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Andreas Stolzenburg

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Thomas Dacosta Kaufmann

(b ?Milan, 1527; d Milan, July 11, 1593).

Italian painter, draughtsman and tapestry designer, active also in Austria and Bohemia. He came from a distinguished Milanese family that included a number of archbishops of the city; his father was the painter Biagio Arcimboldo. Giuseppe is first documented in 1549, working with his father for Milan Cathedral; he received payments until 1558 for supplying paintings, designs for an altar baldacchino and stained-glass windows for the cathedral: the Story of Lot and the Life of St Catherine in the south transept windows are usually attributed to him. He collaborated with Giuseppe Meda in designing the gonfalone of St Ambrose in Milan, probably sometime soon after 1558. In 1556 he received a commission to paint the south wall and vault of the south transept of Monza Cathedral, also in Lombardy, a work that must have been completed by 1562. Portions of a fresco of the Tree of Jesse on the south wall there can be attributed to him. In ...

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Christiane Andersson

(b ?Schwäbisch Gmünd, 1484 or 1485; d Strassburg [now Strasbourg, France], 1545).

German painter, printmaker, draughtsman and stained-glass designer. Such contemporaries as Jean Pélerin (De artificiali perspectiva, 1521) and the Alsatian humanist Beatus Rhenanus in 1526 counted him among the greatest artists of his time. In the opinion of specialists today, Baldung’s work places him only half a step behind Grünewald, Dürer and Hans Holbein the younger. A prodigious and imaginative artist of great originality, versatility and passion, Baldung was fascinated with witchcraft and superstition and possessed a desire for novelty of subjects and interpretation that sometimes borders on the eccentric. The new themes he introduced include the supernatural and the erotic. He was the first to show the erotic nature of the Fall in his chiaroscuro woodcut of Adam and Eve (1511; Hollstein, no. 3) and illustrated the successive stages of mating behaviour of horses in his woodcut series of Wild Horses in the forest (1534; Hollstein, nos 238–40); and he is remembered especially for his images of witches. Dürer influenced him only in an early stage but not lastingly. Baldung had a very different sensibility and lacked Dürer’s sense of decorum. Grünewald, whose monumental ...

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Carl Van de Velde

(b Antwerp, c. 1574–5; d Antwerp, July 17, 1632).

Flemish painter and stained-glass designer. His approximate date of birth can be deduced from a document dated 28 August 1618, in which he gives his age as 43. His father was a merchant of oil, candles and groceries; yet it seems likely that Hendrik’s formal education was good, as on his death he left a considerable number of books in different languages. He became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke in 1592–3. Van Mander stated that Adam van Noort was van Balen’s teacher; the name of Marten de Vos has also been suggested. Between 1595 and 1600 van Balen travelled to Italy, presumably visiting Rome, Venice and other cities. Although there is no record of his travels, on his return to Antwerp he became a member of the Guild of the Romanists, so it is clear he had visited Rome. Once back in Antwerp, van Balen collaborated with ...

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Rosa Barovier Mentasti

Italian family of glassmakers. The family are recorded as working in Murano, Venice, as early as 1324, when Iacobello Barovier and his sons Antonio Barovier and Bartolomeo Barovier (b Murano, ?1315; d Murano, ?1380) were working there as glassmakers. The line of descent through Viviano Barovier (b Murano, ?1345; d Murano, 1399) to Iacobo Barovier (b Murano, ?1380; d Murano, 1457) led to the more noteworthy Barovier family members of the Renaissance. Iacobo was responsible for public commissions in Murano from 1425 to 1450. From as early as 1420 he was a kiln overseer, with a determining influence on the fortunes of the Barovier family.

During the 15th century Iacobo’s sons, notably Angelo Barovier (b Murano, ?1400; d Murano, 1460), and his sons Giovanni Barovier, Maria Barovier, and Marino Barovier (b Murano, before 1431; d Murano, 1485) were important glassmakers. From as early as ...

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(b Aelst [now Aalst], Aug 14, 1502; d Brussels, Dec 6, 1550).

South Netherlandish painter, sculptor, architect and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. Son of the Deputy Mayor of the village of Aelst, he was married twice, first to Anna van Dornicke (d 1529), the daughter of the Antwerp painter Jan Mertens, who may have been his teacher; they had two children, Michel van Coecke and Pieter van Coecke II (before 1527–59), the latter of whom became a painter. He later married Mayken Verhulst, herself a painter of miniatures and the mother of three children, Pauwel, Katelijne and Maria; they are shown with their parents in Coecke’s Family Portrait (Zurich, Ksthaus). Mayken is credited with having taught the technique of painting in tempera on cloth to her son-in-law, Pieter Bruegel the elder, who married Maria in 1563. (For family tree see Bruegel family.) Van Mander also stated that Bruegel was Coecke’s apprentice, an allegation no longer universally accepted in view of their substantial stylistic differences. Although the names of other students of Coecke’s, including ...

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Wouter Th. Kloek and Leonard J. Slatkes

Dutch family of artists. With a striking, personal style that sets him apart from his contemporaries, (1) Dirck Crabeth was the most important Dutch stained-glass artist of the 16th century. His younger brother (2) Wouter Crabeth (i) was a less individual designer, whose work has a pleasant spaciousness, but the rendering of detail is not always satisfactory. The impressive windows (1555–71) of the St Janskerk, Gouda, executed largely by the Crabeth brothers, constitute one of the highpoints of Dutch art of that period. Their father was the glass painter Pieter Dircksz., nicknamed Crepel Pier. Van Mander devoted a few lines to Adriaen Pietersz. Crabeth (d 1553), apparently the eldest son and a painter who has so far remained obscure and is said to have been apprenticed to Jan Swart. Wouter Crabeth’s son, Pieter (Woutersz.) Crabeth, fulfilled many important political functions in Gouda, including that of burgomaster. Pieter’s son ...

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Gordon Campbell

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Virginia Chieffo Raguin

[Aert de Glaesmakere; Aert Ortkens; Arnold of Nijmegen; Arnoult de la Pointe; Arnoult van der Spits; Arnt Nijmegen; Artus van Ort de Nieumegue]

(fl c. 1490; d c. 1536).

South Netherlandish glass painter. He was one of the most productive and influential stained-glass artists of the early 16th century and according to Guicciardini invented the technique of firing enamel colour into glass (see Stained glass, §I, 5). He began his career in Tournai, where his most famous works are the transept windows of the cathedral (c. 1500), over-restored by Jean-Baptiste Capronnier c. 1845. Shortly after 1500 Arnoult was called to Rouen, where he influenced a generation of Norman glass painters. His work is exemplified in windows in Rouen Cathedral; the Crucifixion now in York Minster, England, originally from St Jean, Rouen; and windows in St Vincent or St Godard, Rouen.

Arnoult’s figures have small heads and long bodies swathed in layers of richly worked materials, seen, for example, in a magnificent Tree of Jesse (c. 1506) in St Godard, Rouen, and in the window of ...

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(b c. 1510; d Zurich, June 14, 1562).

Swiss glass-painter and designer. In 1536 he settled in Zurich, where he later represented his guild on the Greater Council and held other civic honours. In 1542 and 1555 he was commissioned to make stained-glass windows for the Rathaus. These constructed a powerful new civic iconography for post-Reformation Zurich. Banner-bearing citizens, with finely detailed armour and portrait heads, are set against abstract patterned grounds, the whole framed in elaborate arches. Appropriate biblical scenes of loyalty to the state (e.g. Judith and Holofernes) fill the corners. Two impressively drawn lions occupy a roundel (1542) surrounded by the arms of the Zurich domains. In a 1557 window (Zurich, Geshaus Schneggen) of similar design, the lions are instead fully Mannerist, with elongated bodies and twisted mouths. Von Egeri evidently adapted his style to the job; in his Muri Abbey windows (1557) St Martin and St George ride tranquil Paolo Uccello horses, while the large figures are set against blue skies surmounting perfectly rendered landscapes. Many watercolour designs for windows emanated from von Egeri’s prolific workshop in the 1540s; typically, variations on the theme of two figures (usually men) flanking a piece of heraldry (e.g. the ...

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Falknov  

Olga Drahotová

[Ger. Falkenau.]

Czech centre of glass production. In 1530 a glass factory was established by Paul Schürer (1504–94) of Aschberg, and during the 16th and 17th centuries it was one of the most important glassworks in Bohemia. It was evidently associated with the beginnings of enamel decoration, because as early as 1562 it was commissioned to supply enamelled glass to the Imperial Vice-Regent in Prague, Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol. At the end of the 16th century and beginning of the 17th it supplied glass to the Imperial court. One of the glassworks’ products is a tankard decorated in enamel depicting the Virgin Mary (1647; Prague, Mus. Dec. A.). In the second half of the 16th century glass painters began to concentrate in the area around the Falkenau works and were joined in the last quarter of the 17th century by glass engravers, who since 1683 had been associated with the guild of painters and glass engravers at ...

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Gordon Campbell

(d 1517).

Stained-glass artist of Dutch or German origin, who settled in England c. 1496 and in 1505 was appointed King’s Glazier. He was responsible for the windows in the Henry VII Chapel in Westminster Abbey (destr.). In 1515 he began the windows for the Chapel of King’s College Cambridge, which had been designed by ...

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E. Luther

(b Zurich, c. 1470; d Zurich, c. 1539–40).

Stained-glass painter. He was mentioned before 1489 in court records in Zurich, where relatives were also active as stained-glass artists at the beginning of the 16th century. He settled c. 1499–1500 in Berne, living from 1509 in the Kirchgasse (now Münstergasse), and in 1519 he was appointed a member of the cantonal parliament (Grosser Rat). He received many commissions throughout the Swiss Confederation, above all in Berne and Fribourg, and his work exercised a significant influence on the other stained-glass artists of Berne. The earliest records of work by Funk come from the treasury accounts of Fribourg and Berne in 1504 and 1505: in 1505 he executed a series of windows (destr.) depicting the estates of the Alte Orte for Fribourg Town Hall. Earlier than this, however, is a window (c. 1501; Berne, Hist. Mus.) with both a signature and the monogram hfg (‘Hans Funk Glasmaler’). The quality of Funk’s art may be seen in the expressive characterization of the halberdiers holding the arms of Bremgarten and the Confederation, and in the combination of exact detail and liveliness in the fine gold work....

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Hans Georg Gmelin

German family of artists. The family’s main representative, (1) Gumpolt Giltlinger I, from Augsburg, was a painter of panels and stained-glass windows. His son Gumpolt Giltlinger II (fl 1520; d 1547) was the father of Christoph Giltlinger I (fl 1554–96), who was trained by Christoph Amberger and was the grandfather of Christoph Giltlinger II (fl 1591–1608). Florian Giltlinger (c. 1490–1547) and his son Andreas Giltlinger (fl 1563; d after 1580) were of greater significance, as painter and glass painter respectively, than the descendants of Gumpolt Giltlinger I, but their relationship to them has not been established.

Hans Georg Gmelin

(fl Augsburg, 1481; d Augsburg, 1522). Painter.

All works documented as his seem to be destroyed or untraced. They include a St Michael panel (1481–4) for Augsburg Cathedral; the high payment of 400 guilders suggests the esteem in which the artist was held, as does his frequent introduction of apprentices to the guild between ...

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Patrick M. de Winter

(b ?Troyes, 1565; d ?Troyes, c. 1642).

French glass painter. He was probably a pupil of Nicolas Macadré. Gontier headed a busy workshop in Troyes in which his three sons, Linard Gontier the younger, Nicolas Gontier and Jean Gontier were active. His creations are celebrated for their versatility: the rich, deep hues of religious compositions attained through a mastery of the enamelling technique, and the minutely detailed but ambitious secular scenes. He is recorded as having produced a treatise (lost by the 18th century), which demonstrates his commitment to technique. His better known sacred works were executed for Troyes Cathedral—Credo, 1606; Mystical Wine Press, 1625; Life of St Peter, 1639 (the Immaculate Conception and the Martyrdom of St Stephen, 1624, were transferred there from St Etienne, Troyes)—and for St Martin-ès-Vignes (Life of the Virgin, 1620–25). His civic commissions are exemplified by some 45 extant panels (1620–25; Troyes, Bib. Mun., Mus. Hist. Troyes & Champagne) from the Hôtel de l’Arquebuse, Troyes. Crisply depicted, the last eulogize the French monarchy and the allegiance of the gunsmiths to Louis XIII. Some of the preparatory drawings survive, including two in Troyes (Mus. Hist. Troyes & Champagne and priv. col.), and two for the ...

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Christiane Andersson

(b Solothurn, c. 1485; d ?Basle, 1527–9).

Swiss draughtsman, goldsmith, die-cutter, engraver, woodcut and stained-glass designer, painter and glass painter. He was the most original and gifted artist of the early Renaissance in German-speaking Switzerland. His highly imaginative drawings, created as independent works of art, are works of exceptional quality, vitality, expressiveness and often humour. For northern European art, Graf played an important role in the liberation of drawing from its traditionally subsidiary status as preparatory study for works of art in other media.

Graf was trained as a goldsmith by his father, Hug Graf (d 1527–30), and remained active in this profession throughout his career. Although almost none of his goldsmith work is preserved, examples such as the silver engraved plates (1519; London, BM; Zurich, Schweizer. Landesmus.) from a reliquary bust executed for a monastery in the canton of Lucerne are of a high quality. He received additional training (1507–8) from the goldsmith ...

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Hans Georg Gmelin

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Jane S. Peters

[Hirsfogel; Hirsvogel]

German family of artists. They were Nuremberg’s leading stained-glass painters during the late 15th century and the 16th. (1) Veit Hirschvogel the elder, the son of a glazier named Heinz (d 1485), established the family workshop and became the city’s official glazier. His son Veit Hirschvogel the younger (1485–1553) succeeded him as official glazier, being succeeded in his turn by his son Sebald Hirschvogel (1517–89), who remained in the post for 33 years. The brothers of Veit the younger, Hans Hirschvogel (d 1516) and (2) Augustin Hirschvogel, also joined the glass-painting workshop, but Augustin, the most talented of the family, left it in 1525 to pursue a varied career outside Nuremberg, producing many etchings and also innovations in cartography. It is supposed that the Viennese goldsmith Veit Hirschvogel (1543–74) was Augustin’s son.

Hollstein: Ger.; NDB; Thieme–Becker

Jane S. Peters...