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Article

Gordon Campbell

American family of joiners and cabinetmakers, active in Hadfield, MA. The brothers John Allis (1642–91) and Samuel Allis (1647–91), whose maternal great-uncle was Nicholas Disbrowe, were both joiners, as was John’s son Ichabod (1675–1747). The firm was managed by John Allis the elder, and employed his brother and sons; John the elder’s partner was ...

Article

Torbjörn Fulton

(b Germany, fl 1620–56; d Mecklenburg).

German stuccoist and sculptor. His few surviving works provide fine examples from a period that is sparsely represented in the history of stucco decoration in parts of middle and northern Europe. Anckerman’s first known work is in Mecklenburg, where he decorated the ceilings in the castles of Dargun (destr.) and Güstrow. In the latter a vast expanse of his relief panels (1620) survives, although some of them are 20th-century free reconstructions. His other identified works are in Sweden, where he worked for several patrons, including Queen Christina. In the 1640s he decorated the funerary chapel of General Herman Wrangel (d 1645) in Skokloster (Uppland) parish church. In this tower-like chapel he provided three stucco wall reliefs: the Battle of Gorzno (1629) (depicting the battle in which the Swedes defeated the Poles), a family tree and a decorative landscape. The Gothic vault is decorated with leaves, entwined along the ribs, a central floral motif and four figures of angels, sculpted in such high relief as to seem almost in the round. In addition there are two life-size figures representing General Wrangel, one reposing on the tomb, the other an equestrian monument set against a wall. None of the stucco is painted or gilded, and the effect of so much decoration in a small room is somewhat overcrowded; however, it succeeds in communicating the patron’s martial pride. Although there is no documentation to support identification of Anckerman as the sculptor of these works, the stylistic similarity to the documented ones in Strängnäs Cathedral strongly suggests such an attribution....

Article

Torbjörn Fulton

[Johan]

(fl Narol, 1663; d Stockholm, 1688).

Italian stuccoist active in Sweden. He collaborated with Hans Zauch on ceilings in Skokloster Castle, Uppland (1663–4), and he created the ceiling in the great hall in Djursholm Castle (1668), near Stockholm. At Skokloster he may have executed two ceilings (1663–4) alone, in the antechambers of the apartment of Carl Gustaf Wrangel (1613–76) and his wife in the east wing. These ceilings are dominated by figurative motifs—flying putti in one ceiling, representatives of the Four Seasons in the other. The latter especially is marked by its somewhat naive but fine modelling and has lyrical scenes, such as the heavily clad young man warming his hands by a fire, typifying winter.

E. Andrén: Skokloster (Stockholm, 1948) S. Karling: ‘Les Stucateurs italiens en Suède’, Arte e artisti dei laghi lombardi, ed. E. Aslan (Como, 1964), pp. 291–302 G. Beard: Stucco and Decorative Plasterwork in Europe...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Heavy iron or iron-bound coffer made in Germany and Flanders from the 16th century to the 18th, when they were supplanted by the safe. The chests had a dummy keyhole in the front and were fastened by a lock on the underside of the lid. The word ‘Armada’ may allude to the Spanish Armada, but there is no historical connection with the chests of the Armada....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1580; d 1652).

German cabinetmaker, active in Augsburg, where he was employed by Philipp Hainhofer. Baumgartner’s finest work, the carving of the ebony cabinet known as the Pommeranian Cabinet, is largely destroyed (1611–15; fragments in Berlin, Tiergarten, Kstgewmus.). His surviving work includes the carving of an ebony cabinet (1625–31; Uppsala, U. Kstsaml.) presented to Grand Duke Ferdinando II of Tuscany (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Norwalk, Staffs, Sept 16, 1632; d Hatfield, MA, Jan 3, 1713).

American joiner. He was brought to America by his parents c. 1640. In 1661 he moved to Hadley (now Massachusetts) in the Connecticut River valley, and entered into partnership with John Allis family. Belden’s son Samuel (1665–1738) and Allis’s son Ichabod (1675–1747) ran Belden & Allis after the deaths of their fathers....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Hans-Peter Wittwer

(Battista)

(fl late 17th century–early 18th).

Swiss-Italian stuccoist and architect. He drew up the plans for the abbey church of Muri (1694–7), Switzerland, which is regarded as the consummation of the centrally planned church and one of the most beautiful Baroque buildings in Switzerland. Bettini’s scheme involved reconstructing the cruciform Romanesque abbey church. The twin towers and the low choir spanned by a Gothic lierne vault were retained, but the nave was converted into an octagonal rotunda with transeptal chapels. The ends of the former aisles, at the west and east, lie outside the octagon and are used to form galleries. The eight arches defining the octagon are of equal height but unequal width. Uniformity of height is obtained in the narrower, diagonal arches by raising the imposts rather than by stilting the arches. A large saucer dome, with stucco ornamentation by Bettini, covers the rotunda, admitting light, via penetrations, from semicircular windows set on a slightly curving entablature inside, supported by folded pilasters. Bettini’s reputation is based on evidence that he produced designs for the building, while the more famous architect ...

Article

Fabian Stein

[Bühler]

German family of goldsmiths, furniture-makers and engravers. Lorenz Biller (i) (fl c. 1664–85) achieved prominence with works for Emperor Leopold I, for whom he made a centrepiece with a knight on a horse (1680–84; Moscow, Kremlin, Armoury) that was sent to Moscow as an ambassadorial gift. Lorenz Biller (i)’s sons, Johann Ludwig Biller (i) (1656–1732), Albrecht Biller (1663–1720) and Lorenz Biller (ii) (fl c. 1678–1726), supplied silverware of the highest quality to several German courts, especially that of Prussia, for which Albrecht made large wine-coolers and ‘pilgrim’ bottles (1698; Berlin, Schloss Köpenick). The strongly sculptural style of these pieces suggests familiarity with the work of Andreas Schlüter. Albrecht Biller’s abilities as a sculptor are also evident in his reliefs and in seven splendid silver vases he supplied to the court of Hesse-Kassel (c. 1700; Kassel, Hess. Landesmus.). The silver vases ordered by the court usually followed French fashions, yet the form and lavish decoration of these pieces are quite different. A pair of vases by ...

Article

Biombo  

Sofía Sanabrais

Name used in Mexico and throughout Latin America for a folding screen. The word biombo is a transliteration of the Japanese word for folding screen—byōbu—an acknowledgement of its place of origin. The Japanese byōbu has long been a quintessential example of Japanese art and was a common diplomatic gift to foreign courts in the early modern period (see Screen, §1). Referred to as the ‘face of Japanese diplomacy’, byōbu were presented as ambassadors of Japanese culture to places as far off as London and Mexico City. Byōbu also found their way to New Spain as exports in the Manila Galleon trade. In 17th-century Mexico the Japanese screen was admired by artists and patrons, and was adapted and reinterpreted on a grand scale. The unique format of the biombo provided new ways for artists to depict subject-matter, and locally made biombos began appearing in the archival record in the first years of the 17th century. ...

Article

Carola Wenzel

(b Monte, nr Balerna; d Prague, 1628).

Italian stuccoist, active in Prague. He settled in Prague in 1590 and was granted citizenship in Malá Strana in January 1591. One of his major commissions was the oval chapel of the Assumption (1590–1600), which was built for the Italian community in Karlova Ulice and was the first centralized Baroque building to be erected in Prague. In 1603 Bossi built the north part of the Augustinian monastery near the church of St Thomas in Malá Strana. In the following year he was involved with renovations to the same monastery. From 1602 he built the hospital for the Italian congregation opposite the site of the present Lobkowicz Palace (1703–69; now the German Embassy). This early Baroque building comprises four wings around an arcaded courtyard (later glassed over). The hospital church (1608–17), dedicated to S Carlo Borromeo and also built by Bossi, was one of the first domed Baroque buildings in Prague. In the construction of these buildings Bossi played an important role in the dissemination of Italian architectural concepts in Prague....

Article

Geneviève Bresc-Bautier

(b c. 1570; d Paris, March 21, 1637).

French sculptor. His father Guillaume Boudin (fl 1567–1614) specialized in carved panelling and furniture decorated in the antique taste. Thomas was apprenticed to Mathieu Jacquet in 1584 and remained with his workshop until 1595. Though he bore the title Sculpteur du Roi from 1606, his court works, including a chimney-piece (wood, 1606) for the Chambre du Roi at the Louvre, Paris, a bas-relief (bronze; destr.) for the pedestal of Pietro Tacca’s equestrian statue of Henry IV erected on the Pont Neuf in 1635, and the chimney-pieces for the Throne Room of the Hôtel de Ville, Paris (1617; destr.), and for the château of Chilly (1632; destr.) are less significant than his religious oeuvre. This includes seven high-reliefs (stone, 1610–12; in situ) around the choir of Chartres Cathedral. Their traditional, vigorously frontal composition, with the figures modelled almost in the round so that they appear to be free-standing against a plain background, is combined with a late Mannerist complication of drapery and hairstyle. Other sculptural decorations, such as the high altar of St Germain-l’Auxerrois (...

Article

Eleanor John

(b Paris, Nov 11, 1642; d Paris, Feb 28, 1732).

French cabinetmaker. His family were originally from Guelderland in the Netherlands and went to Paris, where his father worked as a ‘menuisier en ébène’. Boulle became a master before 1666, when he is recorded as a ‘maître menuisier en ébène’; at this time he lived and worked in the rue de Reims near Saint-Etienne-du-Mont. He was granted the royal privilege of lodging in the Galeries du Louvre on 21 May 1672, having been recommended by Jean-Baptiste Colbert as the most adept among his profession in Paris. In the same year he received the title of Ébéniste, Ciseleur, Doreur et Sculpteur du Roi, the royal privilege allowing him to carry out the work of more than one profession; without such protection this would have been an infringement of the guilds’ rules. In 1685 Boulle employed at least 15 workmen, and by 1720 the workshop had 20 work-benches and equipment for 6 bronzeworkers. Yet despite his success Boulle was dogged by financial difficulties, and his creditors sought permission to have him arrested in the Louvre in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Wood-cased, spring-driven clock designed to stand on a shelf or wall-bracket; the term is misleading, in that these clocks were portable, and many early examples from the late 17th century and early 18th were fitted with a handle or pair of handles to enable them to be carried from one room to another, typically back and forth from living room to bedroom.

The bracket clock may have been invented by Jost Bürgi, the Swiss clockmaker at the court of Rudolf II in Prague, but production of these clocks began in Restoration England and spread thereafter to the Netherlands, Germany and Austria. Those by Edward East were made of dark oak in architectural designs, complete with pillars and pediments. Later makers, such as Thomas Tompion (1639–1713) and Joseph Knibb, toned down the architectural elements in the design. From c. 1710 square dials were superseded by arched dials. Many examples have a silvered hour-ring and pierced hour-hands; both front and rear doors are usually glazed, and the vertical backplate of the clock movement is often engraved....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Bureau  

J. W. Taylor

Type of furniture used for writing, typically a writing-table incorporating drawers or a type of case furniture with a hinged writing surface. The first furniture types to bear the name bureau evolved in France in the middle of the 17th century. Their antecedents, however, existed in the early medieval period, and the word ‘bureau’ is a corruption of the medieval French for a kind of coarse linen used as a surface for writing. In Sweden a simple desk has been preserved (c. 1200; Gotland, Vallstena Church), which has a sloping writing surface supported on the turned uprights typical of Romanesque furniture. Most medieval desks, however, were not free-standing and took the form of a writing-box with a hinged, sloping writing surface. Cabinets with a drop-leaf writing surface appeared in Italy during the Renaissance, and in Spain the vargueño—a cabinet, often carved and gilded, with a drop-leaf concealing an elaborate arrangement of drawers—began to appear at around the same time (e.g. walnut and gilt ...

Article

Birgit Roth

(b Bissone, Ticino, Aug 28, 1664; d Vienna, 1737).

Italian stuccoist. He was taught to draw by his father, the painter Giovanni Francesco Bussi, but then concentrated on developing a career as a stuccoist. He began his career in Milan, where he worked on the decoration of numerous palaces, but was then summoned to Vienna by Eugene, Prince of Savoy. From 1695 to 1704 he worked under the architect Domenico Martinelli at the palace of Count Dominik Andreas Kaunitz (now the Liechtenstein Palace) in Bankgasse, Vienna, which had been acquired by Prince Andrew of Liechtenstein in 1694. Here Bussi decorated twenty-two rooms, two cabinets, the great hall, the staircase and the two vestibules. The elegance and lightness that he imparted to the staircase with his vivid leaf and vine scroll decoration were impaired, however, during the modernization of the building by Alois II, Prince of Liechtenstein, and his English architect Peter Hubert Desvignes c. 1840. At around the same time he also worked at the Franciscan church (destr.) in Feldsberg, Bohemia, and the ...

Article

Torbjörn Fulton

(fl 1667; d 1697).

Italian stuccoist, active in Sweden. His earliest known work is the stuccowork (1667) in the mortuary chapel of General Lars Kagg at the parish church of Floda in Södermanland. The walls of the chapel’s lofty hall are crowded by fluted Corinthian pilasters carrying a heavy and richly ornamented entablature. Between the pilasters are rounded niches with large statues of Virtues, trophies and putti. The large vault contains double rows of heraldic shields and vegetative ornament, centred on a larger shield in the middle of the vault. The whole of this ambitious and ostentatious interior is a curious mixture of humanist learning, genealogical and martial pride and pompous naivety. From 1669 onwards Carove was occupied with major decorative schemes at the royal Drottningholm Castle, Stockholm, including work on the main staircase, the two large anterooms of the upper storey and the state bedchamber in the lower storey. Here, in one of his most notable works, the limited use of stuccowork is supplemented by wood-carving, metalwork and painting....

Article

Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

Term derived from chinois (Fr.: ‘Chinese’) denoting a type of European art dominated by Chinese or pseudo-Chinese ornamental motifs. The term is most often applied to decorative arts produced from the second half of the 17th century to the early 19th, when trading contacts between Europe and East Asia were at their height.

Although overland and sea routes had brought a steady supply of Asian spices, silk, furs, ivory and other commodities to the ancient world, it was Marco Polo who first fired the imagination of the West with his description of his travels and experiences at Kublai Khan’s court that he published after his return to Venice in 1295. Other travellers also recorded their tales, the most famous being the pseudonymous ‘Sir John Mandeville’ whose Travels was published in Lyons in 1480. Its fairy-tale evocation of the Near East and East Asia was translated into every European language and fuelled a longing for ‘Cathay’. This romantic vision, taking the various forms of Chinoiserie, ...