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(b Paris, Jan 14, 1904; d La Clarté, Brittany, Aug 27, 1967).

French sculptor, printmaker and tapestry designer. His father was a jeweller, and after his return from World War I in 1918 Adam worked in his studio and learnt how to engrave. At the same time he studied drawing at the Ecole Germain-Pilon and read Charles Baudelaire’s Les Fleurs du mal, which was to have a great influence on him. In 1925 he attended evening classes at a school of drawing in Montparnasse. From 1928 to 1934 he started to produce prints and became associated with André Breton, Louis Aragon and Paul Eluard, although he was never greatly influenced by them. His early prints, reminiscent of the work of George Grosz, were mostly designed as social satire, mocking the myths surrounding patriotism, the family and religion, as in When Papa is Patriotic (1935). In 1933 he designed the costumes and scenery for Hans Schlumberg’s Miracle à Verdun performed at the Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord in Paris. His first exhibition of prints was held in ...

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Edna Carter Southard

(Alfred )

(b Paris, Feb 1, 1874; d Villejuif, nr Paris, Dec 16, 1907).

French painter and printmaker. The son of an Italian hairdresser who sold antiques, Bottini always lived in the Montmartre area of Paris except for two years of military service from 1895. He favoured the English fashions, bars, and language (as in the titles of his pictures and the spelling of his first name). Apprenticed with Annibale Gatti (1828–1909) from 1889 to 1891, he studied at Fernand Cormon’s studio and first showed at Edouard Kleinmann’s gallery in 1894. From 1897 he showed large oil paintings at the Salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. He collaborated on woodcuts with Harry van der Zee from 1896 in compositions influenced by Japanese prints, for example Arrival at the Masked Ball (1897; Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Est.). His woodcuts, lithographs, and etchings sold quickly after publication by Edmond D. Sagot. Bottini illustrated for Le Rire in 1897, made several posters, and from ...

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Philip Attwood and D. Brême

French family of artists. Jean-Charles Chéron (fl 1630s), a jeweller and engraver to Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine, was the father of (1) Charles-Jean-François Chéron. The brother of Jean-Charles, the painter of miniatures and engraver Henri Chéron (b Meaux; d ?Meaux or Lyon, ?1677) trained his daughter (2) Elisabeth-Sophie Chéron. Another daughter, Marie-Anne Chéron (b Paris, 22 July 1649; d before 1718), was also active as a painter of miniatures. As Protestants, several members of the family were threatened with persecution; while Elisabeth-Sophie converted to Catholicism, her brother (3) Louis Chéron fled to England rather than work in the unsympathetic atmosphere that followed the revocation of the Edict of Nantes of 1685 (see Huguenots).

Philip Attwood

(b Lunéville, May 29, 1635; d Paris, March 18, 1698).

Medallist. He trained under his father before travelling to Rome in 1655. There he studied medal-engraving under ...

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Sharon Matt Atkins

(b Oakland, CA, Aug 26, 1925; d Tucson, AZ, June 4, 2009).

American painter, printmaker and teacher. Colescott produced highly expressive and gestural paintings that addressed a wide range of social and cultural themes and challenged stereotypes. Interested in issues of race, gender and power, his work critiqued the representation of minorities in literature, history, art and popular culture. Stylistically, his work is indebted to European modernism, particularly Cubism and Expressionism, but also makes references to African sculpture, African American art and post–World War II American styles.

Colescott was introduced to art at an early age. His mother was a pianist and his father was a classically-trained violinist and jazz musician. Through his parents’ social circles, he often found himself surrounded by creative individuals as he was growing up, like his artistic mentor, the sculptor Sargent Johnson (1888–1967). Colescott received his BA in 1949 and later his MFA in 1952 from the University of California, Berkeley. He also studied with ...

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Franz Müller

(b Solothurn, Dec 9, 1930; d Berne, July 12, 2000).

Swiss sculptor, painter, printmaker and jewellery designer. From 1946 to 1951 he was apprenticed to a maker of stained glass while at the same time attending the Kunstgewerbeschule in Berne. He then studied at the painting school, also in Berne, run by Max von Mühlenen (1903–71). In 1955 Eggenschwiler, Peter Meier (b 1928), Konrad Vetter (b 1922) and Robert Wälti (b 1937) formed the Berner Arbeitsgemeinschaft, which operated until 1971.

Until the mid-1960s Eggenschwiler’s work was essentially Constructivist, although until 1968 he was still regarded as a stained-glass maker. His prints and paintings, as well as his sculptures, were dominated by basic geometric forms, especially the cube, as in the sculpture Stair Cubes (iron, 155×155×155 mm, 1968; Westphalia, priv. col., see 1985 exh. cat., p. 41). From the 1960s he worked with objets trouvés, collecting discarded objects made of metal, wood or other materials, as well as stones and other natural objects. He either worked on these ...

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Anne Pastori Zumbach

(b Geneva, April 6, 1682; d Geneva, March 7, 1766).

Swiss painter and engraver. He was a member of a family of artists and jewellers in Geneva. At an early age he showed a pronounced talent for art, but as there was no school of drawing in Geneva, he moved to Germany. At Kassel, Baron von Mardefeld became his patron, sent him to Berlin and recommended him to important people at court. Gardelle is said to have painted the royal family; however, this was most probably simply a question of copying existing portraits. In 1711, on his return to Kassel, he painted from life a portrait of Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. In 1712 he travelled to Paris, where he spent a year perfecting his art in the studio of Nicolas de Largillierre. It was there that he acquired the fluid and elegant style of the French Rococo. He returned to Switzerland for good in 1713 and became a portrait painter, painting both the great and the humble, not only in Geneva but also in Berne, Neuchâtel and the Vaud. He was a very prolific artist and often executed replicas of his paintings for himself. These paintings, often in a small format (usually 240×180 mm), are particularly remarkable for their brightness of colour and their close attention to likenesses (e.g. ...

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(b Epineuil, nr Tonnerre, Yonne, Jan 1827; d Saint-Mandé, Seine, May 5, 1892).

French printmaker and costume designer. After leaving school he became an apprentice draughtsman for the Paris-Lyon-Méditerranée railway company. While thus employed he also made his début as a caricaturist in the journal Gaulois, to which he contributed from 1858. In 1859 he had the first of many works published in the Journal amusant; his At the Opéra Ball (1860; Paris, Bib. N.) was for this publication. In 1860 he left the railway company and started to contribute to the Petit journal pour rire as well. He began working for Le Charivari in 1869, the year in which he co-founded, with Adrien Huart, the Almanach des Parisiennes, which published albums of prints for the next 19 years. It was about this time, when he began to concentrate on the manners and language of Parisian society, that Grévin established his mature style. Many of his designs, which were always accompanied by humorous captions, were inspired by the women of the demi-monde. Unlike many caricaturists of his age he avoided political topics....

Article

Phylis Floyd

French term used to describe a range of European borrowings from Japanese art. It was coined in 1872 by the French critic, collector and printmaker Philippe Burty ‘to designate a new field of study—artistic, historic and ethnographic’, encompassing decorative objects with Japanese designs (similar to 18th-century Chinoiserie), paintings of scenes set in Japan, and Western paintings, prints and decorative arts influenced by Japanese aesthetics. Scholars in the 20th century have distinguished japonaiserie, the depiction of Japanese subjects or objects in a Western style, from Japonisme, the more profound influence of Japanese aesthetics on Western art.

There has been wide debate over who was the first artist in the West to discover Japanese art and over the date of this discovery. According to Bénédite, Félix Bracquemond first came under the influence of Japanese art after seeing the first volume of Katsushika Hokusai’s Hokusai manga (‘Hokusai’s ten thousand sketches’, 1814) at the printshop of ...

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D. Brême

In 

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[Oury, Jules]

(b Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, May 12, 1872; d Montricoux, Tarn-et-Garonne, Sept 7, 1931).

French painter, printmaker and poet. He was the son of a jeweller and at an early age learnt how to produce lithographs and etchings. He quickly established a reputation as a creator of illuminated Symbolist works such as the gouache The Monster (1897; Paris, Flamand-Charbonnier priv. col.; see 1972 exh. cat., p. 64). This was executed in an Art Nouveau style and depicted the common Symbolist theme of woman as the destructive temptress of man. Four works, including this, were shown at the sixth Salon de la Rose + Croix at the Galerie Georges Petit in Paris (1897), and he had similar works published in periodicals such as L’Estampe moderne, L’Aube and Le Courrier français.

Marcel-Lenoir’s first paintings were produced with a palette knife or by using paint straight from the tube, as in A Review in the Cours Foucault in Montauban (1907; Toulouse, Mus. Augustins). He produced other townscapes also, such as ...

Article

Freya Probst

(b Altenburg, Oct 23, 1733; d Berlin, Feb 2, 1805).

German engraver and designer. He is regarded as one of the most important 18th-century German engravers. His father, Johann Christoph Meil, who died young, had been court sculptor in Altenburg. His stepfather, also a sculptor, directed Meil towards a career in science. At the university of Leipzig, however, Meil trained as an engraver and attended lectures on art history, art theory and philosophy. In 1752 he went to Berlin, where he met the brothers Johann Christian Hoppenhaupt and Johann Michael Hoppenhaupt II (see Hoppenhaupt family), who engaged him primarily as an engraver for their designs. Between 1752 and 1755 Meil produced a number of engravings of tables, clock-cases, chandeliers and other items in the Rococo style, based on drawings by the Hoppenhaupt brothers. Meil also designed furniture, jewellery and motifs for porcelain painting and the 12 vases that stand in front of the picture gallery in Schloss Sanssouci, Potsdam. His major field of work, however, was book illustration. He joined the circle of the poet Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and in ...

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Louis Kaplan

(Howard)

(b Boston, MA, May 1832; d Boston, MA, May 16, 1884).

American engraver, spirit photographer, and inventor. Mumler worked first as an engraver in the jewellery firm of Bigelow, Kennard, and Co. before taking up photography. In 1862, he claimed to have developed a haunted photographic self-portrait that contained the ‘spirit’ of a deceased female cousin, even though a more naturalistic explanation viewed it as a double exposure produced on an already used plate. Working with his wife Hannah, who was a clairvoyant and medium, Mumler went into business producing such spirit photographs as cartes-de-visite for the bereaved and the curious on a full-time basis.

The success of Mumler’s spirit photography must be understood in relation to the growth of Spiritualism as a popular religious movement and the belief that communication with the dead was possible. For Spiritualist leaders such as Andrew Jackson Davis (1826–1910), Mumler’s images offered visible proof of a new medium for spirit communication and communion. However, Mumler left Boston amid scandal when a few of the spirits in his photographs were found to still be alive. Relocating to New York in the late 1860s, he opened a studio at 630 Broadway....

Article

[Sirleto; Sirletto]

Italian family of engravers, jewellers, gold- and silversmiths. Flavio Sirletti (b Ferrara, 1683; d Rome, 15 Aug 1737) was a gem-engraver and jeweller. He moved from Ferrara to Rome in the early years of the 18th century and from 1719 was a member of the Virtuosi al Pantheon. His admirers included Giovanni Pichler, and contemporary and later critics lauded his work for its fineness of touch, which recalled the technique and style of the Classical engravers. Giulianelli claimed that Sirletti achieved this through his revival of the use of a diamond point. Intaglios included portraits of his contemporaries, the most renowned being that of Carlo Maratti engraved on a carnelian (untraced), as well as reproductions on gems of such well-known antique statues and busts as Caracalla and the Farnese Hercules (untraced; originals both Naples, Mus. N. S. Martino). One of his last works, a reproduction of the Laokoon...

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Tony Mackle

(b Auckland, Aug 4, 1906; d Wellington, June 6, 1964).

New Zealand printmaker, book illustrator and painter . Taylor had no formal art training, but his work in both jewellery manufacturing and commercial advertising developed his superb skills as a draughtsman and his innate sense of design. Significantly, from 1944 to 1946 Taylor was appointed as art editor and illustrator for the Schools Publications branch of the New Zealand Education Department. He saw the merits of wood-engraving for illustration in school journals and during the remainder of his career created over 200 woodblock images of the flora and fauna of New Zealand and Maori mythology. International recognition for his wood-engraving came through exhibitions in New York (1954) and in Russia (1958).

In 1952 Taylor received a New Zealand Art Societies Scholarship with which he studied Maori life and society, publishing in 1959 Maori Myths and Legends through his own publishing house, The Mermaid Press. Taylor also illustrated books published by the Wingfield Press, Pelorus Press and A. G. & A. W. Reed, as well as encouraging the graphic arts and printmaking through his involvement with the New Zealand Print Council and the New Zealand Academy of Fine Arts....

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Eugenia Parry Janis

(b Boissy-Saint-Léger, Dec 12, 1795; d Paris, May 4, 1866).

French lithographer, photographer and painter. From his début at the Salon of 1814 as a painter he regularly exhibited lithographed images of daily life, fashion, regional costumes and erotica, many done after the work of English and Dutch artists. He also published his own lithographed compositions, mostly ‘female types’. With Achille Deveria and others he contributed to the compendium of romantic erotica called Imagerie galante (Paris, 1830), which provocatively updated an erotic mode found in 18th-century engravings. The subjects were pictorial versions of stock characters from popular novels and plays.

Vallou turned to photography in 1842 after nearly 30 years of popular lithography. By 1851 he was using the paper negative exclusively. He belonged to the Société Héliographique and was a founder-member of the Société Française de Photographie. It is not known how and why he changed to the new medium, except that he may have seen its market potential in providing artists with photographic studies (...

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G. Jansen

(b Amsterdam, June 11, 1812; d Vorden, July 4, 1874).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and lithographer. The son of an Amsterdam jeweller, he learnt to paint from, among others, the landscape and cattle painters Pieter Gerardus van Os and Cornelis Steffelaar (1797–1861). His talent was noted at an early age: his competition entries in 1831 and 1832 at the Felix Meritis Society in Amsterdam won gold medals. In 1833 he was appointed a member of the Akademie voor Beeldende Kunsten and of the Koninklijk Nederlands Instituut in Amsterdam. In 1839 he joined the artists’ society, Arti et Amicitiae. He worked in Amsterdam from 1846 to 1857 and 1869 to 1874, residing also in The Hague, Doorn (1842), Brussels (1867) and Haarlem (1858–68).

Verschuur specialized in stable interiors and landscapes; his beach views are also particularly striking. However, his favourite subject was the horse, which he was able to depict in a particularly convincing manner (e.g. ...