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Mark Whittow

[Turk.: ‘The Thousand and One Churches’]

Group of late Roman and Byzantine sites on the Karadağ, an isolated mountain in the plain north of the Taurus Mountains in the modern province of Karaman in south-central Turkey (Roman and Byzantine Lykaonia). The mountain has been convincingly identified as the site of Barata, a minor city attested as a bishopric from the 4th century ad to the 12th. On the mountain there are the remains of over 40 churches and associated buildings. These are concentrated in two groups: a lower settlement now known as Maden Șehir and an upper settlement called Değler. There are also numerous other remains on the Karadağ, including some Hittite rock carvings, several churches built on the peaks of the mountain and several medieval fortifications.

Although known to scholars since 1826, the first and only survey of the Karadağ was that carried out by Sir William Ramsay (1851–1939) and Gertrude Bell in ...


Sara Champion

Fortified hilltop site in Dorset, England. It has a long, if discontinuous, history of use as a settlement and ritual centre spanning over 4000 years from the beginning of the Neolithic period to late Roman times in the 4th century ad. However, the most important architecture at the site belongs to the period between 500 bc and ad 50, and the spectacular nature of these Iron Age remains has tended to obscure the significance of the earlier features. Maiden Castle was excavated between 1934 and 1937 by Mortimer Wheeler; testing of his results took place in 1986 and 1987.

The eastern knoll of the hill was first occupied in the mid-4th millennium bc by a Neolithic settlement bounded by a system of ditches. After this settlement had gone out of use, a long mound known as a bank barrow was constructed: running for 546 m from the eastern knoll across the earlier ditches to the western knoll, it is the longest known example of its type. This monument was probably connected with ritual, as two child burials were found near the eastern end. During a gap in the occupation of the site a circular structure, probably a Bronze Age (...


C. A. Burney

[Turk.: ‘earth castle’; Rusahinili; Toprak Kale]

Site in eastern Turkey on a limestone spur of Mt Zimzim, overlooking modern Van. This Urartian citadel was built by Rusa, probably Rusa II (reg c. 680–c. 640 bc), and first attracted the attention of European scholars in 1877 when bronzes came on to the antiquities market. The ensuing British Museum excavations by Captain Emilius Clayton, Dr Raynolds and Hormuzd Rassam in 1879, although destructive, provided the first archaeological context for the previously published Urartian cuneiform inscriptions from Van. C. Lehmann-Haupt (from 1898), and subsequent Russian and Turkish expeditions followed. The principal collections of finds are in the British Museum in London, the Hermitage in St Petersburg and the Louvre in Paris.

The fortress was naturally defensible on three sides, with water brought, on the evidence of a contemporary inscription, probably from the artificial ‘Lake of Rusa’ (Keşiş-Göl). A rock-cut channel also brought water from a spring almost 2 km away into an enormous rock-hewn hall, with basin, drain and benches. A rock-cut spiral staircase, with 56 steps and lit by three windows, led from there into the fortress. The fortification walls are discernible only by the typically Urartian rock-cut ledges serving as base for the masonry....