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Gordon Campbell

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Sheila Edmunds

[Baemler, Johann; Bemler, Hans]

(fl 1453–1504).

German illuminator and printer . He is listed in the Augsburg tax rolls from 1453 as a scribe and from 1477 as a printer. Bämler belonged to the guild of painters, glassmakers, woodcut-makers and goldbeaters, eventually achieving the rank of Zwollfer (director). Examples of his youthful work are two signed miniatures dated 1457 (New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib., MS. M.45) and a signed historiated initial on a detached Antiphonal leaf (Philadelphia, PA, Free Lib., Lewis M 67:3). Between 1466 and 1468 he rubricated and decorated with calligraphic and painted ornament four books printed in Strasbourg: a Latin Bible (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bib., Bibel-S.2°155), a copy of Thomas Aquinas’s Summa theologica (Munich, Bayer Staatsbib., 2° Inc. s.a.1146a) and two copies of St Augustine’s City of God (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, XXII.D.11, and Manchester, John Rylands U. Lib., no. 3218, Inc. 3A8).

Bämler’s knowledge of printing was probably acquired in Augsburg, in the shop of ...

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Rosa Barovier Mentasti

Italian family of glassmakers. The family are recorded as working in Murano, Venice, as early as 1324, when Iacobello Barovier and his sons Antonio Barovier and Bartolomeo Barovier (b Murano, ?1315; d Murano, ?1380) were working there as glassmakers. The line of descent through Viviano Barovier (b Murano, ?1345; d Murano, 1399) to Iacobo Barovier (b Murano, ?1380; d Murano, 1457) led to the more noteworthy Barovier family members of the Renaissance. Iacobo was responsible for public commissions in Murano from 1425 to 1450. From as early as 1420 he was a kiln overseer, with a determining influence on the fortunes of the Barovier family.

During the 15th century Iacobo’s sons, notably Angelo Barovier (b Murano, ?1400; d Murano, 1460), and his sons Giovanni Barovier, Maria Barovier, and Marino Barovier (b Murano, before 1431; d Murano, 1485) were important glassmakers. From as early as ...

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(fl second half of the 15th century).

Italian master builder and architect. During 1465 and 1466 his name appears in the wages book of the Ospedale Maggiore of Lodi, for which he produced doors, oculi and windows in terracotta. In 1479 he was appointed engineer of the city of Milan, and in 1489 he is mentioned as ducal engineer. He worked on the fortifications at Biasca in 1481, and in the same year Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan (reg 1476–94), recommended Battaggio and Giovanni Antonio Amadeo to succeed Guinoforte Solari as architect to the Fabbrica del Duomo. Amadeo was appointed, but Battaggio did not manage to enter the conservative Milanese workshop either then or two years later, when Ludovico Sforza proposed him in preference to Hans Niesenberger. In 1484 Conte Manfredo Landi III (d 1491) commissioned Battaggio and Agostino Fonduli to finish and decorate the façade of his palazzo in Piacenza (now the Palazzo dei Tribunali). This work included the window-frames, the string course bearing heads of Roman emperors and scenes of the marine thiasos and the ...

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Anne Hagopian van Buren

(b ?Burgundy, c. 1420; d Bruges, before 1502).

Franco-Flemish painter and designer. He is first documented painting stained glass in Philip the Good’s Burgundian castle of Argilly in 1448 and 1452. He was appointed a painter to the Duke in January 1454, just before he worked with Colard le Voleur, Master of the Entertainments at Hesdin, on fountains and other machines for the Banquet of the Pheasant in Lille. During the next years, Coustain was responsible for painting the banners and heralds’ tabards for several court festivities and funerals. He coloured statues of St Philip and St Elizabeth on the ducal palace in Brussels in 1462 and painted a Crucifixion and a Virgin and Child on the panels placed at the head and foot of the Duke’s catafalque in 1467.

Coustain was most active under Charles the Bold. In 1468 he and the Duke’s other painter, Jean Hennecart, were in Bruges, supervising 166 painters and sculptors in the production of the decorations for the meeting of the Order of the Golden Fleece as well as decorations, mechanical devices, props and sets for ...

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Francesco Quinterio

(b ?1438; d Florence, 1503).

Italian mason and architect. He is first recorded in Pisa (1462–3) with other Lombard stonecutters employed to carve the marble tracery for the Gothic windows of the Camposanto (cemetery), adjacent to the cathedral. From 1472 he is recorded as a master mason, responsible for the completion of the church of Santo Spirito, Florence (begun 1436), in accordance with the design by Brunelleschi; Salvi was also responsible for the supply of materials and the repair of tools. In 1475 he was appointed principal mason for the outstanding decorative work of the church, including the upper cornice of the nave, the dome and the façade. He constructed a working model of the dome of Santo Spirito, based on the original model by Brunelleschi, for the office of works. This was the first dome in Florence to have a hemispherical external profile. In May 1482 Salvi was commissioned to decorate the interior of the façade of Santo Spirito, and in ...

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Virginia Chieffo Raguin

[Aert de Glaesmakere; Aert Ortkens; Arnold of Nijmegen; Arnoult de la Pointe; Arnoult van der Spits; Arnt Nijmegen; Artus van Ort de Nieumegue]

(fl c. 1490; d c. 1536).

South Netherlandish glass painter. He was one of the most productive and influential stained-glass artists of the early 16th century and according to Guicciardini invented the technique of firing enamel colour into glass (see Stained glass, §I, 5). He began his career in Tournai, where his most famous works are the transept windows of the cathedral (c. 1500), over-restored by Jean-Baptiste Capronnier c. 1845. Shortly after 1500 Arnoult was called to Rouen, where he influenced a generation of Norman glass painters. His work is exemplified in windows in Rouen Cathedral; the Crucifixion now in York Minster, England, originally from St Jean, Rouen; and windows in St Vincent or St Godard, Rouen.

Arnoult’s figures have small heads and long bodies swathed in layers of richly worked materials, seen, for example, in a magnificent Tree of Jesse (c. 1506) in St Godard, Rouen, and in the window of ...

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Francesca Petrucci

(b Florence, 1470; d after 1498).

Italian sculptor. He belonged to a family of well-known artisans; his grandfather Agnolo di Lippo di Polo had worked as an assistant on the stained glass for the cupola of Florence Cathedral and took the name de’ Vetri, sometimes also used by his descendants. Agnolo’s father, Polo di Agnolo, made masks and had his workshop on the Ponte Vecchio, Florence, and his brother Domenico engraved precious stones and medals. Vasari said that Agnolo was a pupil of Verrocchio, adding that ‘he worked very well in clay and has filled the city with works from his hands’. Given the artist’s birth date and that Verrocchio left Florence forever in 1483, Agnolo’s apprenticeship would have been very brief; it is probable that he stayed on in the workshop when it was directed by Lorenzo di Credi.

Two of Agnolo’s works are documented. On 16 August 1495 the Ufficiali della Sapienza commissioned a statue of ...

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Dominique Thiébaut

(b Cuisery, nr Chalon-sur-Saône; fl 1414; d before Aug 19, 1461).

Burgundian painter. He is first mentioned in Avignon in 1414. His three sons, Aubry, Jacques and Jean (who returned to Cuisery in 1452 or 1453), were also painters. His daughter Peyronnette married a painter from Tournai, Arnolet de Catz (fl 1430–34), who became Guillaume’s associate in 1430. When suffering from a serious illness, Guillaume made his will on 4 December 1458 and requested to be buried in Notre-Dame-la-Principale, Avignon.

Guillaume Dombet appears to have had a flourishing career as a master glazier. He supplied stained-glass windows for the Papal Palace in Avignon (1414), for Aix Cathedral (1415; 1444; 1449), for the synagogue in Aix (1418), for the Franciscan church in Marseille (1425), for Ste Marthe in Tarascon (1432), and for the St Pierre-de-Luxembourg Chapel near the Celestine church in Avignon (1448). At the same time he worked on many altarpieces, often in collaboration with his sons. He received commissions for Aix Cathedral (...

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Cordelia Warr

(b ?Sárospatak, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, 1207; d Marburg, Nov 17, 1231; can May 27, 1235; fd 17 Nov).

Hungarian saint and patron. She was the daughter of the Árpád King Andrew II of Hungary (reg 1205–35) and Gertrude of Andechs-Meran (1185–1213) and married Ludwig IV, Landgrave of Thuringia (reg 1217–27) in 1221. After Ludwig’s death (11 September 1227) whilst on crusade, Elizabeth made vows of obedience and chastity in the Franciscan church in Eisenach and later moved to Marburg where she founded a hospital. She died on 17 November 1231 and was canonized on 27 May 1235. Her relics were preserved in the Marburg, Elisabethkirche (begun 1235, dedicated 1283) having been translated there on 1 May 1236 in the presence of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II.

Elizabeth’s cult was promoted through a number of royal houses with connections to the saint, including those of Naples and Castile, and she was also strongly supported by the Franciscan Order. An early 14th-century fresco cycle in the Clarissan church of S Maria Donna Regina in Naples, was commissioned by Mary of Hungary, Queen of Naples (...

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Michael W. Cothren

Cathedral dedicated to Notre-Dame at Evreux, in the département of Eure, France, 80 km west of Paris, known primarily for its collection of stained-glass windows. Begun after fire destroyed its predecessor in 1119, it was not completed until the 17th century, and its appearance reflects several phases of the Gothic style, with richly decorated Flamboyant traceried windows and a late 16th-century west façade. The cathedral has an aisled nave with a two-tower façade and transepts leading to a chevet with ambulatory and chapels. It was severely damaged in 1940 and was subsequently restored.

Although glazing survives from building campaigns from the late 13th century (south nave chapels, parts of the nave clerestory) to the 16th (north transept clerestory and rose window), the most important windows date from the 14th and 15th centuries, in particular the choir clerestory, whose glass is dated c. 1320–1400. The exact dating, patronage, and original disposition are controversial. The iconographic emphasis is on the Virgin Mary and the patron saints of the donors. The latter constitute some of the most powerful Normans of 1320–40 (...

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Gordon Campbell

(d 1517).

Stained-glass artist of Dutch or German origin, who settled in England c. 1496 and in 1505 was appointed King’s Glazier. He was responsible for the windows in the Henry VII Chapel in Westminster Abbey (destr.). In 1515 he began the windows for the Chapel of King’s College Cambridge, which had been designed by ...

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E. Luther

(b Zurich, c. 1470; d Zurich, c. 1539–40).

Stained-glass painter. He was mentioned before 1489 in court records in Zurich, where relatives were also active as stained-glass artists at the beginning of the 16th century. He settled c. 1499–1500 in Berne, living from 1509 in the Kirchgasse (now Münstergasse), and in 1519 he was appointed a member of the cantonal parliament (Grosser Rat). He received many commissions throughout the Swiss Confederation, above all in Berne and Fribourg, and his work exercised a significant influence on the other stained-glass artists of Berne. The earliest records of work by Funk come from the treasury accounts of Fribourg and Berne in 1504 and 1505: in 1505 he executed a series of windows (destr.) depicting the estates of the Alte Orte for Fribourg Town Hall. Earlier than this, however, is a window (c. 1501; Berne, Hist. Mus.) with both a signature and the monogram hfg (‘Hans Funk Glasmaler’). The quality of Funk’s art may be seen in the expressive characterization of the halberdiers holding the arms of Bremgarten and the Confederation, and in the combination of exact detail and liveliness in the fine gold work....

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Hans Georg Gmelin

German family of artists. The family’s main representative, (1) Gumpolt Giltlinger I, from Augsburg, was a painter of panels and stained-glass windows. His son Gumpolt Giltlinger II (fl 1520; d 1547) was the father of Christoph Giltlinger I (fl 1554–96), who was trained by Christoph Amberger and was the grandfather of Christoph Giltlinger II (fl 1591–1608). Florian Giltlinger (c. 1490–1547) and his son Andreas Giltlinger (fl 1563; d after 1580) were of greater significance, as painter and glass painter respectively, than the descendants of Gumpolt Giltlinger I, but their relationship to them has not been established.

Hans Georg Gmelin

(fl Augsburg, 1481; d Augsburg, 1522). Painter.

All works documented as his seem to be destroyed or untraced. They include a St Michael panel (1481–4) for Augsburg Cathedral; the high payment of 400 guilders suggests the esteem in which the artist was held, as does his frequent introduction of apprentices to the guild between ...

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Hans Georg Gmelin

In 

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Virginia Chieffo Raguin

(b Andlau, Alsace; fl 1447; d c. 1501).

German glass painter. His commissions and influence extended from the area around Strasbourg into southern Germany and Austria. Hemmel became a citizen of Strasbourg through marriage in 1447 with the widow of a local glass painter named Heinz. His work shows figure types similar to contemporary engravings, in particular those of Martin Schongauer; Hemmel’s Adoration of the Magi in the Nonnbergkirche, Salzburg, is derived from a Schongauer print of the same subject. Distinctive among his many commissions are the Kramer window (1479–80) in Ulm Minster and the axial choir window of St Anne and the Virgin (c. 1478–9) in the Stiftskirche, Tübingen. The balance of the intense purple, scarlet and deep blue against extensive silver-stain yellow and white glass creates a tension between spatial planes. Hemmel’s draughtsmanship in his Virgin and Child with Lily from the Nonnbergkirche, Salzburg (c. 1470–80; Darmstadt, Hess. Landesmus.; see Stained glass, ...