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J. J. Martín González

Spanish palace that stands beside the rivers Tagus and Jarama in the province of Madrid, 47 km south of the capital. It was intended as a spring and summer residence for the royal family and is renowned for its gardens and fountains. The summer residence built at Aranjuez in 1387 by Lorenzo Suárez de Figueroa, Grand Master of the Order of Santiago, became royal property under Ferdinand II, King of Aragon, and Isabella, Queen of Castile and León. In the reign of Charles V improvements were carried out by Luis de Vega (from c. 1537) and the palace was extensively enlarged by Philip II. The chapel was designed by Juan Bautista de Toledo and completed by Jerónimo Gili and Juan de Herrera. It was built in a combination of white stone from Colmenar de Oreja and brick, giving a two-toned effect that was adopted for the rest of the palace. In ...

Article

A. G. Gertsen

[Turk. Baghče sarǎy: ‘Garden palace’]

Ukrainian city in the Crimea, 35 km north-east of Sevastopol, which was the capital of the Tatar in the Crimea throughout the rule of the Giray dynasty (c. 1423–1783). It developed from an important burial ground of the Giray khans, but the Garden Palace (1503–19), founded by Khan Mengli Giray I (reg 1466–1514 with interruptions) and covering over 4 ha in the valley of the River Churuk-Su, represents the historical core of the city. The earliest structure is the Demirkap (‘Iron gate’) with an inscription referring to Mengli Giray and the date 1503. It is thought to be by the Italian architect Aleviz Novy or Aloisio (fl early 16th century), builder of the cathedral of the Archangel Michael (wooden church, 1333; rebuilt 1505–8) in the Moscow Kremlin. Little is known of the layout of the palace in the 16th and 17th centuries as it was badly damaged by fire in ...

Article

Carola Hicks

English country house near Woodstock, Oxon, designed by John Vanbrugh for John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. It was begun in 1705 and completed c. 1725. The gardens, initially laid out by Vanbrugh and Henry Wise, were largely redesigned in 1764–74 by ‘Capability’ Brown. Blenheim Palace is regarded as one of the finest examples of English Baroque architecture. It was a gift to the Duke from a grateful Crown and nation to commemorate his victory in 1704 over the French and Bavarians at Blenheim (now Blindheim) during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). The intention was to create a public monument symbolizing the glory of Britain and a palace fit for a hero, rather than a building on a domestic scale. This is reflected in Vanbrugh’s dramatic and monumental design, inspired by both English and French architecture, which developed the style he had begun to formulate in his earlier work at Castle Howard, N. Yorks. In both undertakings he was assisted by ...

Article

Charles Saumarez Smith

English country house in N. Yorks built (1701–24) by John Vanbrugh for Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle; the gardens were laid out by George London during the same period. One of the largest, grandest and, architecturally, most important country houses in England, Castle Howard was first planned in October 1698, when the 3rd Earl took out a lease for life on the ruinous Henderskelfe Castle (burnt 1693; destr. 1724) and its manor from his grandmother, Anne Howard, Countess of Carlisle. The following spring he consulted the architect William Talman, Comptroller of Works to William III, on the design for a house to replace the old castle of Henderskelfe, but during the summer Talman was supplanted by the playwright John Vanbrugh. Castle Howard was Vanbrugh’s first important architectural commission. A model in wood was shown to the King in the summer of 1700, and work on the hill-top site began in the spring of ...

Article

Priscilla Boniface

[glasshouse]

Building for the protection, propagation and cultivation of plants. Greenhouses, probably roofed in mica, existed in Roman times. During the 16th century, the beginnings of the application of science to plant-growing, which led to the development of the Botanic garden in Europe, encouraged the construction of greenhouses. In ‘houses’ formed of a ‘hot bed’ of such heat-generating substances as bark or dung, situated against a south wall and ‘roofed’ with straw, canvas matting or individual glass cones, tender plants could be encouraged to survive and prosper. Such ‘houses’ gradually became more substantial, with brick or masonry sides, and eventually incorporated small panes of expensive glass. One of the most dramatic uses of portable glass coverings for plants was at Sanssouci (see Potsdam §2), where from 1773 the vineyard terrace (1747; by Georg Wenceslaus von Knobelsdorff), which was also used for growing pomegranate and orange trees, was covered in glass in cold weather. The greenhouse was introduced on the east coast of ...

Article

Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

Castle in Salzburg, Austria. To the south of Salzburg, Archbishop Marcus Sitticus von Hohenems (reg 1612–19) commissioned Santino Solari to build a small castle to be used as a summer palace. Schloss Hellbrunn (1613–19) is a most perfect realization of the Italian villa suburbana and the earliest of its kind north of the Alps. Situated at the end of a long avenue, the building is a cube of classic simplicity, with a bifurcate staircase opening on to a cour d’honneur. The most remarkable interior features are the Festsaal (banqueting hall), set asymmetrically on the west side, and its projecting octagon, with frescoes by Arsenio Mascagni (1579–1636). Hellbrunn’s main attraction, however, is its gardens. The Lustgarten or Pleasure Garden was laid out north of the castle and furnished with an unusual variety of grottoes, fountains, ponds and other features including the Roman Theatre, a miniature exedra dominated by a statue of ...

Article

Priscilla Boniface

Building for the protection of tender plants, particularly orange trees, in cold weather. By the 18th century the interpretation of the name and function had gradually expanded to include any ‘house’ the purpose of which was to contain plants for display (see also Conservatory). Orangeries were frequently used for promenades. The orange tree was being grown in mainland Europe by the end of the 15th century and in Britain by the end of the 16th century. The first purpose-built orangeries evolved from temporary structures and from garden houses, which were requisitioned to contain orange trees and other tender plants. In cold weather coverings could be manoeuvred over orange trees that were planted outside, but, if they were grown in pots, they were moved to the protective rooms. During the ‘closed season’, in either case, protective wooden shutters allowed some light and air to reach the plants. The temporary Orangery at ...

Article

Maria Natália Correia Guedes

[Palácio Nacional de Queluz]

Residence near Lisbon, Portugal. The main construction began in 1746 under the direction of the Infante Dom Pedro of Braganza (1717–86), uncle and subsequently king-consort (as Peter III) to Mary I. It became the official royal residence from 10 November 1794 until 27 November 1807, when the Napoleonic invasion forced the royal family to depart for exile in Brazil. The building began as a hunting-lodge owned by the Marquês de Castelo Rodrigo, a diplomat and statesman to Philip II of Spain (I of Portugal). In 1654 the property was incorporated into the estate of the Portuguese royal Infante and was subsequently inherited by Dom Pedro in 1742. His scheme of enlargement was given impetus by a fire in 1751, which destroyed the Paço Corte Real in Lisbon.

The new central east wing (1746–58) and the chapel (1750–52) were designed by Mateus Vicente de Oliveira (for illustration ...