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[Mir Afżal al-Ḥusaynī al-Tūnī]

(fl Isfahan, 1640–51).

Persian illustrator. Active during the reign of the Safavid shah ‛Abbas II (reg 1642–66), Afzal produced manuscript illustrations and single pages for albums in different styles. Most of the 62 paintings he made for the voluminous copy (St Petersburg, Saltykov-Shchedrin Pub. Lib., Dorn 333) of Firdawi’s Shāhnāma (‘Book of kings’) presented to the monarch by the head of the royal guard, Murtiza Quli Khan, are scenes of battles and combats in the Metropolitan style that was transferred from Herat to Bukhara (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(c)). Unlike the tinted drawings of his contemporaries, Afzal’s single-page compositions use a rich, sombre palette highlighted with gold. Most depict the standard repertory of languid youths and lovers in the style of Riza, but are more erotic. Bishop with a Crosier (Los Angeles, CA, Co. Mus. A., M.73.5.456) is the only known Persian portrait of an Armenian religious figure; it shows a broad-faced, sensitively modelled figure similar in style to those in the ...


Alessandra Frabetti


(b Argenta, nr Ferrara, 1546; d Ferrara, Dec 9, 1636).

Italian architect, engineer and designer. He was the son of Vincenzo Aleotti (not Francesco Aleotti, as is sometimes erroneously stated), from whom Giovanni Battista claimed he ‘learnt the art … as much as from all the other teachers I had’ (letter, 1583; see Coffin, p. 121). In 1575 he succeeded Galasso Alghisi as architect to Alfonso II d’Este (ii), Duke of Ferrara and Modena, who nicknamed him l’Argenta after the town of his birth. When, on the death of the Duke, the Este duchy devolved to the Papal States (1598), Aleotti was confirmed as official architect, with a stipend of 20 scudi per month. His activity extended to various parts of the Po plain, embracing different architectural genres and including some important urban projects.

Among Aleotti’s religious buildings were several churches in Ferrara, including S Barbara (1586–8), S Maria della Rotonda at Castel Tedaldo (1597...


[Muḥammad ‛Alī al-Mashhadī ibn Malik Ḥusayn al-Iṣfahānī]

(fl Isfahan, 1645–60).

Persian illustrator. The son of a painter, Muhammad ‛Ali became one of the most popular and prolific painters at the court of the Safavid monarch ‛Abbas II (reg 1642–66). Muhammad ‛Ali was a skilled and competent artist who preferred rounded contours and simple forms. Although he was not as innovative in form and style as his contemporary Mu‛in, Muhammad ‛Ali’s figures convey tremendous charm, animation and vitality. Eight of his paintings illustrate his own copy (Baltimore, MD, Walters A.G., MS 649) of Muhammad Riza Naw‛i’s Sūz u gudāz (‘Burning and consuming’). The largest number of the artist’s ink drawings highlighted with colour washes and gold illustrate a copy (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 1010) of Hafiz’s Dīvān (collected poetry). His album pages include standard figures of youths, elderly men and lovers as well as more unusual group scenes, such as one of bears imitating a court.

See images tab for additional illustrations....


Feliciano Benvenuti

Italian family of typographers, engravers, publishers and print dealers. Members of the family were active in Venice and Padua in the 16th century and the early 17th. Most notable among them were Luca Bertelli (fl Venice, c. 1560; fl Padua, 1594), Orazio Bertelli (fl Venice, 1562–88), who was possibly Luca’s brother, and Ferdinando (Ferrando, Ferrante) Bertelli (fl Venice, 1561–72). It is difficult to determine the extent of Luca Bertelli’s participation in the execution of the prints he published; they were mainly historical, religious and mythological. Orazio Bertelli probably encouraged Agostino Carracci’s visit to Venice in 1582. Orazio’s engravings included the works of Federico Barocci, Domenico Tibaldi and Paolo Veronese, notably a Pietà (De Grazia, p. 125, no. 102). Ferdinando Bertelli was best known for his publication of a vast number of maps, by both Italian and foreign cartographers.

DBI; Thieme–Becker D. De Grazia: Le stampe dei Carracci...


Christian Dittrich

(b Sangerhausen, July 30, 1641; d Dresden, May 29, 1706).

German painter, draughtsman, graphic artist and writer on art. He was a son and pupil of Andreas Bottschild II (c. 1590–1657), a painter and engraver, who decorated churches in Sangerhausen. Samuel had further training with his brother Johann Andreas Bottschild (b 1630; d after 1670), with whom he went to Saxony. In 1658–61 they worked jointly on gallery paintings of 19 scenes from the Passion (heavily restored 1852) in the Dorfkirche at Hohnstädt, near Leipzig. The decorations for the banqueting hall of Schloss Rötha, near Leipzig (c. 1668–70; destr.), were Bottschild’s first complete programme of mythological themes. At Rötha he also completed two group portraits of the female and male lines of the Friesen family (Dresden, Inst. Dkmlpf.)

In 1673 Bottschild painted a Presentation in the Temple for Freiberg Cathedral. It was probably after this that he left for Italy with his cousin and pupil ...


David Blayney Brown


(b Rostock, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 1582; d London, 1658).

German painter, designer, illustrator and printmaker. He probably studied first in the Low Countries. He was perhaps in Denmark c.1611, but then spent four years in Italy, mainly in Rome and Venice, where he met the English ambassador Sir Henry Wotton. By 1617 he was living in Copenhagen; an inscribed drawing of Apollo and Marsyas from this period is in the Nationalmuseet, Copenhagen. Between 1618 and 1623 Cleyn was employed by Christian IV at Rosenborg Slot, decorating the King’s writing closet with pastoral landscapes, Venetian views, genre scenes and grotesque designs. Commissions followed for larger subject pictures (which show pronounced Venetian influence) and for similar decorative schemes for the royal castles at Frederiksborg (Fireworks), Christiansborg (Children on their Way to School) and Kronborg. In 1623 Cleyn visited England, with a letter of introduction to Prince Charles (later Charles I) from the English envoy in Copenhagen, Sir Robert Anstruther. In the Prince’s absence in Spain, he was received by James I, who wished to retain his services for himself and sent him back to Copenhagen with a request to Christian IV to release him. Work in progress kept Cleyn in Denmark until late in ...


Alexandra Skliar-Piguet

(b Paris, 1611; d Villiers-le-Bel, Val d’Oise, Jan 16, 1668).

French painter and writer. Although he is chiefly known for his Latin poem De arte graphica, which made a major contribution to the aesthetic debate in France in the later 17th century, he was also active as a painter, working in the classicizing style of Simon Vouet and Nicolas Poussin.

Du Fresnoy was the son of Mathieu Du Fresnoy, a well-to-do apothecary established in the Rue Saint-Honoré in Paris. Because his father intended him to go into medicine he received a good education, learning Greek, geometry, anatomy, perspective and architecture. He showed, however, a pronounced taste and talent for poetry and a passion for painting. Persisting in the latter inclination against his parents’ will, he studied with François Perrier and with Vouet, probably in 1631–3. At the end of 1633 or at the beginning of 1634 Du Fresnoy left for Italy. He arrived in Rome without resources and tried to make a living by painting architectural perspectives and views of buildings. The arrival in Rome two years later of Pierre Mignard I, whom he had known while working under Vouet, marked the beginning of a more prosperous period for Du Fresnoy. The two painters were constant companions, sharing lodgings, studying antique art and the works of Raphael together, executing copies commissioned by ...


Annette Faber

(fl Leipzig, 1592; d after 1617).

German painter, illustrator and printmaker. In 1592 he was granted the freedom of Leipzig, where he worked mainly as an illustrator for the publisher Henning Gross. He specialized in views and plans of towns, including Moscow, Wrocław, Venice, Istanbul and Jerusalem. His etchings illustrated the Persianische Reise (Leipzig, 1609) by ...


George Gordon

[Vaclav, Wenzel]

(b Prague, July 23, 1607; d London, March 25, 1677).

Bohemian etcher, illustrator and draughtsman, active in Germany, Flanders and England. He was an outstanding draughtsman and etcher of landscapes and topographical views and as an etcher also excelled in still-life subjects, best exemplified by his prints of shells and of muffs dating from the 1640s. Both fields show his instinct for direct and accurate recording. However, much of his illustrative work, enormously varied in subject-matter, is of no better than workmanlike quality and has always tended to undermine his reputation. Although Hollar spent some 32 of his 52 years of working life in England and signed himself with the anglicized form Wenceslaus, he always considered himself Bohemian, appending to his signature throughout his career the name of his native country or city.

His father was a Bohemian yeoman, knighted in 1600, whose social status probably enabled Hollar to become familiar with the distinguished imperial collection in Prague Castle. This then included paintings by ...



Marie-Félicie Pérez


Franco-Italian family of bankers and patrons. By the beginning of the 17th century several members of the family, originally from the Grisons, had become established as bankers in France and Italy. Little biographical information is available, although inventories reveal that three of the sons of Marc-Antoine Lumague (i) (d 1619) became notable patrons: Barthélémy (b Piuro, Grisons; d Lyon, 17 April 1641), Marc-Antoine (ii) (b 1566; d Milan, 1655) and Charles [Carlo] Lumague. The eldest, Barthélémy Lumague, settled in Lyon, where he made gifts to religious foundations, paying for an Italian tabernacle (untraced) for the Convent of the Visitation in 1627 and in 1634 commissioning from Guercino a Christ Showing Heaven to St Theresa (Aix-en-Provence, Mus. Granet) to decorate the family chapel in the church of the Discalced Carmelites. He also built an ambitious country house, the Château de l’Haye at Saint-Genis-Laval, near Lyon; part of its original decoration, including a monumental marble chimney-piece with his coat of arms dated ...


Michiel Jonker

Dutch family of artists. In the 1690s Jan Luyken (b Amsterdam, 16 April 1649; d Amsterdam, 1 April 1712) and his son Casper Luyken (bapt Amsterdam, 18 Dec 1672; bur Amsterdam, 4 Oct 1708) were the most productive and renowned illustrators in Amsterdam, at that time the publishing centre of the world. Jan was apprenticed to Martinus Zaagmolen (b c. 1620; d 1669) to train as a painter, although no paintings by him have been identified. He is best known as a designer and printmaker who produced title-pages, author portraits and illustrations for books and pamphlets. Around 3200 prints by him, mainly etchings, have survived. There are also many preparatory drawings, the early ones being the most detailed, the later often no more than shorthand scribbles, comprehensible only to Jan himself when it came to etching the copperplates. Many of his illustrations were made to accompany his own literary works; one early and fairly licentious collection of his poems, ...



Eleanor Sims

[Mu‛īn Muṣavvir]

(b c. 1617; fl Isfahan, 1635–97).

Persian illustrator and painter. Numerous works clearly signed in black ink mu‛īn muṣavvir (‘Mu‛in the painter’) establish the dates of this artist’s activity. He codified the style developed by his teacher Riza and remained impervious to the eclecticism of late 17th-century art (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(a)). Mu‛in often drew in magenta; his art had a firm ground in calligraphy and an equally firm colourism, but his palette is less intense than Riza’s and less deep in tonality; his figures are also less mannered in form and less extravagant in line than Riza’s and the males often sport the broad moustaches made fashionable by ‛Abbas I (reg 1588–1629). Signed works include copiously illustrated manuscripts, nearly 60 single-figure paintings and ink drawings, and painted and varnished bookbindings (see Islamic art, §VIII, 10). Many of the manuscripts (e.g. Dublin, Chester Beatty Lib., P. 270, dated 1656) are copies of Firdawsi’s ...


[Kristoffel; Stoffel]

(b Zurich, Feb 1558; d Winterthur, March 27, 1614).

Swiss glass painter, woodcut designer, etcher, book illustrator and writer. He was the son and pupil of the glass painter and councillor Jos Murer (1530–80), founder of a family of artists who lived in Zurich in the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1577 he collaborated with his father on a cycle of 13 pairs of panes representing Thirteen Historic Scenes of the Swiss Confederation for the Zisterzienkloster of Wettingen, Aargau. Christoph’s monograms (sm, stm) are on three panes. He probably followed this work with study travels. In 1579 he designed a cycle of panes in Basle for the well-known citizen Leonhard Thurneysser (1531–96), celebrating the adventurous life of this much-travelled goldsmith, alchemist, astrologer and personal physician to the Elector of Brandenburg. Of the original cycle, two paintings, including the Birth of Leonhard Thurneysser of Basle in 1531 (1579; Basle, Öff. Kstsamml.), and two design sketches (?...


Esin Atil

(fl 1619–22).

Ottoman painter and astrologer. Employed as the official timekeeper at the Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, he was also the foremost illustrator of historical manuscripts under Sultan Osman II (reg 1618–22). His earliest known work is the series of 49 illustrations he provided for a copy of the Shaqā’iq al-nu ‛māniyya, a biographical dictionary of Ottoman scholars by Taşköp rülüzade Ahmed Efendi (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 1263). The manuscript was commissioned in 1619 by the grand vizier Öküz Mehmed Pasha as a gift for the Sultan, and the last scene shows the Grand Vizier presenting the book to the Sultan in the presence of the artist. The illustrations in the Dīvān (collected poems) of the court epic-writer Nadiri (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 899), made in c. 1620, can be attributed to Ahmed Nakşi on stylistic grounds, as can those in the same author’s Şâhnâme, an account of Osman II’s campaign against Poland in ...


(b Paris, July 27, 1672; d Paris, March 13, 1742).

French architect, designer and illustrator. He was in the first rank of architects during the great period of interior decoration in France during the first half of the 18th century. Appointed by the Duc d’Orléans as his chief architect and designer during the Regency (1715–23), Oppenord was in a position to wield a strong influence on the development of the Rococo style.

His father, who had moved to France from the Netherlands, was employed as an ébeniste ordinaire du roi, and from 1684 the family occupied an apartment in the Louvre. Oppenord studied briefly with Jules Hardouin Mansart, but his principal education as an architect and designer took place in Italy. As a protégé of the Surintendant des Bâtiments, Edouard Colbert (1629–99), the Marquis de Villacerf, Oppenord was sent to Rome in 1692 to be attached to the Académie de France there, initially for two years, although his stay was extended and in ...


[Muḥammad Qāsim Tabrīzī]

(b ?Tabriz; d 1659).

Persian illustrator, painter and poet. He was the most important painter in mid-17th-century Isfahan after Mu‛in. Muhammad Qasim contributed illustrations to several manuscripts, including many tinted drawings for two copies (1640; Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 1010; and c. 1650; Dublin, Chester Beatty Lib., MS. 299) of Hafiz’s Dīvān (collected poetry) and 42 paintings to a copy (1648; Windsor Castle, Royal Lib., MS. A/6, Holmes 151) of the Shāhnāma (‘Book of kings’). The artist also painted several murals of single figures and groups of picnickers in the side room (P4) adjoining the reception hall of the Chihil Sutun Palace (1647; see Isfahan, §3, (vii)). He is best known for his album paintings of single figures or small groups (see fig.); they often include short poems or letters that reflect his reputation as a celebrated poet. He was an accomplished draughtsman and sensitive colourist who repeated a few carefully controlled hues to create overall balance and harmony, but his elegant figures are somewhat stiff and his landscapes mere backdrops....


Elizabeth McGrath

(b Perugia, c. 1555; d probably Rome, 1622).

Italian writer and theorist. His fame and most of the scant biographical information that exists derives from his one very successful work: the Iconologia. First published in Rome in 1593, it went through many editions and translations, the text being expanded and ‘improved’ first by Ripa himself, then still more by friends and publishers. Like Vincenzo Cartari’s handbook of mythology, Le imagini de i dei (Venice, 1556), the book was not originally illustrated. Its real impact came when it appeared with a selection of woodcuts in 1603. Proceeding systematically through more than 1000 images and nearly 700 concepts, from Abundance (a garlanded woman clad in gold with a bunch of mustard and poppies and a cornucopia) to Zeal (a man dressed as an ancient priest holding a scourge and a lamp), it describes and prescribes ways to represent allegorical figures. Thus, whatever associations this title may evoke today, the book is the most straightforward of iconographic manuals....


Thomas Nichols

(b Langres, April 18, 1614; d Paris, March 25, 1685).

French watercolourist, draughtsman and printmaker. The most accomplished botanical illustrator in Europe in the 17th century, he worked for a period in Italy (c. 1638–41), where he made the engravings for Fiori diversi (Rome, 1640). During this period he also produced flower-paintings for Nicolas Jarry’s acclaimed album of poems, the Guirlande de Julie (French priv. col.), which was presented by Charles Montausier, Duc de Sainte-Maure, in 1741 to his fiancée, Julie d’Angennes, the daughter of Catherine de Vivonne, Marquise de Rambouillet. Robert was employed c. 1650 by Gaston d’Orléans, brother of Louis XIII, to paint on vellum the birds and flowers kept in the menagerie and botanical garden at the château of Blois; these watercolours, along with those subsequently made for Louis XIV, number around 700 and constitute the nucleus of the ‘Collection des Vélins’ of botanical art and natural history now in the library of the Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris....


Christian Klemm

(b Frankfurt am Main, May 12, 1606; d Nuremberg, Oct 14, 1688).

German painter and writer. A leading figure in 17th-century German painting, he is chiefly famed for his biographical writings in the Teutsche Academie. His great-nephew, an engraver who died young in London, also bore the name Joachim von Sandrart (1668–91).

Sandrart came from a family of Calvinist refugees from Wallonia. After initial lessons in drawing with Georg Keller and Sebastian Stoskopff (1597–1657), he began an apprenticeship in engraving in 1620 with Peter Isselburg in Nuremberg. In 1622 he went to Prague for more advanced tuition with Aegidius Sadeler II, who advised him to turn to painting. He accordingly apprenticed himself to Gerrit van Honthorst in Utrecht. Here, in 1627, he met Peter Paul Rubens, whom he accompanied on a journey through Holland. In 1628 he went with Honthorst to the English court. In 1629 Sandrart travelled via Venice and Florence to Rome. Here he initially became friendly with Domenichino; his acquaintance included both northerners—Claude Lorrain, Nicolas Poussin, François Du Quesnoy, Pieter van Laer—and Italians—Pietro da Cortona, Andrea Sacchi and Pietro Testa. From ...


Feliciano Benvenuti

(b Vicenza, fl late 16th century–early 17th).

Italian painter and printmaker. There is little biographical information about him. His birthplace has been inferred from the signature giosepe. scolari. vecentino. f. on the print of the Man of Sorrows. He was a member of the Arte dei Depentori in Venice between 1592 and 1607. He has been generally considered as a pupil of the painter Giambattista Maganza (c. 1509–86) of Vicenza, although according to others he was a disciple of the Mannerist Giovanni Demio or of Paolo Veronese. Famous in Vicenza for his grisaille frescoes, he also created pictorial works recorded in Venice, as well as at Padua and Verona. Among the Venetian works were four paintings originally in the presbytery of the church of S Luca: a Chastisement of the Serpents, which was executed ‘for nothing, in his youth, in order to make himself known’ (Della pittura veneziana, i (Venice, 1797), p. 295), in S Giovanni Elemosinario; a ...