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Gordon Campbell

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Gordon Campbell

Brown glass with golden specks, manufactured in antiquity and rediscovered in the 16th century by the glassmakers of the Venetian island of Murano; the name (It.: avventurina; Venetian: aventurina) implies that its rediscovery was accidental, Aventurine was made by the admixture of copper crystals to molten glass, and was used both for glassware and as a porcelain glaze. A similar effect was subsequently achieved with lacquer. Since the 19th century the term ‘aventurine’ has also been used in a transferred sense to denote a variety of quartz in which the golden specks are pieces of mica....

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Carl Van de Velde

(b Antwerp, c. 1574–5; d Antwerp, July 17, 1632).

Flemish painter and stained-glass designer. His approximate date of birth can be deduced from a document dated 28 August 1618, in which he gives his age as 43. His father was a merchant of oil, candles and groceries; yet it seems likely that Hendrik’s formal education was good, as on his death he left a considerable number of books in different languages. He became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke in 1592–3. Van Mander stated that Adam van Noort was van Balen’s teacher; the name of Marten de Vos has also been suggested. Between 1595 and 1600 van Balen travelled to Italy, presumably visiting Rome, Venice and other cities. Although there is no record of his travels, on his return to Antwerp he became a member of the Guild of the Romanists, so it is clear he had visited Rome. Once back in Antwerp, van Balen collaborated with ...

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Rosa Barovier Mentasti

Italian family of glassmakers. The family are recorded as working in Murano, Venice, as early as 1324, when Iacobello Barovier and his sons Antonio Barovier and Bartolomeo Barovier (b Murano, ?1315; d Murano, ?1380) were working there as glassmakers. The line of descent through Viviano Barovier (b Murano, ?1345; d Murano, 1399) to Iacobo Barovier (b Murano, ?1380; d Murano, 1457) led to the more noteworthy Barovier family members of the Renaissance. Iacobo was responsible for public commissions in Murano from 1425 to 1450. From as early as 1420 he was a kiln overseer, with a determining influence on the fortunes of the Barovier family.

During the 15th century Iacobo’s sons, notably Angelo Barovier (b Murano, ?1400; d Murano, 1460), and his sons Giovanni Barovier, Maria Barovier, and Marino Barovier (b Murano, before 1431; d Murano, 1485) were important glassmakers. From as early as ...

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(b Utrecht,?1597–8; d Utrecht, bur Nov 12, 1671).

Dutch painter. He was the son of the Utrecht glass painter Herman Beerntsz. van Bijlert (c. 1566–before 1615). Jan must have trained first with his father but was later apprenticed to the painter Abraham Bloemaert. After his initial training, he visited France and travelled to Italy, as did other artists from Utrecht. Jan stayed mainly in Rome, where he became a member of the Schildersbent; he returned to Utrecht in 1624. In Rome he and the other Utrecht artists had come under the influence of the work of Caravaggio; after their return home, this group of painters, who became known as the Utrecht Caravaggisti, adapted the style of Caravaggio to their own local idiom. The Caravaggesque style, evident in van Bijlert’s early paintings, such as St Sebastian Tended by Irene (1624; Rohrau, Schloss) and The Matchmaker (1626; Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Mus.), is characterized by the use of strong chiaroscuro, the cutting off of the picture plane so that the image is seen close-up and by an attempt to achieve a realistic rather than idealized representation. Van Bijlert continued to paint in this style throughout the 1620s, a particularly productive period....

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Gordon Campbell

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Walter Spiegl

Glass manufactory in Brandenburg. The first Brandenburg glassworks was established in 1602 by Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg (reg 1598–1608), and was run by Bohemian glassmakers. The earliest products included coloured and marbled glass. In 1607 the factory was transferred to Marienwalde, near Küstrin (now Kostrzyn, Poland), and another factory was built in Grimnitz in 1653. Both factories produced window glass and simple drinking vessels based on Bohemian models and painted with enamels or, from the mid-17th century, engraved. In 1674 Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, built another factory at Drewitz near Potsdam for the production of glass crystal. The glass-engraver Georg Gondelach came from Dessau to work there from 1677, accompanied by the engraver Christoph Tille (fl 1685) and the enamel-painter Ruel. After the arrival of the glassmaker Johann Kunckel (1630–1703), the great period of Brandenburg glass began. Kunckel operated the glassworks in Drewitz from ...

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Olga Drahotová

[Ger. Kreibitz]

Czech centre of glass production. A glass factory was established in Chřibská in northern Bohemia on the Česká Kamenice estate in the Lužické Mountains at the beginning of the 15th century. Martin Friedrich (1582–1612) was a renowned glassmaker, and he and other glassmakers at the works were invited in 1601 by the Elector of Brandenburg, Joachim Frederick (reg 1598–1608), to establish a glass workshop at Grimnitz in north Brandenburg. From the list of products made at Grimnitz it is evident that the Chřibská glassworks produced cold-painted, enamelled, engraved and filigree glass. Dishes and goblets were decorated with the imperial eagle, the Electors, allegories of the Virtues, the Apostles and the Seven Ages of Man. During the 17th century the production of painted glass continued at Chřibská. In 1661 the first Bohemian guild of glassmakers, enamellers and glass engravers was established at Chřibská. From the 1660s local records indicate the names of the glass engravers, whose numbers increased after the 1670s. By the end of the 17th century the factory was producing a good-quality potash glass. Between ...

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Alan Chong

[Cuijp; Kuyp]

Dutch family of artists. Gerrit Gerritsz. (c. 1565–1644), whose father (d 1605) was probably an artist, was a glass painter from Venlo who moved to Dordrecht around 1585. He married and joined the Guild of St Luke there that same year, serving as the Guild’s deacon in 1607 and 1608. He designed and executed numerous stained-glass windows in Dordrecht and other towns until 1639, but only his cartoon for a window in St Janskerk, Gouda, survives (1596; Gouda, Archf Ned. Hervormde Gemeente). His eldest son, Abraham Gerritsz. (1588–c. 1647), was also a glass painter; his second son, (1) Jacob Gerritsz., was a painter. Gerrit Gerritsz. married a second time in 1602; children from this marriage included the artists Gerrit Gerritsz. the younger (1603–51), also a glass painter, and the painter (2) Benjamin Gerritsz. By 1617 Jacob Gerritsz. had adopted the surname Cuyp, and the rest of the family seems eventually to have followed this practice. ...

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Gordon Campbell

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(b ’s Hertogenbosch, bapt May 9, 1596; d Antwerp, Dec 31, 1675).

Flemish glass-painter, draughtsman, painter and tapestry designer. His reputation rests primarily on his drawings and oil sketches, of which several hundred survive, intended mainly as designs for stained-glass windows and prints. He was strongly influenced by the work of other important Flemish artists of the late 16th century and early 17th, notably Rubens, whose motifs and stylistic elements he frequently reworked in his own compositions.

He was the son of the glass painter Jan (Roelofsz.) van Diepenbeeck (d 1619) and first acquired the skills of his trade in his father’s workshop in ’s Hertogenbosch. In 1622–3 he became a master glass painter in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp; it is possible that his move from ’s Hertogenbosch in 1621 was related to the war negotiations that were underway that year, which particularly threatened the northern border provinces of the southern Netherlands, where ’s Hertogenbosch was located....

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Gertrud Seidmann

German family of gem-engravers. (Johann) Christoph Dorsch (b Nuremberg, 10 July 1676; d Nuremberg, 17 Nov 1732) was the son of Erhard Dorsch (1649–1712), who worked on glass and the cutting of armorial seals on precious stones. Christoph Dorsch studied anatomy and drawing; he turned to engraving relatively late in life yet was one of the most industrious craftsmen of his time, turning out large quantities of gems. He specialized in cutting series of dynasties and rulers from the earliest times to his own days, in cornelian, grey agate and glass, such as 252 popes of Rome (Leiden, Rijksmus. Oudhd.), 126 emperors to Charles VI and the kings of France from the Dark Ages to Louis XV (both series engraved in Bayer; examples at Leiden, Rijksmus. Oudhd.). The portraits, mostly fanciful, are derived from prints and medals. Dorsch’s daughter Susanna Maria (b Nuremberg, 1701; d...

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Matthias Frehner

(b Brugg, bapt Jan 17, 1645; d Berne, Oct 10, 1736).

Swiss painter. The son of the painter Hans Jakob Dünz II (b 1603; fl 1633) and grandson of the glass painter Jakob Dünz I (1580–1649), he settled in Berne in 1661. Dünz produced numerous portraits of the city’s patricians and mayors, and his group portraits of the Berne Library Committee (1696–7; Berne, Burgerbib.), although harking back to Dutch guild paintings of the early 17th century, are of high quality. In his early years Dünz also produced topographical views for the painter Albrecht Kauw (1621–81) and drawings for the Bernisches Aemter-, Regiments- und Geschlechterbuch (Berne, 1701) by Viktor von Erlach. As a hobby he executed flower and fruit paintings, such as those representing the four seasons in his Still-life series (1710; Berne, Kstmus.).

R. von Effinger: ‘Leben des Malers Johannes Dünz von Bern’, Neujahrsblatt der Kunstgesellschaft Zürich [cont. as Neujbl. Zürch. Kstlergesellschaft]...

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Gordon Campbell

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Falknov  

Olga Drahotová

[Ger. Falkenau.]

Czech centre of glass production. In 1530 a glass factory was established by Paul Schürer (1504–94) of Aschberg, and during the 16th and 17th centuries it was one of the most important glassworks in Bohemia. It was evidently associated with the beginnings of enamel decoration, because as early as 1562 it was commissioned to supply enamelled glass to the Imperial Vice-Regent in Prague, Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol. At the end of the 16th century and beginning of the 17th it supplied glass to the Imperial court. One of the glassworks’ products is a tankard decorated in enamel depicting the Virgin Mary (1647; Prague, Mus. Dec. A.). In the second half of the 16th century glass painters began to concentrate in the area around the Falkenau works and were joined in the last quarter of the 17th century by glass engravers, who since 1683 had been associated with the guild of painters and glass engravers at ...

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(bapt Liège, May 23, 1614; d Liège, July 10, 1675).

Franco-Flemish painter and architect. He was born into a family of artists, and his first apprenticeship was probably in Liège with his father, Renier Flémal (b 1585), a painter of stained glass. Bertholet was later a pupil of Henri Trippet (c. 1600–74) before completing his training during the 1630s with Gérard Douffet. In 1638 Flémal went to Rome and on the return journey visited Florence and stayed for some time in Paris. He had returned to Liège by 1646. Flémal had a successful career there, painting for private collectors, but he was also commissioned to work for the many religious establishments. His patron was Canon Lambert de Liverloo, Chancellor to the Prince-Bishop of Liège. In addition, Flémal made designs for religious buildings and fittings as well as for his own house, but none of this architectural work has survived. In 1670 he was at the peak of his career. He was painter to the Prince-Bishop, ...

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Lyckle de Vries

(b Leeuwarden, Aug 16, 1592; d Leeuwarden, c. 1662).

Dutch painter. He was the son of Symon Juckes de Geest (d before 1604), a painter of stained-glass windows. He studied with Abraham Bloemaert in Utrecht and then travelled to France and Italy. There he became a member of the colony of Dutch artists active in Rome that later developed into the Schildersbent, who gave him the nickname ‘the Frisian eagle’. He made a copy after Caravaggio’s Mary Magdalene (untraced) in Rome in 1620 (ex-S. Alorda priv. col., Barcelona; see Arnaud). He returned to Leeuwarden in 1621 and became the favourite portrait painter of the Frisian stadholders and the landed gentry. His marriage to Hendrickje Uylenborch, who was related to Rembrandt’s wife Saskia, strengthened his contacts with artistic centres outside Friesland.

De Geest’s early work is somewhat conventional, adhering to the style of Michiel van Mierevelt and Paulus Moreelse. Changes in fashion and artistic influences from Amsterdam lent more elegance and refinement to his later works. He is best known for his portraits of children, many of whom are dressed in pastoral costume, in the Utrecht tradition of Moreelse and Bloemaert, and for his life-size full-length portraits of influential Frisian noblemen. His most original works are three life-size group portraits of the Frisian counts of Nassau-Dietz and their relatives (Leeuwarden, Fries Mus.; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). This series was made around ...

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E. K. J. Reznicek

Dutch family of artists. Jacques de Gheyn I (b on board ship on the Zuyder Zee, 1537–8; d Antwerp, ?1581), the first of three generations of artists of the same name, was a glass painter, engraver and draughtsman. He is known to have designed stained-glass windows in Antwerp and Amsterdam, but these are now lost, as are the miniatures he executed. A few allegorical etchings and drawings survive, but these are also ascribed to his son (1) Jacques de Gheyn II. The latter, the most renowned artist of the family, was a gifted draughtsman and engraver, whose work spans the transition from late 16th-century Mannerism to the more naturalistic style of the early 17th century. His importance lies in his originality and creative inventiveness, which was allied to a poetic imagination, and in his role as a recorder of contemporary events at a time when the new Dutch Republic was creating a national identity. He was held in high regard by the central Dutch government and the court of Prince Maurice of Orange Nassau and by the representatives of the Dutch cities in the States General. His son, ...