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Article

(b Berlin, Oct 15, 1827; d Berlin, Sept 15, 1908).

German architect, archaeologist and writer. He was one of the leading figures of Berlin’s architectural establishment in the latter half of the 19th century. On completion of his studies in 1852, he was given the prestigious post of Bauleiter at the Neues Museum in Berlin, designed by Friedrich August Stüler. He subsequently became a lecturer and in 1861 a professor of architectural history at the Bauakademie in Berlin. Many of his church buildings used medieval motifs and elements, for example the Christuskirche (1862–8) in Berlin and the Elisabethkirche (1869–72) in Wilhelmshafen. He followed Karl Bötticher in his attempts to merge medieval and classical elements, best illustrated in his design for the Thomaskirche (competition 1862; built 1865–70), Berlin. There, Adler used Gothic structural devices embellished with rich Renaissance detail, a tendency that was also present in many of the entries for the Berlin Cathedral competition (...

Article

Enrique Larrañaga

[James]

(b Caracas, Sept 14, 1932).

Venezuelan architect. After finishing elementary and middle school in Caracas, Alcock attended St. Edmund’s College (1946–1949) and University of Cambridge School of Chemistry (1949–1952), both in England. Back in Caracas, he enrolled in the architecture faculty of the Universidad Central de Venezuela, graduating in 1959. While a student, he worked for Venezuelan architect Alejandro Pietri (1924–1992) and Brazilian landscapist Roberto Burle-Marx (1909–1994) on various landscape architecture projects.

With José Miguel Galia (1919–2009), who had been his tutor at school, Alcock founded Galia & Alcock, Arquitectos Asociados (1959–1962). For Galia, a respected Uruguayan architect who had been working in Venezuela since 1948, architecture should at once respond to a building’s function climate and incorporate technological innovations thus operating as an assemblage of materiality and location that celebrates and intensifies both. Among the projects Galia and Alcock designed together, those for public spaces in both urban and natural environments were the most celebrated, particularly the Macuto Beachfront (...

Article

Keith Eggener

(b Mexico City, 1916; d Mexico City, Mar 2, 1999).

Mexican architect. Noted for his minimalist modern houses, Artigas was the most prolific designer working at the Jardines del Pedregal, the Mexico City district developed after World War II by Luis Barragán. The son of the army general and Mexico City police chief Francisco Artigas Barbedillo (1884–1961), Artigas attended school in Mexico City until his family moved to Cotija, Michoacán, during the 1920s. Cotija’s colonial and vernacular buildings would influence some of his later work. Returning to the capital, he entered the Escuela Nacional de Ingeniería, but dropped out after one year, opting to travel and study architecture informally on his own. In California the work of Richard Neutra and other Modernists impressed him greatly. His earliest buildings were private houses in Culiacán, Sinaloa, beginning in 1942. By 1950 he had returned to Mexico City and begun work on the first of many houses in the Pedregal district. Over the next decades Artigas worked extensively in Mexico, designing offices, hotels, houses, urban renewal projects, and schools (when he headed CAPFCE, the Comité Administrador del Programa Federal de Construcción de Escuelas, ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b 1872; d Srinagar, 1955).

English art historian, museum curator, educationalist, painter and collector. In 1899, after a short period of training as an archaeologist in Egypt, Brown went to India, where he served as curator of Lahore Museum and principal of the Mayo School of Art, Lahore. While working in these posts, he was also assistant director of the Delhi Exhibition of 1902–3 (see Delhi, §II), under George Watt. In 1909 he took up employment in Calcutta as principal of the Government School of Art and curator of the art section of the Indian Museum. In 1927 he retired from the Indian Educational Service to take up an appointment as secretary and curator of the Victoria Memorial Hall in Calcutta, where he remained until 1947. After this he lived on a houseboat on the Dal Lake in Srinagar, Kashmir.

Brown’s earliest publications included a contribution to the catalogue of the Delhi Exhibition and a descriptive guide to the Department of Industrial Art at Lahore Museum in ...

Article

Delia Kottmann

Italian village in Lazio, north of Rome, known for its church. The church of SS Anastasius and Nonnosus is all that remains of the 6th-century Benedictine monastery, which submitted to Cluny in ad 940. Apart from some re-used fragments, the architecture is Romanesque, with a Cosmati pavement in opus sectile as well as an ambo and ciborium. The church is famous for its wall paintings from the first quarter of the 12th century. The apse and its adjacent walls, showing the 24 elders, are influenced by Romano–Christian motifs. Christ in the middle of the conch is flanked by Peter and Paul in a Traditio legis depiction, with a procession of lambs below. Underneath, Maria Regina has to be reconstructed in the middle, between two conserved angels followed by female saints in a Byzantine manner. No Romano–Christian iconography seems to have influenced the vast apocalyptic cycle painted on the side walls of the transept. A band of prophets runs beneath the roof on all the walls of the transept. An inscription in the apse indicates three Roman painters....

Article

[CESCM]

French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...

Article

Robin Adèle Greeley

(b Mexico City, 1968).

Mexican sculptor, installation artist, and multimedia artist. A figure in the generation of Mexican artists that came to prominence in the 1990s, Cruzvillegas studied pedagogy at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (1986–1990). Informally, he also studied caricature with Rafael “El Fisgón” Barajas (1985) and with Gabriel Orozco in the Taller de los viernes (“Friday workshop,” 1987–1991). In 2007 Cruzvillegas began developing the aesthetic platform of autoconstrucción (“self-building”). Rooted in the ad hoc building tactics prevalent in squatter settlements on the outskirts of megacities, his autoconstrucción works inventively repurpose found detritus to produce a materialist critique of object experience in the 21st-century’s global consumer economy.

Cruzvillegas’s early artistic ventures were informed by, among other factors, his participation in the Taller de los Viernes; his engagement with the underground music, political caricature, and comic book scenes; and his encounters with artists and curators committed to opening Mexico’s then relatively insular art world to international ideas. At the informal Taller de los viernes run by Orozco, Cruzvillegas explored artists and ideas not readily available in Mexico at the time, assimilating everything from Robert Filliou’s ...

Article

Anastasia N. Dinsmoor

(b Wyndham, NH, July 29, 1886; d Athens, July 2, 1973).

American architect and Classical archaeologist. He studied architecture at Harvard University, graduating in 1906, and worked for three years in architectural practice. Architectural history claimed him, however, and he devoted his life to the study of Greek architecture, becoming one of the leaders in this field. He divided his time between teaching at Columbia University, where he received a PhD in 1929, and conducting field research, mainly in Greece. He wrote four books and numerous articles between 1908 and 1968, mostly on Athenian architecture. Dinsmoor was associated throughout his life with the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, serving as Fellow in Architecture, Architect of the School and Professor of Architecture. He served as president of the Archaeological Institute of America between 1936 and 1945 and was later (1969) awarded the gold medal of the Institute for his archaeological achievements. At the end of World War II Dinsmoor was a member of the American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas....

Article

Katherine Chacón

(b Caracas, Aug 20, 1939; d Caracas, Apr 17, 2016).

Venezuelan photographer and architect. Dorronsoro worked successfully in the fields of photography and architecture from 1963. That year, after his graduation as an architect at the Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), he began to cultivate a passion for photography that developed a strong focus on portraits of the social landscape. His work portrays reality from a critical perspective that reveals the hidden edges of contemporary culture. Sometimes with a touch of irony or acid humor, his photographs provide data to understand the sociocultural context of the subjects and places that he represented and reveal the deep inequalities of the urban environment. Dorronsoro’s first solo exhibition, Gorka Dorronsoro: 21 fotografías de la serie Paraguaná–Venezuela, was held in 1974 at the Museo de Bellas Artes (MBA) in Caracas. The photographs included in this exhibit portrayed the social and economic realities of Paraguaná, a village immersed in poverty, where one of the most important oil refineries in the country is located. In ...

Article

Olle Granath

(b São Paulo, Dec 28, 1928; d Stockholm, Nov 8, 1976).

Swedish painter. Following a childhood spent in Brazil, he moved to Sweden in 1939. He studied archaeology and the history of art, specializing in pre-Columbian manuscripts, and he showed an interest in the theatre. In the early 1950s he worked as a journalist, wrote plays and poems and in 1952 began to paint his first composite pictures. In 1953 Fahlström published a manifesto, Hipy Papy Bthuthdth Thuthda Bthuthdy: Manifesto for Concrete Poetry (Stockholm), which manipulates language irrespective of the meanings of words. He saw an unexploited wealth, both sensual and intellectual, in its phonetic materials and in the distortions that occur when letters are transposed. In the following years he worked mainly on a large painting entitled Ade-Ledic-Nander II (oil, 1955–7; Stockholm, Mod. Mus.), where little hieroglyphic signs are arranged in major, antagonistic groups. Next, he appropriated images from such comic strips as Krazy Kat (for illustration see Comic-strip art...

Article

Janina Zielińska

(b Tuligłowy, nr Lwów [now Lviv, Ukraine], July 30, 1853; d Habelschwerdt, Silesia [now Bystrzyca Kłodzka, Poland], July 9, 1929).

Polish painter. He studied (1869–71) at the Kraków School of Fine Arts before working as a draughtsman for the archaeologist Stanisław Krzyżanowski (1841–81) on excavations in the Ukraine, then for the architect Feliks G̨siorowski. With the latter’s support, Fałat was able to study architecture in Zurich and Munich, but he gave up his studies to work as a technical draughtsman in Zurich. He continued with his painting studies in Munich (1877–80) under Alexander Strähuber (1814–82) and Georg Raab (1821–85). Fałat’s early work shows the influence of the watercolourists Hubert von Herkomer and Ludwig Passini (1832–1903), and of Eduard Grützner (1846–1925). Fałat’s own watercolour work was soon acclaimed both by the large group of Polish painters in Munich and also by those at home. In 1882–6 Fałat lived in Warsaw painting realistic genre scenes and landscapes and contributing illustrations to Polish and German periodicals, such as the Viennese Secession journal ...

Article

Jim Barr and Mary Barr

(b Christchurch, July 12, 1939; d Waitangi, Feb 7, 1990).

New Zealand painter. After graduating in sculpture from the University of Canterbury in 1961, he began to paint seriously. He was involved professionally in archaeology, including recording early Maori rock drawings. In 1963 he travelled to Europe, returning to Christchurch in 1967. He extended his use of photographic sources for his work from the Old Masters to medical and often grotesque images, as in No! (Christchurch, NZ, McDougall A. G.). He moved to Auckland in 1973 and from then Polynesian culture and imagery dominated his work. From these sources he built up his distinctive symbolic vocabulary, for example in Too Late (1986; Rotorua, A. G.). In 1994 Fomison’s work toured throughout New Zealand in the exhibition Fomison: What Shall We Tell Them?

Tony Fomison: A Survey of his Paintings and Drawings from 1961 to 1979 (exh. cat. by J. Barr, Lower Hutt, NZ, Dowse A. G., 1979) L. Strongman...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Yeh Kung-ch’uo ; zi Yufu, Yuhu ; hao Xiaan, Juyuan ]

(b Panyu, Guangdong Province, 1881; d 1968).

Chinese calligrapher, painter, archaeologist, collector, poet and government official. He was born into a wealthy, scholarly family, received a classical education and as a youth of 16 founded a school in Guangzhou (Canton) and a publishing company in Shanghai; at 17 he enrolled in law school at the Imperial University in Beijing. His studies were interrupted two years later by the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, whereupon Ye moved to Wuchang, Hubei Province, and taught history, geography and modern languages for four years. In 1906 he began his official career as a specialist in railways and communications. After 1911, Ye held various positions in the Republican government and was instrumental in the establishment of Jiaotong University in Shanghai; he also served as director of classics for several years at Peking [Beijing] University. After the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), he gave up his government career and devoted himself to the arts and research, although he continued to serve on educational and cultural committees for the rest of his life. In particular, he became involved in the committee to organize the simplification of Chinese characters. In ...

Article

(Mark David)

(b London, Aug 30, 1950).

English sculptor and draughtsman. He studied archaeology, anthropology and art history at Trinity College, Cambridge (1968–71) and Buddhist meditation in India and Sri Lanka (1971–4), experiences that profoundly inform his work. Influenced by the ideals of Indian sculpture as much as by those of modernism, his sculptures use the human form to explore man’s existence in and relation to the world. He is primarily known for the lead figures cast from his own body. Free of individualizing surface detail, with welding lines emphatically exposed, these remain physical casings rather than imitative representations of the universal human form. His belief that the spiritual and physical selves are inseparable is reflected in works such as Land, Sea and Air II (1982). Three figures, crouching, kneeling and standing, were placed on the seashore, embodying the process of Buddhist spiritual awareness. The work also referred to the earthly condition of the body and man’s relationship with his surroundings. These concerns are further reflected in Gormley’s full use of installation space, with sculptures suspended from ceiling and walls. Many works were made specifically for natural environments, most controversially ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

[Edhem, Osman Hamdi; Hamdi Bey]

(b Istanbul, Dec 30, 1842; d Eskihisar, Gebze, nr Istanbul, Feb 24, 1910).

Turkish painter, museum director and archaeologist. In 1857 he was sent to Paris, where he stayed for 11 years, training as a painter under Gustave Boulanger and Jean-Léon Gérôme. On returning to Turkey he served in various official positions, including two years in Baghdad as chargé d’affaires, while at the same time continuing to paint. In 1873 he worked on a catalogue of costumes of the Ottoman empire, with photographic illustrations, for the Weltausstellung in Vienna. In 1881 he was appointed director of the Archaeological Museum at the Çinili Köşk, Topkapı Palace, in Istanbul. He persuaded Sultan Abdülhamid II (reg 1876–1909) to issue an order against the traffic in antiquities, which was put into effect in 1883, and he began to direct excavations within the Ottoman empire. As a result he brought together Classical and Islamic objects for the museum in Istanbul, including the Sarcophagus of Alexander, unearthed in Sidon in ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(Emil)

(b Celle, July 23, 1879; d Basle, Jan 21, 1948).

German architect, archaeologist, historian and philologist. He was educated at the universities of Munich and Berlin and at the Technische Hochschule, Charlottenburg, where he trained as an architect. In 1903 he visited the Middle East by participating as field architect in the excavation of Assur by the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft. The expedition was led by Friedrich Delitzsch, Herzfeld’s instructor in Assyrian and Arabic, and it enabled him to learn the techniques of excavation and to develop his interest in early Islamic culture. After returning to Germany, he made a journey through Luristan to visit Pasargadae and Persepolis, and following the acceptance of his doctoral thesis on Pasargadae by the University of Berlin in 1907, he travelled with Friedrich Sarre, his lifelong colleague and friend whom he had met in 1905, from Istanbul via Aleppo and Baghdad to the Gulf to find an Islamic site suitable for excavation. The choice fell upon ...

Article

Dominique Collon

(Howard Frederick)

(b Edgbaston, Birmingham, May 30, 1902; d Oxford, Jan 7, 1996).

English excavator, architect, writer and teacher. He qualified as an architect (RIBA) 1926, working for two years for Sir Edwin Lutyens before setting up his own practice. His employment as architect during the 1929 excavations at Tell el-Amarna led to a change in career, and until 1937 he worked for the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago excavations in the Diyala region of Iraq, north-east of Baghdad, at Khorsabad in northern Iraq and on the aqueduct built by the Assyrian king Sennacherib (reg 704–681 bc) at Jerwan; Lloyd helped perfect techniques for tracing mud-brick architecture and made innovative use of kite photography. Between 1937 and 1939 he excavated with Sir John Garstang at Mersin in southern Turkey and carried out a key survey of sites in the Sinjar district of northern Iraq. Between 1939 and 1948, while working as Adviser to the Directorate General of Antiquities in Baghdad, he excavated Hassuna, Tell Uqair, Tell Harmal and Eridu. In ...

Article

Nancy E. Green

(b Doylestown, PA, June 24, 1856; d Doylestown, March 9, 1930).

American archaeologist, ethnologist and decorative tile designer and manufacturer. Mercer grew up in a privileged Philadelphia family, and at a young age he began his lifelong love of travel, which would take him eventually throughout Europe, the Middle East and Mexico. These travels would later influence his tile designs for the Moravian Pottery and Tile Works. From 1875 to 1879 he attended Harvard University, studying with George Herbert Palmer, Henry Cabot Lodge and Charles Eliot Norton, the latter having a defining influence on the development of his aesthetic sense. From 1880 to 1881 he read law, first with his uncle Peter McCall and then with the firm of Fraley and Hollingsworth, both in Philadelphia, though he never received his law degree. Thereafter, he returned to Europe, becoming interested in archaeology and beginning his lifelong passion for collecting the minutiae and mundane objects of everyday life, becoming one of the first scholars to examine history through a material culture lens....

Article

Manuel Cirauqui

(b Santiago de Chile, 1972).

Chilean sculptor. A key figure in the post-dictatorship generation of Chilean contemporary artists, Navarro used electrically powered devices—functioning as light sculptures, in most cases—to address interweaving questions of social trauma, popular culture, and the apparently apolitical nature of sensory pleasure.

Born on the eve of Pinochet’s coup, Navarro grew up in Santiago during the dictatorship and started his art school training at the Universidad Católica in the aftermath of the military regime. His early works were handmade, bricolage versions of domestic objects such as lamps, hammocks, or even zootropes, whose use by the viewer equaled a form of performance in the context of the exhibition. In other words, these half-functional object-sculptures were Navarro’s first attempts to appropriate, however minimally, energy and movement through the artwork and then transfer its management to the viewer-user. Dating from the late 1990s and coinciding with the artist’s relocation to New York, Navarro’s first large sculptures still manifest the shared background of a generation orphaned by art criticism, used to circumvent material limitations and administrative obstacles with a do-it-yourself attitude common to various forms of underground pop culture and particularly music. Despite recurrent reference to icons of Western art history (such as Dan Flavin, Josef Albers, or Ellsworth Kelly), Navarro’s relation to this canon is rather anarchistic, as though the historical text were a repertoire of rock songs ready to be sampled....

Article

(b Paris, Jan 3, 1870; d Phnom Penh, Feb 22, 1949).

French architect, art historian and archaeologist. Born into a family of artists, he attended the Lycée de Reims, where he was taught drawing by his father, and in 1891 entered the architectural faculty of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In 1896 he was employed by the Public Works Office in Tunis, where he learnt about archaeology and published a plan and reconstruction of a temple at nearby Carthage. In 1900 he joined the Mission Archéologique d’Indochine (later known as the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient) to document Siamese historical monuments. His early career was dominated by the discovery, exploration and study of the monuments of the Champa. During 1902–4 he excavated a Buddhist monastery at Dong Duong, a complex of temples at Mi Son and an important temple at Chanh Lo. When he returned on leave to Paris, he married the writer and poet Jeanne Leuba, who took an active part in his later fieldwork, often undertaken in hazardous circumstances at inaccessible sites. He was appointed head of the archaeological service of the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient in ...