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Cathedral in Co. Galway, Ireland, dedicated to St Brendan. The rubble walls of the pre-Romanesque nave (10th or 11th century) originally formed a simple rectangular church. The rectangular chancel, with its paired east windows, was added in the early 13th century, and in the Late Gothic period the building was enlarged with transept-like chapels and an elegant square belfry, similar to those in Irish friaries, above the west end of the nave. The cathedral is renowned chiefly for the 12th-century sandstone doorway inserted into its west façade (see Romanesque, §III, 1, (v), (e)).

The decoration of the doorway consists of an extraordinary range of motifs, of both foreign and Irish derivation, forming the most idiosyncratic of all Hiberno-Romanesque portals. Jambs, archivolts, and a high-pitched ‘tangent gable’ were exploited as fields for a dense array of pattern-making. Following ancient Irish custom, the decorated jambs are inclined inwards. They support seven orders of deeply cut voussoirs, ornamented with interlace, bosses, scallops, geometrical designs, and beast heads. The beast heads bite a roll moulding and are comparable to those on the west portal of the Nuns’ Church at Clonmacnois (Offaly). The gable contains an arcade and a series of triangular compartments filled alternately with carved human heads and floral motifs. The five heads that peer out from the arcade may have had painted bodies, possibly emulating the enamelled figures with cast bronze heads found on contemporary Limoges plaques. Among the many delightful details are the rows of tiny beast heads on the lower faces of the abaci. Characteristic of the Hiberno-Romanesque is the juxtaposition of shallow carving, as is found here on both the jambs and pilasters, with much deeper cutting, as on the archivolts. Although this eclectic and exotic design was once attributed to the 1160s, most scholars now prefer a date of ...

Article

Michael W. Cothren

Cathedral dedicated to Notre-Dame at Evreux, in the département of Eure, France, 80 km west of Paris, known primarily for its collection of stained-glass windows. Begun after fire destroyed its predecessor in 1119, it was not completed until the 17th century, and its appearance reflects several phases of the Gothic style, with richly decorated Flamboyant traceried windows and a late 16th-century west façade. The cathedral has an aisled nave with a two-tower façade and transepts leading to a chevet with ambulatory and chapels. It was severely damaged in 1940 and was subsequently restored.

Although glazing survives from building campaigns from the late 13th century (south nave chapels, parts of the nave clerestory) to the 16th (north transept clerestory and rose window), the most important windows date from the 14th and 15th centuries, in particular the choir clerestory, whose glass is dated c. 1320–1400. The exact dating, patronage, and original disposition are controversial. The iconographic emphasis is on the Virgin Mary and the patron saints of the donors. The latter constitute some of the most powerful Normans of 1320–40 (...

Article

Priscilla Boniface

[glasshouse]

Building for the protection, propagation and cultivation of plants. Greenhouses, probably roofed in mica, existed in Roman times. During the 16th century, the beginnings of the application of science to plant-growing, which led to the development of the Botanic garden in Europe, encouraged the construction of greenhouses. In ‘houses’ formed of a ‘hot bed’ of such heat-generating substances as bark or dung, situated against a south wall and ‘roofed’ with straw, canvas matting or individual glass cones, tender plants could be encouraged to survive and prosper. Such ‘houses’ gradually became more substantial, with brick or masonry sides, and eventually incorporated small panes of expensive glass. One of the most dramatic uses of portable glass coverings for plants was at Sanssouci (see Potsdam §2), where from 1773 the vineyard terrace (1747; by Georg Wenceslaus von Knobelsdorff), which was also used for growing pomegranate and orange trees, was covered in glass in cold weather. The greenhouse was introduced on the east coast of ...

Article

Hans-Joachim Kunst

[Ger. Hallenkirche]

Term introduced in Wilhelm Lübke’s Die mittelalterliche Kunst in Westfalen (1853) to define a church in which the aisles are the same, or almost the same, height as the nave, so that the nave is lit indirectly by the aisle windows. The hall church differs from the basilica, the distinguishing characteristic of which is the fact that the nave is higher than the aisles and is lit by a clerestory. A variation of the hall church is the Staffelkirche or Stufenhalle (Ger.: ‘staggered hall’), in which the main vessel is higher than the aisles but there is no clerestory.

In all European countries, from the early Middle Ages (e.g. Bartholomäuskapelle, Paderborn; 1017) to the 20th century (e.g. Erlöserkirche, Cologne-Rath; 1954), the hall church has, with the basilica and the centrally planned church, been one of the basic church types as defined by art historians. The hall church was, however, most widespread in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Ornamental glass shade for an oil lamp, designed to be hung in a mosque. It is usually shaped like a vase, with a bulbous body, a flared neck, a flat base, and applied glass loops from which it was suspended. The form emerged in late 13th-century Syria, and many of the finest examples come from Syria and Egypt. From the 16th century mosque lamps were made in Europe (notably Venice) and exported to the Islamic world.

The inscriptions on mosque lamps generally mention the donor and include the opening lines of the ‘Verse of Light’ in the Qur'an (24.35), which likens God, the light of the heavens and the earth, to a glass lamp. Over a dozen mosque lamps from the three reigns of al-Nasir Muhammad (reg 1294–1340 with interruptions) represent the summit of 14th-century enamelled glass. A band of tall script at the neck with blue lettering on a gilded ground decorated with polychrome scrolls, leaves and buds contrasts with another band on the body inscribed with gold letters on a blue ground with scattered gold blossoms. At least 50 lamps inscribed with the Light Verse and the name of Hasan (...

Article

Priscilla Boniface

Building for the protection of tender plants, particularly orange trees, in cold weather. By the 18th century the interpretation of the name and function had gradually expanded to include any ‘house’ the purpose of which was to contain plants for display (see also Conservatory). Orangeries were frequently used for promenades. The orange tree was being grown in mainland Europe by the end of the 15th century and in Britain by the end of the 16th century. The first purpose-built orangeries evolved from temporary structures and from garden houses, which were requisitioned to contain orange trees and other tender plants. In cold weather coverings could be manoeuvred over orange trees that were planted outside, but, if they were grown in pots, they were moved to the protective rooms. During the ‘closed season’, in either case, protective wooden shutters allowed some light and air to reach the plants. The temporary Orangery at ...