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Philip Attwood

(b Amsterdam, 1608; d Amsterdam, 1684).

Dutch medallist. One of the foremost Dutch medallists of the 17th century, he was influential in developing a style that was more sculptural than before. Most of his medals consist of two silver plates of repoussé work, chased and joined together at the rim to create a hollow medal. This novel technique allowed the artist to create portraits in very high relief. His medals date from 1650 to 1678. One of the earliest, portrays on one side Prince Frederick Henry of Orange and on the other Prince Maurice of Orange. More usually, the reverses of his medals bear a coat of arms, as for example the medal commemorating the settlement of the disputes between William II of Orange and the States of Holland (1650). Here the reverse bears William’s armorial shield, a crown, and the English garter. The ground of the obverse is covered with orange branches in the manner typical of van Abeele and demonstrates his mastery of chasing. On his medal of ...

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Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

Small silver spoon, the handle of which ends with an apostle figure. Such spoons were manufactured in England and Germany from the late 15th century to the late 17th and were the usual present of sponsors at baptisms. When manufactured in sets of 13, the handle of the ‘master spoon’ was a figure of Jesus....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Italian family of gunsmiths, active in the village of Bargi (near Bologna) from the mid-17th century, when Sebastiano Aqua Fresca was making guns, until 1809, when Pietro Antonio Aqua Fresca died. The most prominent member of the family was Matteo Aqua Fresca (1651–1738), a superb steel-chiseller and engraver who specialized in gun locks but also made steel snuff-boxes....

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Marion Hagenmann-Bischoff

[Franciscus]

(b Brussels, c. ?1570–80).

Flemish goldsmith, draughtsman, sculptor, copper engraver and embosser, active in Germany . As a skilled goldsmith from Brussels, he is documented at Augsburg between 1598 and 1604, and from 1603 as a tax-paying citizen; before this he was probably living in Friedberg nearby. After he is recorded as paying taxes three years in advance, traces of Aspruck fade away in 1604. Since he was not accepted as a master craftsman by the Augsburg goldsmiths’ trade, he worked with them as a ‘free artist’. His skills included draughtsmanship, modelling and casting as well as copper engraving, which he also taught to goldsmith apprentices and journeymen. Aspruck’s drawings from 1597 to 1601 show an individual style influenced by Hendrick Goltzius and Bartholomäus Spranger, for example Venus and Amor (1598; Hamburg, Ksthalle). He also sketched for other engravers, as is known, first of all, from the surviving publishing production of the Antwerp engraver Dominicus Custos in Augsburg. In ...

Article

Ismael Gutiérrez Pastor

(b Mechelen, Flanders, c. 1585–90; d ?Madrid, c. 1650).

Spanish engraver and medallist of Flemish birth. From the beginning of the 17th century until 1609 he lived in Toledo, where, under the supervision of El Greco, he worked as an engraver and printed (1605–6) such works of his master as SS Peter and Paul (1603–7; Stockholm, Nmus.) and St Francis and Brother Leo (c. 1600–05; Ottawa, N.G.). Other engravings from this period include frontispieces for Historia de … Nuestra Señora de Valvanera (Ávila, 1607) by Francisco de Ariz and the Index librorum prohibitorum (Madrid, 1612) by Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas, the Archbishop of Toledo. From 1609 to 1636 he was engraver at the Casa de Moneda in Segovia, where he created designs for currency and made the printing plates. He also executed engravings for Obras espirituales (Alcalá de Henares, 1618) by St John of the Cross and the frontispiece for Historia … de Segovia...

Article

Timothy Schroder

[Dut. Kwabornament; Ger. Knorpelwerk, Ohrmuschelstil]

Term used to describe a type of ornament popular in the 17th century, characterized by smooth, curved and rippling forms resembling the human ear. This highly plastic style evolved during the first two decades of the 17th century in Utrecht, and in its fully developed form is found only in metalwork. The style in this medium is characterized by the use of amorphous, lobate scrolls and embossed, relief ornament that emphasize the malleable nature of the metal. At its most extreme, it exaggerates this quality by suggesting that objects were modelled in a semi-molten state. The goldsmiths Adam van Vianen and Paulus van Vianen (see Vianen, van family, §1) of Utrecht are credited with the invention of the style, although its origins seem to lie in the graphic designs of such 16th-century Italian Mannerist artists as Giulio Romano (e.g. drawing for a fish-shaped ewer; Oxford, Christ Church) and Enea Vico. The latter’s designs for plate were published in the mid-16th century and may have been known in Utrecht....

Article

(b Bolsward, Friesland, 1628; d Bolsward, 1691).

Dutch silversmith . He was the son of the silversmith Frans Rienckes, and he started his apprenticeship at the age of 11 or 12, becoming a master of the Bolsward guild in 1654. His use of embossed botanical decoration on silverware was part of the Dutch late 17th-century expression of floral naturalism in the decorative arts. He appears to have remained in Bolsward throughout his life, producing domestic and church silver. The small number of objects attributed to him includes presentation and alms dishes, salts and such smaller objects as hinges, plaquettes and brush backs. Three objects dating from 1680–81 (Leeuwarden, Fries Mus., 8023, 1949-260, 1955-521) demonstrate his different approaches to the floral theme: the rim of one large dish is divided into sections, each containing an individual embossed flower, whereas another has a swirling pattern of flowers tumbling out of cornucopias and fruits, vegetables and insects; a pair of hinges is decorated with a tight symmetrical design of flower heads and leaves. In other examples fish and crustacea are included in the decorative scheme, and putti playing musical instruments appear on dish rims and centres....

Article

French family of goldsmiths and bronze-founders. Members of the Ballin family were active in Paris from the 16th century to the 18th. Claude Ballin (i) (b Paris, 3 May 1615; d Paris, 22 May 1678) became a master goldsmith in 1637. He was granted lodgings in the Louvre, Paris, before 1671 and became Orfèvre Ordinaire du Roi. Nicknamed ‘the Great Ballin’, he was one of the most prominent French goldsmiths of the 17th century. He worked extensively for Louis XIV, providing an enormous quantity of silver and silver-gilt objects, including vases, bowls, display stands and incense-burners that formed part of the silver furnishings (destr. 1690) of the château of Versailles. Ballin’s work in the classical style also included ecclesiastical pieces (untraced) for the cathedrals of Paris and Reims that are known from numerous drawings (Berlin, Kstbib. & Mus.; Stockholm, N. Mus.; Beauvais, Archvs Dépt.), and which also feature in some wall-hangings, for example the ...

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Gordon Campbell

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Bernt von Hagen

In 

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Gordon Campbell

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Douglas Bennett

(b c. 1621; d 1672).

Irish silversmith and government official. He was apprenticed to Peter Vaneijndhoven (d 1650) in 1637 and became a freeman of the city of Dublin in 1644. Bellingham was elected sheriff of Dublin in 1655 and knighted in 1662. He was the first person to hold the title of Lord Mayor of Dublin, in ...

Article

Jérôme de la Gorce

(b Saint-Mihiel, Lorraine, bapt June 4, 1640; d Paris, Jan 24, 1711).

French designer, ornamentalist and engraver. The Berain family moved to Paris c. 1644. Berain’s father, also called Jean Berain, and his uncle Claude Berain were master gunsmiths. In 1659 Berain published a series of designs for the decoration of arms, Diverses pièces très utiles pour les arquebuzières, reissued in 1667. In 1662 he engraved for the guild of locksmiths a series of designs by Hugues Brisville (b 1633), Diverses inventions nouvelles pour des armoiries avec leurs ornements. It would seem that by this date Berain’s skill as an engraver was well known. Around 1667 he decorated and signed a hunting gun (Stockholm, Livrustkam.; see Arms and armour §II 2., (iii)) for Louis XIV, which probably served as his introduction to the court. Through the influence and support of Charles Le Brun, in 1670 Berain was employed by the crown as an engraver. In January 1671 he received 400 livres in payment for two engravings (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Est.) recording the ceiling decoration by Le Brun of the Galerie d’Apollon in the Louvre, Paris, for which he also designed the painted stucco grotesques. In ...

Article

Philip Attwood

[Bertinet, François]

(b Ostia, nr Rome; d Rome, 1706).

Italian medallist, active in France. At the age of 22 he travelled from Ostia to Venice and from there, at the summons of the Finance Minister Nicolas Fouquet, to Paris, where he spent many years. In 1665 he executed a bronze medal of Fouquet. He spent eight years in prison as a result of his association with Fouquet, who had been arrested in 1661 after being denounced by Jean-Baptiste Colbert; between 1671 and 1687 Bertinetti made several bronze portrait medals of Louis XIV, one of them during his time in prison. He also made bronze medals of Maria-Theresa, Dr Jacques de Sainte-Beuve and one depicting an unknown priest. Most of his works are signed Bertinet, but one of his medals of Louis XIV is signed Bertinet et Auvy. His best medals are in a Baroque style reminiscent of Gianlorenzo Bernini.

DBI; Thieme–Becker L. Forrer: Biographical Dictionary of Medallists (London, 1902–30), vii, pp. 76–7...

Article

Geneviève Bresc-Bautier

(b ?Reims, 1622; d Lyon, Nov 17, 1692).

French medallist and sculptor. He was working in Lyon by 1657, when he produced a medallion of Archbishop Camille de Neuville de Villeroi. Further medallions worked in wax and cast in wax or lead, in the manner of Jean Warin, show members of the Consulat of Lyon and some members of their families and date from 1658–65 (e.g. Paris, Bib. N.; Lyon, Mus. B.-A.). Bidau also carved stone sculptures for buildings in Lyon, including a Virgin (before 1658), David and Goliath (1660), an Annunciation (1665) and St Catherine (1678). His relief for the Hôtel de Ville celebrating the Peace of the Pyrenees (1660–61; in situ) was made in collaboration with the local sculptor Jacques Mîmerel (fl 1649–70); in addition Bidau provided the model for a fountain (1661) in the Place des Terreaux.

In 1671 Bidau joined the team of sculptors working for ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Tadeusz Chrzanowski

(b Dithmarschen, Holstein, after 1600; d Toruń, c. 1690).

Polish goldsmith and metalworker of German birth. He is known to have been an apprentice in Toruń in 1623 and from c. 1640 he worked for the royal court in Kraków. In 1653 he adopted Toruń citizenship and entered its goldsmiths’ guild as a master. From the beginning of his career he exhibited a fondness for the Dutch auricular style, particularly the designs of the van Vianen family. This was probably a result of his friendship and, possibly, his studies with Andrzej Mackensen family, to whom he dedicated his pattern ‘alphabet’ Libellus Novus Elementorum Latinorum, engraved by Jeremias Falck and published in the mid-17th century in Hamburg. The 27 copperplates represent letters composed of shell-like ornaments with masks and entangled figures of putti, animals and fantastic creatures. Bierpfaff executed gilt-copper sheets for the coffins of King Vladislav IV (reg 1632–48) and Queen Cecily (1611–44) in the crypt of Kraków Cathedral. They are composed of coats of arms, ornaments, trophies, and scenes of the King’s victories on the King’s coffin and Old Testament themes on the Queen’s. Bierpfaff was commissioned by Chancellor ...

Article

Fabian Stein

[Bühler]

German family of goldsmiths, furniture-makers and engravers. Lorenz Biller (i) (fl c. 1664–85) achieved prominence with works for Emperor Leopold I, for whom he made a centrepiece with a knight on a horse (1680–84; Moscow, Kremlin, Armoury) that was sent to Moscow as an ambassadorial gift. Lorenz Biller (i)’s sons, Johann Ludwig Biller (i) (1656–1732), Albrecht Biller (1663–1720) and Lorenz Biller (ii) (fl c. 1678–1726), supplied silverware of the highest quality to several German courts, especially that of Prussia, for which Albrecht made large wine-coolers and ‘pilgrim’ bottles (1698; Berlin, Schloss Köpenick). The strongly sculptural style of these pieces suggests familiarity with the work of Andreas Schlüter. Albrecht Biller’s abilities as a sculptor are also evident in his reliefs and in seven splendid silver vases he supplied to the court of Hesse-Kassel (c. 1700; Kassel, Hess. Landesmus.). The silver vases ordered by the court usually followed French fashions, yet the form and lavish decoration of these pieces are quite different. A pair of vases by ...

Article

Emma Packer

(b Limburg an der Lahn; fl 1664–88).

English goldsmith of German birth. He appears to have come to England in the entourage of Charles II at the Restoration of 1660 and was naturalized in 1661. The first mark attributed to Bodendick (ib over a crescent between two pellets) was entered in 1664, the year Bodendick and Wolfgang Howzer presented a letter from the King to the Wardens of the Goldsmiths’ Company commanding the Company to assay and mark their wares. His mark is found on a number of objects that show a strong Germanic influence, for example a tankard of 1674 (Madrid, Mus. Thyssen-Bornemisza). His work is noted for a variety of technical and stylistic innovations, for example the use of pierced and embossed cagework, and sculptural, cast handles in the Auricular style (e.g. porringer and cover, 1668; Al-Tajir priv. col.). A number of tankards and trays by Bodendick have cartilaginous handles, showing the continuing appeal of the grotesque. Other surviving work includes a pair of candlesticks (...