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Marianne Grivel

(b Thionville, 1507, or Lunéville, 1515; d Rome, c. 1565).

French engraver. He was probably related to a family of goldsmiths from Nancy, but his working life was spent in Italy. He produced many engravings for publishers in Rome and specialized mostly in reproducing Italian paintings, views of ancient Rome and to a lesser extent portraits. He worked for the engraver and publisher Tommaso Barlacchi in 1541 and 1550, producing Joseph Interpreting Pharaoh’s Dreams (Robert-Dumesnil, no. 2), the Ascension (rd 14) and Christ Delivering Souls from Limbo (rd 15) after Raphael. He also worked for Antonio Salamanca, for whom he made versions of paintings by Raphael, Michelangelo (e.g. Virgin of Sorrows, 1547; rd 18) and Baccio Bandinelli (e.g. Struggle between Reason and the Passions, 1545; rd 36).

After 1547 Beatrizet seems to have worked for Antoine Lafréry, for whom he made engravings of views of Roman monuments and antique sculptures—for example The Pantheon (rd 103) and the ...

Article

Françoise Jestaz

(b Verona or Parma, c. 1500–05; d ?Kraków, Aug 26, 1565).

Italian engraver, goldsmith and medallist, active also in Poland. He is first recorded in 1526 in the entourage of Marcantonio Raimondi in Rome. There the printer and publisher Baviera introduced him to Rosso Fiorentino, whose allegory Fury he engraved (b. 58). Caraglio continued to collaborate with Rosso and engraved several suites, such as the Labours of Hercules (b. 44–9), Pagan Divinities in Niches (b. 24–43) and Loves of the Gods (b.9–23; two after Rosso and eighteen after Perino del Vaga). After the Sack of Rome (1527), Caraglio took refuge in Venice, where he made engravings after Titian (b. 3, 64). His presence is recorded there until 1537.

By 1539 Caraglio was in Poland, probably at the recommendation of his friend Pietro Aretino, who had contacts in the court of Bona Sforza (1494–1557), wife of Sigismund I, King of Poland. By ...

Article

Madeleine Barbin

(b Liège, Jan 19, 1722; d Paris, July 31, 1776).

French engraver and print publisher. He was descended from a family of gunsmiths. In 1739 he went to Paris to join a brother who had established himself there as a goldsmith. Beginning as an engraver and chaser, in 1746 he obtained the rank of master. As early as 1757 he began to specialize in crayon manner (see Crayon manner §2) using a roulette, a process that brought him success; Jean-Charles François contributed in developing this process, but Demarteau, because of his superior skill, outstripped his rival. At a time when drawing was greatly in vogue, he offered the public faithful reproductions, first of red chalk drawings and then of drawings intended for decoration or teaching, in two or three colours, by contemporary artists. His oeuvre comprises 560 numbered plates, half of them after specially provided drawings by François Boucher (for illustration see Crayon manner) or after drawings owned by collectors such as ...

Article

Marianne Grivel

(b Paris, 1561; d Paris, c. 1635).

French engraver, draughtsman, print publisher and dealer. He was the son of the goldsmith Pierre Gaultier, but probably not, as has been stated, the son-in-law of Antoine Caron and brother-in-law of Thomas de Leu. His first dated engravings (1576; Linzeler, 13–120) form part of a suite of 108 plates illustrating the New Testament. He was a very prolific engraver—his output reached at least 985 prints—and treated various genres, producing religious engravings, allegories, coats of arms and above all portraits and book illustrations. Although he copied the suite of engravings by Agostino dei Musi and B. Daddi after Raphael’s fresco cycle the Loves of Cupid and Psyche in the Farnesina, Rome (l 163–95), most of his work was from his own drawings. His work was published by a number of print publishers: Pierre Gourdelle (fl 1555–88) and, in 1591, by his wife (e.g. the Salvator Mundi, l...

Article

[Johannes]

(b Mainz, c. 1394–99; d Mainz, 1468).

German printer. Trained as a goldsmith, he left Mainz for Strasbourg c. 1428 as a political exile. A lawsuit of 1439 indicates that while in Strasbourg he began experimenting with printing techniques. Gutenberg was back in Mainz on 17 October 1448 and by 1450 had begun a commercial printing venture employing his inventions of movable metal type cast in separate letters and a type-casting machine (see Printing). He was financed by a lawyer, Johannes Fust (d 1466), who also became his partner. Gutenberg’s principal developments were the use of individual letters in raised type, which were manufactured in metal instead of wood, thus increasing the durability and clarity of the printed image, and the employment of a pressure press in the printing process. His 42-line Bible, set up during 1452–3, was published before 24 August 1456. It was a lectern book, in two volumes, comprising 1286 pages and was the first full-length ...

Article

Susse  

Linda Whiteley

French family of bronze-founders, bronze-casters, dealers, publishers, paper merchants and artists’ suppliers. Jean Susse (1726–1809) was a cabinetmaker in Paris. His two sons Nicolas Susse and Michel-Victor Susse (b Paris, 1782; d Paris, 1853) went into partnership in 1806, opening a shop for fine writing-paper in the Passage des Panoramas, Paris. By 1816 they had also begun to sell artists’ materials and in 1827 they opened a further branch at 31, Place de la Bourse. Their business brought them into contact with several artists whose work they occasionally bought or took in exchange. Paul Gavarni owed his first success to drawings and paintings he exhibited at the Galerie Susse. The business soon became one of the best known in Paris for the sale and hire of contemporary paintings, to which the brothers added the publishing of artists’ manuals. Michel-Victor Susse’s eldest son, Victor Susse (b...

Article

Christiaan Schuckman

(b Amsterdam, 1651–2; d Amsterdam, Oct 21, 1726).

Dutch mezzotint engraver and publisher. He was the son of Leendert Gerritsz. Valck, a silversmith from Amsterdam, and the pupil, brother-in-law and business partner of Abraham Blooteling, with whom he went to London in 1672. Valck’s earliest dated mezzotint, Sleeping Cupid (1677; Hollstein, no. 40), is after a painting by Guido Reni. Valck’s 67 engravings and mezzotints were mostly based on designs by other artists, for example Peter Lely, Gérard de Lairesse (Hollstein, nos 1–2 and 22–3) and Philipp Tidemann (e.g. illustrations for an unpublished Danish translation of Ovid’s Metamorphoses; Hollstein, nos 32–8); they were often published by Valck himself. In Amsterdam he worked in partnership with his brother-in-law Pieter Schenck and later with his son Leonardus Valck. Gerard Valck’s publications include atlases, separate maps and printed globes, as well as series of prints with views of houses belonging to the Orange-Nassau family, trades and professions, fountains, chimneys and birds....