomplished engraver than his brother, Bartholomeus [Bartholomäus] (Willemsz.) Dolendo (b ?Leiden, c. 1571; d Leiden, c. 1629): Zacharias worked for many years with Jacques de Gheyn II and was one of Gerrit Dou’s first teachers. A series of prints after designs by Hendrick Goltzius, for example the Blind Leading the Blind (1586; Hollstein, no. 86), suggests early contact with this master. However, the strongest influence on Zacharias Dolendo’s work was de Gheyn, who often provided designs for and published his engravings. Zacharias’s manner of engraving is most characteristically a miniaturized version of the Goltzius manner as seen in de Gheyn prints, with finer, tighter, but nonetheless graceful, linear hatching and silvery modulations of tone. He could alter his burin technique with skill, for example in the series of ...


Antonio Manno


(b San Gimignano, 1533; d Naples, 1609).

Italian sculptor, architect, draughtsman, antiquarian, engineer and decorator. He began his career as a goldsmith and engraver. He arrived in Rome in 1548 and the next year entered the workshop of the sculptor and architect Raffaele da Montelupo, where he worked mostly on wall decorations for mausoleums. Around this time he carved a statue of Hope for the tomb of Giulio del Vecchio in SS Apostoli, Rome. Between 1552 and 1564 he was in close contact with Michelangelo, and he may have participated with Guglielmo della Porta in the reconstruction of S Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome. Della Porta and Dosio associated with the artistic circle around the Carafa family, for whom they may have planned a chapel. In 1561 Dosio was working as a sculptor and stuccoist for the patrician Torquato de’ Conti. Other sculptural work in Rome includes a funerary monument with posthumous portrait bust for the poet Annibal Caro...


Henri Zerner


(b ?Dijon, c. 1485; d ?Langres, after 1561).

French goldsmith and engraver. He was the son of Drouhot Duvet, a goldsmith active in Dijon at the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th. He was admitted as a master goldsmith in Dijon in 1509, but most of his career was in Langres. He is known to have participated in the preparation of the decorations for the entry of Francis I into Langres in 1521, and he designed and directed the decorations and floats for the entry of Francis in 1533. Nothing remains of his work as a goldsmith, but he is known to have completed a reliquary bust of St Mammes in 1524 for Langres Cathedral, to have sold a damascened basin to Francis I in 1528 when the King visited Dijon and to have made a number of other works.

Duvet is best known as one of the great printmakers of the French Renaissance. His engraved work comprises 72 sheets. The first dated print is an ...


(b Warburg, 1553–4; d Warburg, 1603).

German goldsmith, engraver and draughtsman. Probably from a long-established Warburg family of freemen, he is first fully named in 1578, in an engraving that shows his connections with scholars as an illustrator of academic works. One of these was Michele Mercati, for whom Eisenhoit worked during a stay in Rome c. 1580 on the Metallotheca Vaticana, a work cataloguing the Vatican’s scientific collections. His style draws principally on the Roman Late Renaissance. Back in Germany by c. 1582–5, Eisenhoit began to work primarily for patrons residing near Warburg, where he had settled by 1587 at the latest. Commissions of these years show work for the Hessian courts in Kassel and Marburg and the beginning of his cooperation with Jost Bürgi, instrument-maker and mathematician to the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. Between c. 1582 and 1594 Eisenhoit decorated Bürgi’s mechanical celestial globes with engravings and illustrated with etchings a treatise on engineering.

Eisenhoit’s first works in gold (...


(b Thurgau, 1485–96; d Nuremberg, Nov 23, 1546).

German sculptor, medallist, cabinetmaker, woodcutter and designer. It has been conjectured on stylistic grounds that between 1515 and 1518 he was active in Augsburg and worked in Hans Daucher’s workshop on the sculptural decoration (destr.) of the Fugger funerary chapel in St Anna. His early style was formed by the Italianism of Daucher and of Hans Burgkmair I and also by a journey to Italy in 1520–21. He was briefly active in Ansbach before arriving in 1522 in Nuremberg; there he was documented as master sculptor when receiving citizenship in August 1523. His earliest sculptural work in Nuremberg is thought to have been 22 capitals (early 1520s) for the renovated Rathaus (destr. 1945). The use of Italian Renaissance ornament, such as volutes decorated with acanthus leaves and fluting, represented a progressive development, in contrast to Albrecht Dürer’s Gothic-inspired architectural design of the Ehrenpforte. Flötner’s first-hand study of Italian Renaissance architectural vocabulary is apparent in the ornamentation of the pilasters of the triangular fountain (...


Christiane Andersson

(b Solothurn, c. 1485; d ?Basle, 1527–9).

Swiss draughtsman, goldsmith, die-cutter, engraver, woodcut and stained-glass designer, painter and glass painter. He was the most original and gifted artist of the early Renaissance in German-speaking Switzerland. His highly imaginative drawings, created as independent works of art, are works of exceptional quality, vitality, expressiveness and often humour. For northern European art, Graf played an important role in the liberation of drawing from its traditionally subsidiary status as preparatory study for works of art in other media.

Graf was trained as a goldsmith by his father, Hug Graf (d 1527–30), and remained active in this profession throughout his career. Although almost none of his goldsmith work is preserved, examples such as the silver engraved plates (1519; London, BM; Zurich, Schweizer. Landesmus.) from a reliquary bust executed for a monastery in the canton of Lucerne are of a high quality. He received additional training (1507–8) from the goldsmith ...


Franco Panvini Rosati

Italian family of engravers and medallists, of Bavarian origin. They worked mainly in the Roman mint from the mid-17th century to the end of the 18th. The medals they made are notable above all for their documentary value relating to the history of Rome and the city’s monuments. They were technically skilled but somewhat unimaginative portrait artists. Johan Andreas Hamerani (b Adensburg, c. 1600; d Livorno, 1644) arrived in Rome in 1615 during the pontificate of Pope Paul V. Although he worked in the papal mint, he did not execute annual medals. His son Alberto Hamerani (b Rome, 10 Oct 1620; d Rome, 21 June 1677) worked for a short time at the mint of Massa Carrara, then, between 1657 and 1669, in Rome, as assistant first to Gaspare Morone Mola and later to Girolamo Lucenti. From 1667 he engraved papal seals. Noteworthy among his medals was one commemorating the entry into Rome of Queen Christina of Sweden (...


M. J. C. Otten

(bapt Amsterdam, Sept 10, 1645; bur Haarlem, June 15, 1708).

Dutch etcher, draughtsman, painter, sculptor, medallist and writer. He is best known for his political caricatures of Louis XIV of France and for his prints glorifying William III, Stadholder of the Netherlands and King of England. De Hooghe is an important representative of the late Dutch Baroque. His style is characterized by strong contrasts of lights and darks and an expressive composition. In his prints he combined contemporary personalities with allegorical figures. His prints are numerous, but few of his drawings survive and his paintings are rarer still. De Hooghe’s first commission for an etching probably came from Constantijn Huygens the elder, secretary to William III; this was Zeestraet (1667; Hollstein, no. 287). In 1668 de Hooghe was in Paris, where he produced some book illustrations, but he returned to Amsterdam, where from 1670 to 1691 he illustrated the annual newsheet Hollandsche Mercurius. He regularly produced such political prints as ...


(b Antwerp, ?early 16th century; d Prague, 1583).

Flemish goldsmith, printmaker and draughtsman, active in Germany. He trained as a goldsmith in Antwerp and was probably already established in Augsburg by 1555, when he married Afra Haug, who was from a prominent Augsburg patrician family. Between 1559 and 1566 he was active in Nuremberg. Because of his reputation as a goldsmith, Nuremberg’s city council honoured him in 1559 with citizenship, and in 1563 he was admitted to the goldsmiths’ guild. After giving up his Nuremberg citizenship in 1566, Hornick presumably returned to Augsburg, where he is recorded in 1568, in 1570 (when he remarried) and again in 1578.

Although Hornick’s contemporaries held his goldsmith work in high esteem, no examples by his hand have been positively identified. His known oeuvre includes 83 etchings plus over 600 drawings attributed to him or his workshop on the basis of his prints. Most of the etchings were published as pattern books of vessels (...


Jane S. Peters

(b ?Bamberg, c. 1520; d Vienna, between 1564 and Jan 6, 1566).

German printmaker, draughtsman and medallist. Often erroneously referred to as Hans Sebald Lautensack, he was the son of Paul Lautensack (1478–1558), a painter and organist from Bamberg. In 1527 his family moved from Bamberg to Nuremberg, where he probably, like his brother Heinrich Lautensack (1522–68), trained as a goldsmith. Although he referred to himself as ‘pictor’, no paintings by him are known. His artistic reputation lies with his etched oeuvre, which consists primarily of historical or biblical subjects, portraits (Hollstein, nos 48–76) and pure landscapes (Hollstein, nos 7–34). He has also been credited with several drawings and carved moulds for six portrait medals.

Lautensack’s artistic career can be divided into two periods: the earlier in Nuremberg, from his first ascribed etchings in 1544; the second in Vienna from 1554 until his death. The portraiture and figural work from his Nuremberg years reflect the influence of the Nuremberg ...


Marianne Grivel

(b Limoges, c. 1505; d Limoges, 1575/7).

French Enameller, etcher, painter and miniature painter. He was the best-known enameller of Renaissance France and may have learnt that trade in the Pécinaud workshop in Limoges. Encouraged by the Bishop of Limoges, Jean de Langeac, who probably put him in touch with the court of Francis I, Limosin produced painted enamels on copper in all forms, including plates and plaques with mythological and religious subjects (see fig.), tableware and caskets. His chief speciality was the interpretation in enamels of portrait drawings by artists of the school of Jean and François Clouet, such as that of Anne de Montmorency (Paris, Louvre).

Limosin’s earliest enamels were inspired by German engravings; in 1532 he copied Albrecht Dürer’s Small Passion series (Paris, Mus. Cluny). From 1535, however, he turned more towards Italian art and that of the Fontainebleau school, using, for instance, motifs from Raphael’s Legend of Psyche, engraved by the Master of the Die, for a large plate (Paris, priv. col., see Lavedan, p. 85) enamelled with the ...


Tilman Falk

[Franck, Hanns]

(fl c. 1517; d Basle, before June 23, 1526).

German woodcutter and possible medallist. His career is thought to have taken him from Augsburg, via Mainz, to Basle. In Augsburg a Hanns Franck worked c. 1517 in the team of woodcutters who executed series such as Habsburg Saints and the Triumphal Procession for Emperor Maximilian I—employment requiring a gifted worker. A woodcut of outstanding quality, Fight between Peasants and Naked Men in the Forest designed by an artist signing himself nh (Nikolaus Hogenberg, d 1539), appeared in 1522 with the full signature ‘Hanns Leuczellburger Fvrmschneider’ and an alphabet, probably intended to advertise his ability as a cutter of lettering. Thus Model Alphabets (1522; Mainz), published by Johann Schöffer (fl c. 1503–30) and signed ‘hlf’, may be attributed to Lützelburger. From 1523 onwards he worked almost exclusively for Hans Holbein (ii) in Basle. His reputation rests pre-eminently on his series of miniature Bible illustrations, his lettering, including a fully signed ...


Marianne Grivel

(fl 1545–57).

French medallist and engraver. He is first recorded in 1545 and was working as an assistant to the medallist Marc Béchot (c. 1520–57) in 1547. His prints are unsigned and were for a long time attributed to René Boyvin, who was his pupil in 1549–50. He has been identified with the copper-plate engraver Pierre de La Cuffle, who is mentioned by Karel van Mander I. He was often in debt and was several times obliged to pledge his plates to his creditors, who included François Clouet. He remained in close contact with Boyvin, who in 1553 finished two plates begun by Milan. They worked together on the inventory drawn up on the death of Luca Penni in 1557. Zerner attributed seven engravings to him, including Dance of the Dryads (see Zerner, no. 1) after Rosso Fiorentino, Jupiter and Callisto (z 4) after Francesco Primaticcio and Clelia Escaping from the Camp of Porsena...



Marco Collareta

[Cristofano di Michele Martini]

(b Florence, bapt Nov 17, 1462; d ?Florence, after 1534).

Italian goldsmith and engraver. Vasari mentioned an artist named ‘Robetta the Goldsmith’, who has been identified through documents with a certain Cristofano, or Cristoforo, di Michele Martini. In 1480, he was still working in his father’s shop as a hosier. From 1498 onwards he is recorded as a goldsmith, and between 1517 and 1522 he was paid for three seals (untraced). He was last mentioned in a deed of sale dated 1535.

Robetta is known today exclusively as an engraver: 17 surviving engravings bear his signature, most in the form rbta; in addition, between 19 and 29 other prints have been attributed to him. None of the signed or universally accepted prints is dated, and it is difficult to chart Robetta’s stylistic development. Accordingly, his engravings are usually classified by subject: episodes from the Old and New Testaments, devotional subjects, allegories, episodes from Classical mythology and ancient history.

Robetta’s figurative style is deeply indebted to late 15th-century Florentine painters, particularly Antonio Pollaiuolo, Pietro Perugino, Lorenzo di Credi, and above all Filippino Lippi, as is evident in his engraving of the ...