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Article

Suzanne Tise

Descriptive term applied to a style of decorative arts that was widely disseminated in Europe and the USA during the 1920s and 1930s. Derived from the style made popular by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, the term has been used only since the late 1960s, when there was a revival of interest in the decorative arts of the early 20th century. Since then the term ‘Art Deco’ has been applied to a wide variety of works produced during the inter-war years, and even to those of the German Bauhaus. But Art Deco was essentially of French origin, and the term should, therefore, be applied only to French works and those from countries directly influenced by France.

The development of the Art Deco style, or the Style moderne as it was called at the time, closely paralleled the initiation of the 1925...

Article

Michèle Lavallée

[Fr.: ‘new art’]

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.

Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

Alan Crawford

(b Isleworth, Middx, May 17, 1863; d Godden Green, Kent, May 23, 1942).

English designer, writer, architect and social reformer . He was educated at King’s College, Cambridge. As a young man he was deeply influenced by the teachings of John Ruskin and William Morris, and particularly by their vision of creative workmanship in the Middle Ages; such a vision made work in modern times seem like mechanical drudgery. Ashbee played many parts and might be thought a dilettante; but his purpose was always to give a practical expression to what he had learnt from Ruskin and Morris. An intense and rather isolated figure, he found security in a life dedicated to making the world a better place.

In 1888, while he was training to be an architect in the office of G. F. Bodley and Thomas Garner (1839–1906), Ashbee set up the Guild and School of Handicraft in the East End of London. The School lasted only until 1895, but the Guild, a craft workshop that combined the ideals of the Arts and Crafts Movement with a romantic, apolitical socialism, was to be the focus of Ashbee’s work for the next 20 years. There were five guildsmen at first, making furniture and base metalwork. In ...

Article

Biggin  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Graham Reynolds

(b Stockholm, bapt Aug 10, 1662; d Paris, 5 or Feb 6, 1727).

Swedish miniature painter, active in England. He was first apprenticed to a goldsmith and jeweller in Stockholm. He became adept at miniature painting in enamel, a method that had been introduced into Sweden by Pierre Signac (d 1684), and he is said to have studied the enamels of Jean Petitot I and Jacques Bordier (1616–84) when he spent three months in Paris in 1682. He arrived in England in 1687 at the invitation of John Sowters, a merchant who had earlier invited the portrait painter Michael Dahl to England. After spending some years in provincial English towns, including Lincoln and Coventry (1693), Boit was appointed Court Enameller to William III. He travelled in Europe, visiting the Netherlands, Germany, Austria and France, from 1699 to 1703; the most notable product of this period was his large enamel on copper of the Emperor Leopold I and his Family...

Article

Philip Attwood

(b Schavli, Kovno [now Kaunas], June 12, 1871; d New York, April 5, 1924).

American medallist of Lithuanian origin. He trained as a seal-engraver under his father and worked as a jewellery engraver and type cutter. In 1890 he went to New York, where he worked as a die engraver of badges, and in 1898 to Paris to study at the Académie Julian and later with Oscar Roty. He first exhibited medals in the early years of the 20th century. The influence of Roty is apparent in the low relief and soft-edged naturalism and also in the inclusion of flat expanses of metal in his designs. He occasionally ventured into sculpture, as in the Schenley Memorial Fountain (bronze; Pittsburgh, PA, Schenley Park), but he was best known for his medals and plaquettes, both struck and cast, and his sensitive portraits assured his popularity. The powerful head of President Roosevelt on the Panama Canal medal (bronze, 1908) and the tender Shepherdess plaquette (electrotype, 1907...

Article

Marco Collareta

[Foppa, Cristoforo]

(b Mondonico, nr Pavia, c. 1452; d between Dec 6, 1526 and April 1, 1527).

Italian goldsmith, coin- and gem-engraver, jeweller, medallist and dealer. Son of the goldsmith Gian Maffeo Foppa, from 1480 he served at the Milanese court with his father, eventually becoming personal goldsmith and jeweller to Ludovico Sforza (il Moro), Duke of Milan. In 1487 Caradosso was in Florence, where his appraisal of an antique cornelian was highly esteemed. He worked in Hungary in the service of King Matthias Corvinus, probably in August 1489; a later visit to the court was cut short by the King’s death (1490). Between 1492 and 1497 Caradosso travelled to various Italian towns to buy jewels and other precious objects for Ludovico il Moro. He visited Rome, Viterbo and Florence early in 1496, when the Medici family’s possessions were sold off after the expulsion of Piero de’ Medici (1471–1503) from Florence.

After the fall of Ludovico il Moro in 1500, Caradosso remained for some years in Lombardy. In ...

Article

Style rooted in 19th-century antiquarian studies of ancient Celtic art in Britain and Ireland. It was a mainly decorative style and first appeared in the 1840s, remaining fashionable from the 1890s to c. 1914 and lingering on through the 1920s. Derived from the complex, intertwining, linear motifs of ancient Celtic ornament, it was employed in metalwork, jewellery, embroidery, wall decoration, wood inlay, stone-carving and textiles. The Celtic Revival was closely related to the English Arts and Crafts Movement’s aim of social and artistic reform and was part of the general upsurge of Romantic interest in the Middle Ages. Its chief characteristics were raised bosses, tightly enmeshed roundels and bands of sinuous, criss-crossing lines, similar to but more abstract than Art Nouveau designs. Sources of inspiration were such Celtic antiquities as the Tara Brooch and the Ardagh Chalice (both 8th century ad; Dublin, N. Mus.), the Battersea Shield (c. 2nd century ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1723; d 1800).

English jeweller, clockmaker, toymaker and maker of automata. In 1745 he established himself in Fleet Street a goldsmith, jeweller, and toyman; 1756 he entered into partnership with Edward Grace and moved to 103 Shoe Lane. The business went bankrupt in 1758, but when Cox was discharged from bankruptcy in 1763, he started a new business, manufacturing mechanical clocks for export to the Far East. Few examples of his products survive, but they include the Swan automaton (Bowes Museum, Castle Barnard), and (probably) the Peacock clock (Hermitage, St Petersburg) (see fig.). In 1772 he opened Cox’s Museum in Spring Gardens, Charing Cross, in which he housed 22 of his large automata, ranging in height from 3 to 5 metres.

In 1769 Cox bouught the Chelsea Porcelain Factory from Nicholas Sprimont, but soon sold it on to Derby Porcelain Factory. Cox & Son traded as jewellers in Shoe Lane until ...

Article

Philip Attwood

[Crocker, Johann]

(b Dresden, Oct 21, 1670; d London, March 21, 1741).

British medallist of German birth. Trained as a jeweller, he arrived in England in 1691 and learnt the art of die-engraving. He became assistant engraver at the Royal Mint, London, in 1697, the year in which he executed a silver and bronze medal for William III symbolizing the State of Britain after the Peace of Ryswick (see Hawkins, Franks and Grueber, ii, pp. 192, 499). Such medals as those commemorating the accession and the coronation (both gold, silver and bronze, 1702; see hfg, ii, pp. 227–8) of Queen Anne, together with the medal celebrating the Battle of Blenheim (silver and bronze, 1704; see hfg, p. 256), ensured that he was given the post of Chief Engraver at the Royal Mint when it became vacant in 1705. For the next 30 years he produced single-handedly most of the British official medals, as well as engraving the dies for the coinage of Queen Anne, George I and the first issue of George II. He also modelled a large cast medallic portrait of ...

Article

Judith O’Callaghan

(b Geelong, Victoria, Oct 9, 1931).

Australian silversmith, jeweller and designer, active in England. He trained at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, the Royal College of Art, London, and Columbia University, New York, between 1950 and 1962. Based in London from 1965, he specialized in the production of elaborately decorated wares distinguished by the extensive use of textured surfaces, filigree and gilding, frequently incorporating figurative and floral motifs. His range of products, which includes flatware, hollow-ware and jewellery, extends from large sculptural presentation pieces to such luxury novelty items as surprise eggs. He also designed the first Australian decimal coins (1965), commemorative medallions and insignia, as well as interiors and furniture. Devlin was made a freeman of the Goldsmiths’ Company by special grant in 1966 and elected a liveryman in 1972. In 1980 he was made a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George ‘for services to the art of design’ and in ...

Article

Fabian Stein

(b Biberbach, Dec 26, 1664; d Dresden, March 6, 1731).

German goldsmith and jeweller. He was one of the most famous goldsmiths of his time, and almost all his works are in the Grünes Gewölbe, Dresden. After his training in Ulm he travelled as a journeyman to Augsburg, Nuremberg and Vienna. He is first recorded in Dresden in 1692. His two brothers, the enameller Georg Friedrich Dinglinger (1666–1720) and the jeweller Georg Christoph Dinglinger (1668–1728), are documented as active there in 1693; they remained his closest collaborators, particularly Georg Friedrich.

From the beginning of his career, Johann Melchior Dinglinger worked for Frederick-Augustus I of Saxony, even before the latter became Elector in 1694. The jewellery produced for Frederick-Augustus’s coronation as King Augustus II of Poland (also known as Augustus the Strong) in 1697 was Dinglinger’s first important commission. In 1698 he was appointed Court Jeweller, and all his projects were personally supervised by the King. In the late 17th century and early 18th Dinglinger probably produced most of the jewellery for the court: almost all the orders of chivalry and military decorations came from his workshop, including those in emeralds and diamonds for the revived Polish Order of the Knights of the White Eagle. Various designs for banquets for the King are also kept in the Grünes Gewölbe....

Article

A. Kenneth Snowman

(Gustavovitch)

(b St Petersburg, May 30, 1846; d Lausanne, Sept 24, 1920).

Russian goldsmith and Jeweller. He was descended from Huguenot stock, and his family had fled France after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 and had settled in eastern Germany. In the 18th century a goldsmith from Württemberg with the name of either Faberger or Fabiger settled in St Petersburg; he may have been a relative. Fabergé’s father, Gustav (Petrovitch) Fabergé (1814–72), moved c. 1830 to St Petersburg, where he served his apprenticeship as a goldsmith and became a master in 1841 with an independent workshop. In 1842 he opened a jewellery shop. Carl toured Europe between 1860 and 1864; he returned to St Petersburg as a master goldsmith and joined his father’s firm, which he took over in 1870. In 1882 his brother, Agathon Fabergé (1862–95), joined the firm.

At the beginning of his career Fabergé produced bracelets and medallions decorated with stones and enamels. He transformed the conventional jewellery business by insisting that the value of an object should reside in its craftsmanship rather than its materials. Under his direction, the firm moved away from the contemporary custom of setting large gemstones in shoddy settings and produced elaborate diamond-set pendant brooches, ribbon-knot necklaces and trelliswork bracelets. From ...

Article

Fibula  

Niamh Whitfield

[Lat.: ‘brooch’]

Metal dress-pin that not only was used as a clothes’ fastener, but also acted as a sign of an individual’s allegiance, wealth, and status (see fig.). Brooches are common finds in pre-Christian graves of the Germanic peoples and Vikings, enabling inferences to be drawn about their uses, the garments to which they were attached, and migration patterns. For the later Middle Ages, comparable information can be gleaned not only from the objects but also figural representations, wills, and inventories.

Many brooches from the early Middle Ages descend from Roman fibulae of different types. These include the penannular brooches from Ireland and Britain, fastened by a pin slotted through a gap in a ring; disc-brooches, fastened by a pin on the back, and worn especially by Germanic women; and the various elongated Germanic bow brooches, which seem to be adaptations of the cross-bow fibulae worn by Roman officials in Late Antiquity (...

Article

[Fr. filigrane; It. and Sp. filigrana; Ger. drahtegeflecht]

Metalwork decoration in which fine precious metal wires, usually gold or silver, are delicately soldered in an openwork pattern. It is used especially in jewellery and the ornamentation of other small objects (see Metal, §V, 3, (iii) and). In 16th-century Germany, where the most important centre for filigree was Siedenburg (near Bremen), large caskets and dishes made from filigree were laboriously manufactured for the Kunstkammer market. Thereafter filigree survived only in attenuated form as a folk art, and the craft still survives in Italy and Norway for the manufacturing of tourist souvenirs.

T. Riiosen and A. Boe: Om filigran/Filigree (Oslo, 1959) E. Taburet-Delahaye: ‘Opus and filum: L’Ornement filigrane dans l’orfèvrerie gothique du centre et du sud-ouest de la France’, Renaissance des arts, 90 (1990), pp. 46–57 M. J. Sanz: ‘El Arte de la Filigrana en Centroamerica: Su importacion a Canarias y la Peninsula’, Goya, 293 (March–April 2003), pp. 103–14...

Article

(b 1802; d 1855).

French silversmith and jeweller. The pieces that he exhibited at the Paris Industrial Exhibitions of 1839 and 1844 made him the most celebrated silversmith in France. He worked in a variety of styles, notably Renaissance Revival, but also produced distinguished Gothic Revival and Rococo-style pieces. His most famous creation is the toilette of the Duchess of Parma (...

Article

Gadroon  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Richard Riddell

English firm of goldsmiths and Jewellers. The firm was founded by George Wickes c. 1730 and taken over by Parker & Wakelin after his retirement in 1760. Robert Garrard (i) (1758–1818), who was not a working silversmith but had been made a freeman of the Grocers’ Company of London in 1780 and thereafter had been accountant to Parker & Wakelin, became a partner in the firm in 1792. The joint mark of Robert Garrard (i) and John Wakelin (fl 1776–1802) was entered in that year. Wakelin was appointed Goldsmith and Jeweller to George III in 1797, and, upon Wakelin’s death, Garrard assumed sole control of the prestigious London-based firm, entering his own mark (rg) that year.

Robert Garrard (ii) (1793–1881), who had also been made a freeman of the Grocers’ Company in 1816, and his two brothers, James (1795–1870) and ...

Article

Gordon Campbell