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Article

Bauhaus  

Rainer K. Wick

[Bauhaus Berlin; Bauhaus Dessau, Hochschule für Gestaltung; Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar]

German school of art, design and architecture, founded by Walter Gropius. It was active in Weimar from 1919 to 1925, in Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and in Berlin from 1932 to 1933, when it was closed down by the Nazi authorities. The Bauhaus’s name referred to the medieval Bauhütten or masons’ lodges. The school re-established workshop training, as opposed to impractical academic studio education. Its contribution to the development of Functionalism in architecture was widely influential. It exemplified the contemporary desire to form unified academies incorporating art colleges, colleges of arts and crafts and schools of architecture, thus promoting a closer cooperation between the practice of ‘fine’ and ‘applied’ art and architecture. The origins of the school lay in attempts in the 19th and early 20th centuries to re-establish the bond between artistic creativity and manufacturing that had been broken by the Industrial Revolution. According to Walter Gropius in ...

Article

Hans Frei

(b Winterthur, Dec 22, 1908; d Zurich, Dec 9, 1994).

Swiss architect, sculptor, painter, industrial designer, graphic designer and writer. He attended silversmithing classes at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich from 1924 to 1927. Then, inspired by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (1925), Paris, by the works of Le Corbusier and by a competition entry (1927) for the Palace of the League of Nations, Geneva, by Hannes Meyer and Hans Wittwer (1894–1952), he decided to become an architect and enrolled in the Bauhaus, Dessau, in 1927. He studied there for two years as a pupil of Josef Albers, László Moholy-Nagy, Paul Klee and Vasily Kandinsky, mainly in the field of ‘free art’. In 1929 he returned to Zurich. After working on graphic designs for the few modern buildings being constructed, he built his first work, his own house and studio (1932–3) in Zurich-Höngg; although this adheres to the principles of the new architecture, it retains echoes of the traditional, for example in the gently sloping saddle roof....

Article

S. Kontha

[Nicolas]

(b Nagyszeben [now Sibiu, Romania], Aug 13, 1906; d Budapest, Jan 27, 1990).

Hungarian sculptor, medallist, draughtsman, engraver and painter. In 1922 he moved from Transylvania to Győr, Hungary, where, while preparing to become a painter, he learnt the craft of goldsmithing and engraving from his father. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts, Budapest, in 1928–9. He also spent considerable time during these years in Italy and southern France. His taste was influenced mainly by Classical work. The drawings and paintings from this period can be regarded as preparation for his career as a sculptor, although it was not until the early 1930s that he took up full-time sculpting. At first he produced copper embossings. In 1938 a trip to Transylvania inspired him to create larger copper reliefs, such as Women Hired to Mourn (1939; Pécs, Pannonius Mus.). His first stone statue Mother (Győr, Xantus János Mus.) was sculpted in 1933. Partly because of the nature of the material, and also because of his deep knowledge of ancient Egyptian and Greek sculpture, his figure sculptures are built from basic, essential forms. His success as a sculptor enabled him in ...

Article

Charles Robertson

[Suardi, Bartolomeo]

(b ?Milan, c. 1465; d Milan, 1530).

Italian painter and architect. He was one of the leading artists in Milan in the early 16th century. His early training as a goldsmith may indicate a relatively late start to his activity as a painter, and none of his work may be dated before 1490. The style of his early work parallels that of such followers of Vincenzo Foppa as Bernardino Butinone, Bernardo Zenale and Giovanni Donato da Montorfano. He assumed the name Bramantino very early in his career, indicating that he was in close contact with Donato Bramante, whose influence is uppermost in his early work.

Bramantino’s earliest surviving painting is probably the Virgin and Child (Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.). It is an adaptation of a type of half-length Virgin with standing Christ Child well known in Milan. The linear emphasis and the dramatic treatment of light are aspects derived from Bramante’s work. Bramantino stressed graphic quality in this picture, and throughout his early work he was considerably influenced by Andrea Mantegna and by the visual aspects of prints. His ...

Article

Elisa Acanfora

(b Florence, Aug 10, 1583; d Florence, March 3, 1643).

Italian painter, draughtsman and architect. He was the son of Maria Margherita Chiosi, a Florentine woman, and Regolo Coccapani, a nobleman of Carpi who worked as a goldsmith on the Ponte Vecchio, Florence. Sigismondo studied under the architect Bernardo Buontalenti and studied painting with Lodovico Cigoli, with whom he collaborated on the fresco decoration (c.1610–12) in the dome of the Pauline Chapel in S Maria Maggiore in Rome. His first known independent work is the frescoed lunette in the cloister of the convent of S Marco, Florence, depicting St Antonino Taking Money away from Two False Mendicants (1613). Between 1615 and 1617 he received payments for the painting of Michelangelo Crowned by the Arts on the ceiling of the Galleria in the Casa Buonarroti; in the same years he painted the Adoration of the Magi, initialled and dated 1617 (Signa, S Maria in Castello). Other initialled and dated paintings include ...

Article

Francesco Paolo Fiore and Pietro C. Marani

(Pollaiolo) [Francesco di Giorgio]

(b Siena, bapt Sept 23, 1439; d Siena, bur Nov 29, 1501).

Italian architect, engineer, painter, illuminator, sculptor, medallist, theorist and writer. He was the most outstanding artistic personality from Siena in the second half of the 15th century. His activities as a diplomat led to his employment at the courts of Naples, Milan and Urbino, as well as in Siena, and while most of his paintings and miniatures date from before 1475, by the 1480s and 1490s he was among the leading architects in Italy. He was particularly renowned for his work as a military architect, notably for his involvement in the development of the Bastion, which formed the basis of post-medieval fortifications (see Military architecture & fortification, §III, 2(ii) and 4(ii)). His subsequent palace and church architecture was influential in spreading the Urbino style, which he renewed with reference to the architecture of Leon Battista Alberti but giving emphasis to the purism of smooth surfaces. His theoretical works, which include the first important Western writings on military engineering, were not published until modern times but were keenly studied in manuscript, by Leonardo da Vinci among others; they foreshadowed a number of developments that came to fruition in the 16th century (...

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...

Article

Marie Jeannine Aquilino

(b Geneva, July 15, 1822; d Paris, Nov 30, 1892).

French painter. He studied metalwork with his father Jacques Galland, an accomplished goldsmith, until age 16. He then entered the studio of Henri Labrouste to study architecture. After two years of training, Labrouste encouraged him to pursue his interest in decorative painting under the direction of Michel-Martin Drolling. In 1843 the decorative painter Pierre-Luc-Charles Ciceri (1782–1868) hired Galland to assist with the painting of figures, flowers, garlands and fruit. He worked again with Labrouste, in 1848, on the decoration of the national festival, the Fête de la Concorde.

Galland received his first independent commission in 1851 from a rich Armenian to decorate the interior of his palace in Constantinople (destr.) built by a student of Labrouste, J. Mélick. After 18 months, he returned to France through Italy, stopping in Rome, Florence and Venice; sketches made during these travels record his serious study of Raphael and Veronese. In 1853...

Article

Joanne A. Rubino

(b Recanati, 1580; d Recanati, 1655).

Italian sculptor, painter, architect and bronze caster. He is known primarily for his bronzes, which combine an adherence to traditional standards of 15th-century Lombardy and a move towards the more dramatic qualities of the Baroque. With his brother, Tarquino Jacometti (1570–1638), he was instructed in drawing and sculpting by his uncle, Antonio Calcagni, but the influence of his lifelong teacher Cristoforo Roncalli was always uppermost in his works. The brothers became business partners, collaborating in casting bronze low reliefs, fountains and baptismal fonts, but Pietro Paolo also produced individual items.

The Jacometti brothers collaborated in such bronze works as the fountain (1619–20) in the Piazza della Madonna, Loreto; the Galli fountain, Loreto; the fountain (1619) in the Piazza del Popolo, Faenza; and on fonts in Recanati Cathedral (1622) and S Giovanni Battista, Osimo (1622–8). Pietro Paolo also produced the bronze portrait of ...

Article

Judith O’Callaghan

(b London, June 14, 1869; d Perth, Aug 29, 1947).

Australian silversmith, jeweller, woodworker and painter of English birth. His father was the watercolourist Sir James Dromgole Linton (1840–1916). Having trained as a painter and architect in London, he travelled to Western Australia in 1896 and began practising metalwork after settling in Perth; he was appointed head of the art department of Perth Technical School in 1902. Following a trip to London in 1907, when he attended classes at the Sir John Cass Technical Institute under Harold Stabler, he concentrated on producing metalwork. Working in partnership with Arthur Cross, William Andrews and his own son Jamie Linton (1904–80), he produced ecclesiastical and domestic wares, presentation pieces and jewellery. His designs were influenced by British Arts and Crafts metalwork and were bold and simple, with decoration generally confined to hammered surfaces, twisted wire, hardstones and enamels. A highly influential figure in Perth’s artistic community and an energetic teacher, Linton played an important role in the promotion of crafts in Western Australia....

Article

(b Lodi, c. 1569–70; d Graz, bur March 6, 1633).

Italian painter, architect, engineer and medallist, active in Austria. He trained as a painter in Venice, probably in the workshop of Tintoretto. Although no dated or signed works from his Venetian period are known, a number of paintings are now attributed to him that were earlier ascribed to the circle of Tintoretto, including the Resurrection (Stuttgart, Staatsgal.), the Flagellation (Prague Castle) and the Triumph of Virtue (Madrid, Prado), all between 1584 and 1589. Around 1589 Pomis entered the service of Archduke Ferdinand II, later Holy Roman Emperor, who appointed him official painter to the court in Graz in 1597. In the service of the Archduke, Pomis travelled in 1598 to Rome, Loreto and Spain, in 1601 to Hungary and in 1608 to Florence. His works from this period include an altarpiece representing the Apotheosis of the Counter-Reformation (1602; Graz, St Anton von Padua), an energetic composition probably influenced by Tintoretto, a painting of the ...

Article

Rococo  

Richard John and Ludwig Tavernier

A decorative style of the early to mid-18th century, primarily influencing the ornamental arts in Europe, especially in France, southern Germany and Austria. The character of its formal idiom is marked by asymmetry and naturalism, displaying in particular a fascination with shell-like and watery forms. Further information on the Rococo can be found in this dictionary within the survey articles on the relevant countries.

Richard John

The nature and limits of the Rococo have been the subject of controversy for over a century, and the debate shows little sign of resolution. As recently as 1966, entries in two major reference works, the Penguin Dictionary of Architecture and the Enciclopedia universale dell’arte (EWA), were in complete contradiction, one altogether denying its status as a style, the other claiming that it ‘is not a mere ornamental style, but a style capable of suffusing all spheres of art’. The term Rococo seems to have been first used in the closing years of the 18th century, although it was not acknowledged by the ...

Article

Christopher Mead

Term applied to the art produced in France during the reign of Napoleon III, first as Prince President of the Second Republic (1848–52) and then as Emperor during the Second Empire (1852–70; see Bonaparte family, §8), but also used more narrowly to define a specific architectural style that emerged in other European countries and the USA during the 1860s. This style became popular in the 1870s and 1880s for all types of secular building, from city halls and mansions to country cottages. Modelled after the New Louvre in Paris (1853–69, by Visconti family, §3 and Lefuel, Hector-Martin) and typified by the Grosvenor Hotel, London (1860–62, by James Thomas Knowles (i)), and the State, War and Navy Building in Washington, DC (1871–86, by Alfred B. Mullet), it is characterized by mansarded pavilions, pedimented dormers and French Renaissance detailing.

The first meaning, which originated in the 19th-century convention of identifying an artistic period by its political context, is culturally specific yet stylistically vague, since the Second Empire style relates a wide diversity of artistic currents to the epoch’s common social conditions. The materialistic reign of Napoleon III confirmed the bourgeoisie’s dominance in French culture, undertook the country’s economic industrialization and physical modernization, fostered extensive technological innovation, centralized and institutionalized most professions and aggressively patronized the arts in both the public and private realms. These trends all took root during the reign of Louis-Philippe and the July Monarchy (...

Article

Christiaan Schuckman

(b Amsterdam, c. 1674; d Amsterdam, bur Feb 6, 1772).

Dutch painter, etcher, mezzotint engraver, draughtsman, instrument maker, modeller, goldsmith, shipbuilder and writer. According to Nagler, Silo worked as a master shipbuilder and sea captain until he was 30, but by c. 1694 or shortly after he had learnt how to paint from Theodor van Pee (c. 1668/9–1746). In 1697 Silo was in Amsterdam giving Peter the Great instruction in the drawing of ships; notes made by the Tsar at the time have survived, and Peter the Great owned several of his tutor’s paintings. Silo’s pictures are all of marine subjects, for example the Admiral at Sea (Amsterdam, Hist. Mus.) and Calm Sea with Shipping (Rotterdam, Mar. Mus.). The effects of a cold winter can be seen in the View of the Frozen IJ with Whalers, as Seen from the Blaue Hoofd (1720; Amsterdam, Hist. Mus.). Apart from this one dated work, there is little evidence for a chronological catalogue of Silo’s oeuvre. On most of the more than 20 known etchings, Silo is mentioned both as the designer and etcher; none is dated, and all, like his paintings, drawings and watercolours are of marine subjects. He worked out his images in rough hatching using a fine etching needle. The quality of impressions differs markedly. From the series of ...

Article

William M. Voelkle

Portable altar–reliquary (New York, Morgan Lib.), made c. 1156 for the Stavelot Abbey in the Ardennes, Belgium and decorated with both Mosan and Byzantine enamels (see fig.). The reliquary is named after the Benedictine abbey headed by Wibald of Stavelot, its enlightened abbot from 1130 to 1158. It is the first of a series of Mosan reliquary triptychs containing portions of the True Cross. Of these, only the Stavelot Triptych contains scenes from the life of Constantine and the legend of the finding of the True Cross by Empress Helena, his mother. Although two commissions by Wibald are documented (the St Remaclus Retable, destroyed during the French Revolution, and the Head Reliquary of Pope Alexander of 1145; Brussels, Musées Royaux A. & Hist.), the Stavelot Triptych is not. Wibald may have been given both the cross relic and the two small Byzantine enamel triptychs displayed on the centre panel of the Stavelot Triptych during his diplomatic mission (...

Article

James David Draper

[Lorenzo di Pietro di Giovanni]

(bapt Siena, Aug 11, 1410; d Siena, June 6, 1480).

Italian painter, sculptor, goldsmith and architect.

He was formerly believed to have been born c. 1412 in the Tuscan town of Castiglione d’Orcia, but del Bravo has identified him with the Lorenzo di Pietro di Giovanni who was baptized in Siena in 1410. His name appears in a list of the members of the Siena painters’ guild in 1428. From the evidence of later works, he is generally supposed to have been apprenticed to Sassetta, but his early work has not been identified. Between c. 1435 and 1439 he executed for Cardinal Branda Castiglione (1350–1443) a series of frescoes at Castiglione Olona, near Varese in Lombardy. He has been considered an assistant of Masolino da Panicale in this enterprise, but the scenes of the martyrdoms of SS Lawrence and Stephen in the apse of the Collegiata, below Masolino’s vault frescoes, show that Vecchietta’s closely packed compositional style was already fully formed. He also painted the frescoes (partially published by Bertelli) in the chapel of the Cardinal’s palace in the town, depicting the Evangelists (vault) and friezes of male and female saints (side walls). Although abraded and fragmentary, they nevertheless indicate the naturalistic effects of atmospheric lighting and foreshortening that, more than any other Sienese painter of his day, he had learnt from Masolino and the Florentine painters. In ...