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Gordon Campbell

Product of a technique first used in ancient Egypt and later developed in ancient Rome. The outer of two superimposed layers of glass was ground away to leave a pattern consisting of a pattern standing in relief on a contrasting ground, usually white on dark blue. The finest surviving example is the Portland Vase (early 1st cent. ...

Article

Joanna Grabski

(b St Louis, February 6, 1953).

Senegalese glass painter, potter and teacher. She earned an MA in literature at the Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar (1980), then graduated from the Ecole Normale Supérieure d'Education Artistique (1983). Her early work in both literature and fine arts dealt with the social role of women in colonial Senegal. In the 1980s and 1990s, she worked primarily with glass painting or sous verre, a medium with a long history in Senegal. Her work advances well-known conventional glass paintings that depict colorful quotidian and religious scenes. She works with a palette of intense hues, applying them across the glass support so as to maximize the expressive potential of the medium. Although she created figural works in the 1980s, her work in the 1990s became increasingly abstract. Her glass paintings, such as Nature (1998; priv. col.), are characterized by their luminescence and large scale. In addition to exhibiting her work in Africa and Europe, she has been involved in a number of educational and humanitarian projects. Her achievements have been recognized by two prestigious awards from the government of Senegal, including the Chevalièr de l’Ordre du Mérite (...

Article

El Hadji Sy

(b Bambey Departement, 1926).

Senegalese painter. He began painting on paper with pigments obtained from plants, but in his 20s he discovered glass painting in Kaolack and has since developed that medium. After working with Gora Mbengue, he began to use pen and India ink to create drawings that he later traced to glass. In the late 1980s he and Mbengue collaborated on a series of paintings dealing with the slave trade. Like many other glass painters, he produced images of daily life, portraits—especially of women—and religious scenes of Mouridism, an Islamic religious brotherhood. Amadou Bamba’s Imprisonment in Dakar (1993; Tervuren, Kon. Mus. Mid.-Afrika) depicts the emergence of Cheikh Amadu Bamba (1850–1927), the founder of the Mourides, from his prison cell. Unusually, Gueye produces pieces in both full colour and in black and white. In 1994 he was working in Dakar, where he and several apprentices produced images from a repertoire of over 300 designs....

Article

Muller  

Rupert Featherstone

Stone or glass implement with a flat base, used to grind paints by hand on a hard flat surface or slab. Mullers and slabs of hard stone are first recorded in ancient Egypt. Large glass mullers were used for the commercial preparation of paints until the 19th century. Pigments could be ground on their own for use in fresco or aqueous media or ground in oil for later use....

Article

El Hadji Sy

(b Tivaouane, 1953).

Senegalese painter and teacher. He graduated in 1976 from the Institut National des Arts du Senegal, where he trained as an art educator. After building a collection of glass paintings, he began to explore this medium as a support for his art. He carefully studied the techniques of glass-painting masters, advancing the conventional subjects associated with the medium. Rather than representing traditional narrative and religious scenes, his paintings depict both human figures and organic forms resembling flora. The glass painting Aristot (1992, Dakar, Serigne Babacar Sy priv. col.) suggests his emphasis on the graphic potential of both line and colour. Closer examination reveals his use of tiny dots and thin lines to animate the composition. Ndiaye has exhibited in Senegal, Europe and the USA, and Senegalese television produced a short film about his work in the early 1990s. In addition to working in Switzerland and France, he has taught art in Dakar and St Louis, Senegal....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Glass that resembles semi-precious stones; made by firing a paste of crushed glass bound with water and an organic gum. The process originated in ancient Egypt, and was revived in the 1880s by the French sculptor (César-Isidore-)Henri Cros, who in 1891 was provided with a studio at the Sèvres Porcelain Factory for the production of pâte de verre. The technique was subsequently used for the production of glass vessels by Albert-Louis Dammouse and François-Emile Décorchemont.

J. Bloch-Dermant and Y. Delaborde: G. Argy-Rousseau: Glassware as Art: With a Catalogue Raisonné of the Pâtes de Verre (London and New York, 1991) The Art and Technique of Pâte de Verre (Kanagawa, 1998) J. Kervin and D. Fenton: Pâte de Verre and Kiln Casting of Glass (Livermore, CA, 2/2000) Important Pâte-de-verre by G. Argy-Rousseau (sale cat., New York, Sotheby’s, 2003) Particle Theories: International Pâte de Verre and Other Cast Glass Granulations (exh. cat. by ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Trendelburg, May 12, 1920).

German glass painter. After military service and imprisonment by the British in Egypt, he trained in Stuttgart as a glass painter and mosaicist. Thereafter he specialized in architectural stained glass. His glass, which is usually figurative and narratorial, has been installed in more than 100 churches around the world and in secular buildings (e.g. the library extension of Pembroke College, Cambridge, ...

Article

Bruce Tattersall

The Ceramics, Cutlery and Glass on a dining-table, sometimes supplemented by decorative materials, including ornamental foodstuffs. The Western world’s earliest pictorial evidence of table settings is from the tombs of Egyptian pharaohs, in which food and its implements were among the goods deposited for use by the deceased in the afterlife (see Egypt, ancient, §XII, 3). Tableware made of pottery, and some silver, has survived from ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome, and descriptive accounts of table settings, especially those for banquets, can be found in Roman literature, notably the Satyricon of Petronius (fl 1st century ad). The Roman and Byzantine practice of creating decorative effects by ornamentation of the food itself was revived in the Middle Ages, mainly in the work of confectioners and in the presentation of meat and fowl restored to a lifelike appearance after cooking. From the later Middle Ages, as banquets became a means of displaying wealth and status, the aristocracy feasted at tables elaborately decorated, as is shown in the ...