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Article

John Steen

(Hendrik)

(b Borger, Feb 11, 1900; d Drachten, Jan 30, 1984).

Dutch painter and printmaker. He trained between 1919 and 1923 as a cabinetmaker, taking evening classes in furniture drawing and design at the Academie Minerva in Groningen. He also took private drawing lessons with the Dutch sculptor Willem Valk (1898–1977). Around 1920 he started to make drawings and paintings in an abstracted, geometric style, similar to that of Bart van der Leck (e.g. En passant, 1921–2; priv. col., see 1984 exh. cat., p. 17). From 1924 he worked in the architectural firm of Van Lingen in Groningen, and he continued to design furniture until the 1930s. He joined De Ploeg and started to mix with Dutch artists such as Jan Wiegers, Jan Altink (1885–1971) and Hendrik Nicolaas Werkman. He produced geometric abstract works such as Composition with Yellow Circles (1924; Groningen, Groninger Mus.). From c. 1924 he began to associate with the Belgian Constructivists involved in the magazine ...

Article

[Florentin, Dominique ; Riconucci, Domenico]

(b ?Florence, c. 1506; d Paris, 1565).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist, painter, engraver and mosaicist, active in France . He is mentioned for the first time between 1537 and 1540 in the accounts of the château of Fontainebleau, working on mosaics with Jean Picard (Jean Le Roux, fl mid-16th century). Barbiere rose to prominence rapidly in the team of artists assembled by Francesco Primaticcio on the royal works at the château and worked also at Troyes, where he lived for periods during his career. It is not clear, however, if he went to Troyes as a young man and established his profession there before going on to Fontainebleau with other sculptors from Troyes, such as the Julyot family (fl 16th century) and Nicolas Cordonnier, or whether he went initially to Fontainebleau in the footsteps of his fellow Florentines Rosso Fiorentino and Primaticcio and then went on to Troyes, a long-established centre of sculpture production, with craftsmen he had met at Fontainebleau (...

Article

Athena S. E. Leoussi

(b Villefranche, Rhône, 1872; d Paris, 1909).

French designer and lithographer. He began his training in Villefranche, where he studied painting, and in 1893 he moved to Paris, entering the Ecole Normale d’Enseignement du Dessin. There he became a pupil and disciple of Eugène-Samuel Grasset, the Professor of Decorative Arts, and was also influenced by Luc Olivier Merson. Berthon’s main output consisted of posters and decorative panels. However, he also produced bookbindings and furniture designs, both of which he exhibited at the Salon in 1895; designs for ceramics for Villeroy & Boch in the late 1890s; and a few designs for the covers of such magazines as L’Image (July 1897) and Poster (May 1899). His work is in an Art Nouveau style, and he adopted that movement’s plant and figural motifs, especially the motif of the femme fatale, and also its long sinuous lines. These features can be seen in such works as the poster ...

Article

Fabian Stein

[Bühler]

German family of goldsmiths, furniture-makers and engravers. Lorenz Biller (i) (fl c. 1664–85) achieved prominence with works for Emperor Leopold I, for whom he made a centrepiece with a knight on a horse (1680–84; Moscow, Kremlin, Armoury) that was sent to Moscow as an ambassadorial gift. Lorenz Biller (i)’s sons, Johann Ludwig Biller (i) (1656–1732), Albrecht Biller (1663–1720) and Lorenz Biller (ii) (fl c. 1678–1726), supplied silverware of the highest quality to several German courts, especially that of Prussia, for which Albrecht made large wine-coolers and ‘pilgrim’ bottles (1698; Berlin, Schloss Köpenick). The strongly sculptural style of these pieces suggests familiarity with the work of Andreas Schlüter. Albrecht Biller’s abilities as a sculptor are also evident in his reliefs and in seven splendid silver vases he supplied to the court of Hesse-Kassel (c. 1700; Kassel, Hess. Landesmus.). The silver vases ordered by the court usually followed French fashions, yet the form and lavish decoration of these pieces are quite different. A pair of vases by ...

Article

L. Fornari Schianchi

(b Arcisate di Como, 1727; d Parma, Nov 4, 1792).

Italian stuccoist, printmaker, painter and collector. Before studying anything else he learned stucco decoration from his father Pietro Luigi (d 1754), who worked in Germany from 1743 until his death. Stucco work always remained Bossi’s main activity, alongside that of printmaking, especially etching. His experiments in the latter field followed in the tradition of the great Venetian printmakers. He was encouraged by Charles-François Hutin, who was in Dresden from 1753 to 1757 and whom he followed to Milan and Parma. His first etching, based on a work by Bartolomeo Nazari (1693–1758), was done in Milan in 1758. From 1759 on he was in Parma, where he produced some plates for the Iconologie tirée de divers auteurs (1759) by Jean-Baptiste Boudard, and where he executed the stucco trophy decoration for the attic of S Pietro, the construction of which began in 1761. From this date Bossi also collaborated with the designer ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1706; d 1753).

English engraver, designer of trade cards and furniture designer. In 1746 he published A New Book of Ornaments, and subsequently collaborated with Matthias Lock on a second edition (1752). The New Book contains designs for side-tables, torchères, clocks, frames, pier-glasses and fireplaces, very much in the Rococo idiom but also including such chinoiserie motifs as ho-ho birds and oriental figures. Copland also provided plates for the ...

Article

Jürgen Zimmer

(b ?Speyer, c. 1570; d ?Speyer, after 1609).

German cabinetmaker and printmaker. Working as a journeyman cabinetmaker at the Zimmerhof in Strasbourg after 1590, he came into contact with Hans Schoch and probably Wendel Dietterlin. In collaboration with Jakob Guckeisen of Cologne, he published a Seilen Buch (Cologne, 1598; Hollstein, no. 5) with a two-page engraved title page and 25 plates depicting the orders, with entablatures, string courses and scrollwork. Between 1598 and 1609, again sometimes with Guckeisen, he published four more series of engravings: Schränke (6 plates, 1598; Hollstein, no. 1), Architectura Kunstbuch Darinnen Alerhand Bortalen Reisbetten undt Epitaphien… (18 plates, 1599; 17 plates and new title page, 1600; Hollstein, no.4), Schweyf Buch (25 plates, 1599; Hollstein, no. 2) and an untitled collection of architectural motifs (24 plates, 1609; Hollstein, no. 3), in which the regular and semi-regular forms are in a tradition of geometrical and mathematical proportional figures that goes back to Plato. An engraving depicting the ...

Article

Basil Hunnisett

[Engelheart.]

English family of artists, of German origin. Francis Engelheart (b Silesia, 1713; d Kew, 1773) was a plaster modeller. He came to England c. 1721 and later worked as a decorative plasterer at Kew Palace for Frederick, Prince of Wales (1707–51), and his widow Augusta, the Princess Dowager (1719–72). He seems also to have produced decorative ceilings for Hampton Court Palace. After his death, his family changed the spelling of their name to Engleheart.

Two of Francis’s sons, John Dillman Engleheart (1735–1810) and Paul Engleheart (d 1774), carried on the business, while two others found success in other fields. Thomas Engleheart (b ?London, 1745; d ?London, 1786) was a sculptor and wax modeller, and George Engleheart (b Kew, ?Nov 1753; d Blackheath [now in London], 21 March 1829) was a painter. Thomas studied from 1769 at the Royal Academy schools, London, where he won a gold medal in ...

Article

(b Capolago, Ticino; d Rome, bur Aug 3, 1623).

Italian architect, stuccoist and engraver. He arrived in Rome by 1613 and worked on a number of commissions sponsored by Pope Paul V (Borghese). From 1613 until 1621 he was papal fontaniero, responsible for the embellishment and maintenance of the fountains in the Vatican and Quirinal gardens and in the Borgo. In 1616 he supervised the execution of the elaborate stucco coffering in the vault of the Cappella Paolina in the Palazzo del Quirinale, and in 1620–21 he led one of several teams of stuccoists at work on the vaults of the choir and sacristy in St Peter’s.

Only one of Ferrabosco’s architectural projects was ever realized. This was the clock-tower entrance to the Vatican Palace, which he built (with the participation of Giovanni Vasanzio) between July 1617 and September 1618. This ornate architectural frontispiece was known as the tower of Paul V and consisted of four tiers of diminishing width, fortified below with buttresses and quoins and decorated above with a pre-existing mosaic flanked by marble angels, a clockface and belfry. Emphasis on surface ornament was clearly a salient feature of the architect’s style, no doubt stemming from his training as a stuccoist. The tower was located in front and to the right of the façade of St Peter’s. Ferrabosco originally planned to build a second tower to the left, as part of an even more ambitious scheme for a vast enclosed piazza surrounding the basilica. This project was never executed, and in ...

Article

(b Thurgau, 1485–96; d Nuremberg, Nov 23, 1546).

German sculptor, medallist, cabinetmaker, woodcutter and designer. It has been conjectured on stylistic grounds that between 1515 and 1518 he was active in Augsburg and worked in Hans Daucher’s workshop on the sculptural decoration (destr.) of the Fugger funerary chapel in St Anna. His early style was formed by the Italianism of Daucher and of Hans Burgkmair I and also by a journey to Italy in 1520–21. He was briefly active in Ansbach before arriving in 1522 in Nuremberg; there he was documented as master sculptor when receiving citizenship in August 1523. His earliest sculptural work in Nuremberg is thought to have been 22 capitals (early 1520s) for the renovated Rathaus (destr. 1945). The use of Italian Renaissance ornament, such as volutes decorated with acanthus leaves and fluting, represented a progressive development, in contrast to Albrecht Dürer’s Gothic-inspired architectural design of the Ehrenpforte. Flötner’s first-hand study of Italian Renaissance architectural vocabulary is apparent in the ornamentation of the pilasters of the triangular fountain (...

Article

Henri Zerner

[Fr. Ecole de Fontainebleau]

Term that encompasses work in a wide variety of media, including painting, sculpture, stuccowork and printmaking, produced from the 1530s to the first decade of the 17th century in France (e.g. The Nymph of Fontainebleau). It evokes an unreal and poetic world of elegant, elongated figures, often in mythological settings, as well as incorporating rich, intricate ornamentation with a characteristic type of strapwork. The phrase was first used by Adam von Bartsch in Le Peintre-graveur (21 vols, Vienna, 1803–21), referring to a group of etchings and engravings, some of which were undoubtedly made at Fontainebleau in France (see Fontainebleau, §1). More generally, it designates the art made to decorate the château of Fontainebleau, built from 1528 by Francis I and his successors (see Valois, House of family, §14), and by extension it covers all works that reflect the art of Fontainebleau. The principal artists of the school were ...

Article

Christiaan Schuckman

(b Rotterdam, Dec 16, 1754; d Rotterdam, Aug 17, 1826).

Dutch printmaker, draughtsman, painter and wallpaper designer. Groenewegen spent nearly all his life near Rotterdam on the Westzee Dyke, which leads towards Delfshaven. Like his father he was a ship’s carpenter, until he lost part of his right leg and was forced to take up another trade. He became an artist and began to make faithful representations of topographical subjects and shipping scenes. He found his subjects in Rotterdam as well as around Delfshaven, Schoonderloo, Overschie and other neighbouring villages. Apart from paintings, he made wallpaper decorations, all with shipping as their subject-matter. From 1779 until his death he produced hundreds of drawings in gouache and watercolour or pen and ink, mostly of topographical subjects. For example, his prints comprise figures in traditional costume, a number of river and port views and the illustrations of ship types known as the Collection of 84 Dutch Ships, published in seven series between ...

Article

Kai Budde

(b Cologne; fl Strasbourg, 1590s).

German cabinetmaker, writer and engraver. He is recorded as a cabinetmaker and citizen of Strasbourg from 1596. He appears to have been a pupil of the architect Johann Schoch, who designed Schloss Gottesau, near Karlsruhe (c. 1587), and the Friedrichsbau of the Heidelberg Schloss (c. 1601–7). Guckeisen, in collaboration with Veit Eck (fl Strasbourg, 1587), wrote a Kunstbüchlein (Strasbourg, 1596) dedicated to masons and cabinetmakers. He also wrote a similar work, Etlicher Architectischer Portalen, Epitapien, Caminen Und Schweyffen, published in the same year in Cologne. They were followed in 1599 by a series of engraved designs for six chests, also published in Cologne. In collaboration with the cabinetmaker and etcher Hans Jakob Ebelmann, Guckeisen also produced the Schränke (1598), Seilenbuch (1598), Architectura Kunstbuch Darinnen Alerhand Portalen Reisbetten Undt Epitaphien (1599) and Schweyfbuch (1599), the last dedicated to the cabinetmaker Jacob Riedel in Strasbourg. As a designer of ornament, Guckeisen was familiar with the whole repertory of Renaissance decoration, using it in varied combinations....

Article

(b The Hague, Dec 18, 1863; d The Hague, Aug 28, 1917).

Dutch painter, lithographer and designer. He trained at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague. He worked as a draughtsman at the Zoological Museum in Leiden and illustrated scientific studies, for instance On a New Collection of Birds from S. W. Africa by J. Büttikofer (1889) and Zoölogische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Niederl. Ost-Indiën, von dr. Max Weber (1890). Apart from paintings such as Two Arabian Vultures (Amsterdam, Rijksmus.), he made many watercolours and drawings of plants and animals, which clearly reveal his appreciation of Japanese prints: he often outlined the separate areas of flat colour in ink, in imitation of such prints, and he could describe the characteristic attitudes of animals with a masterly economy of line. Van Hoytema compiled and published two portfolios of prints of related subjects, Dierstudies [Animal studies] (1898) and Bloemstudies [Flower studies] (1905). His powerful, decorative compositions show an unmatched technical perfection....

Article

Bernard Jacqué

[Jean-Baptiste]

(b c. 1701; d c. 1780).

English wood-engraver and wallpaper manufacturer. He trained as a wood-engraver, first in London with Edward Kirkall (1695–1750) and then c. 1726 in Paris under Jean-Michel Papillon. He parted from Papillon on bad terms and went on to Rome, and then Venice, specializing in the chiaroscuro technique. His six Heroic Landscapes (1745 after gouaches by Marco Ricci were printed in 7–10 colours. He returned to London in 1746 and founded a wallpaper manufacturing company in Battersea. There he applied the chiaroscuro technique to produce wallpaper panels printed with oil-based colours, imitating the appearance of the print rooms of the day with their framed engravings and landscapes in roundels surrounded by Baroque frames (e.g. London, V&A). He also engraved imitation stucco arrangements of ornamental foliage in the Italian style, as well as statues and trophies. He published a vigorous defence of his claims for recognition as an inventor of the technique of printing and engraving in ...

Article

Phylis Floyd

French term used to describe a range of European borrowings from Japanese art. It was coined in 1872 by the French critic, collector and printmaker Philippe Burty ‘to designate a new field of study—artistic, historic and ethnographic’, encompassing decorative objects with Japanese designs (similar to 18th-century Chinoiserie), paintings of scenes set in Japan, and Western paintings, prints and decorative arts influenced by Japanese aesthetics. Scholars in the 20th century have distinguished japonaiserie, the depiction of Japanese subjects or objects in a Western style, from Japonisme, the more profound influence of Japanese aesthetics on Western art.

There has been wide debate over who was the first artist in the West to discover Japanese art and over the date of this discovery. According to Bénédite, Félix Bracquemond first came under the influence of Japanese art after seeing the first volume of Katsushika Hokusai’s Hokusai manga (‘Hokusai’s ten thousand sketches’, 1814) at the printshop of ...

Article

[Ruetger; Roetger]

(b ?Prague, ?c. 1585–95; d ?after 1645).

German cabinetmaker and engraver. He is recorded as a journeyman joiner in Cologne in 1615 and as resident in Düsseldorf c. 1630. He may be credited with essentially three works, each issued in several versions and editions. The first, Architectur, nach antiquitetischer Lehr und geometrischer Ausstheilung: Seulen Termen Bochg (Cologne, 1610), includes copper engravings based on woodcuts from Hans Blum’s Quinque columnarum exacta descriptio … (1550). A later, large-format engraving (1627; Hollstein, nos 1–25) published by Kassmann presents the five orders of Classical architecture according to Blum, as seen in the 1610 edition. The second, Kassmann’s first largely independent work, Architectura Lehr Seiulen-Bochg. Nach reichtier Mas und Semeitrei Austeilung deir Funf Sulen Tuscana, Dorica, Jonica, Corintica, Composita Gar Fleisichg Auss dien Antiquitettien Giezogien … (Cologne, 1615), has column orders again based on Blum, but its portals, fountains, fireplaces, tombs and ornaments (chiefly scrollwork) follow those of Wendel Dietterlin and Gabriel Krammer. A new version (Cologne, ...

Article

Alan Powers

(b Paris, March 19, 1715; d St Petersburg, March 24, 1759).

French painter, furniture designer, architect and engraver. He studied with Jacques Dumont and won the Grand Prix de Peinture in 1739. He remained for eight years in Rome, where his architectural designs for the temporary centrepiece of the annual Chinea festival (1745, 1746 and 1747) are early examples of Neo-classicism, displaying a simple architectonic use of the orders that indicates his association with Giovanni Battista Piranesi in the circle of students of the Académie de France in Rome, who were highly influential in French architecture from the 1760s onwards. On his return to Paris in 1747, Le Lorrain enjoyed the patronage of the Comte de Caylus, for whom he executed engravings of ancient paintings and revived the technique of encaustic. Through de Caylus he obtained a commission from Count Carl Gustav Tessin to design quadratura representations of columns and niches for the dining-room walls of his country house at Åkerö, Sweden, in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell and M. B. Cohn

Durable floor covering invented in 1863 by Frederick Edward Walton (1834–1928). The name, from Latin linum (flax) and oleum (oil), alluded to the principal ingredient, oxidized linseed oil, which Walton mixed with gum, resin and ground cork and then spread the mixture on hessian. Walton patented linoleum in 1864 and established the Linoleum Manufacturing Company in Staines; in 1872 he established the American Linoleum Company in a factory on Staten Island. His patents expired in 1877, and the High Court ruled that linoleum had become a generic term for a material rather than a brand name restricted to Walton's companies. From 1888 other manufacturers were able to use the name, and linoleum became established as a national industry.

Linoleum has also been used as a matrix by such printmakers as Henri Matisse (1869–1954) and Pablo Picasso. Matisse executed 70 linocuts between 1938 and 1952, in a fluent white-line technique, taking evident advantage of the smooth passage of the knife through the soft material. Picasso, after using linoleum for popular posters in the early 1950s, began a series of innovative colour linocuts in ...

Article

Fani-Maria Tsigakou

[Yiannis, Giannis]

(b Arta, April 23, 1916; d Athens, Dec 20, 2009).

Greek painter, printmaker, illustrator, stage designer and decorative artist. From 1931 to 1936 he studied painting and printmaking at the Higher School of Fine Arts in Athens under Konstantinos Parthenis and Yannis Kefallinos (1893–1957). As soon as he graduated he participated in the exhibition of Greek printmakers that was organized in Czechoslovakia in 1936. The same year, on a scholarship from the Academy of Athens, he went to Rome and then to Paris to study at the Ecole Supérieure des Beaux-Arts and the Ecole des Arts et Métiers. He returned to Athens in 1940, when he participated in the last pre-war panhellenic exhibition, in which he was awarded the first prize. During the period of the German occupation (1941–4) he started painting portraits to earn his living. In these his restricted palette and the opposition of light and shadow with as little half-tone as possible reveal his concern with the flattening of form and space. His post-war canvases are painted with a directness of execution and solidly modelled forms. His concern with the structure of form led him gradually to geometrical compositions. In ...