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Alessandro Conti

(b Venice, April 25, 1859; d Rome, July 10, 1925).

Italian archaeologist. He was educated in Venice at a time when there was great controversy over the conservation of original works of art, especially in connection with the restorations (1875) in S Marco. In 1888 he moved to Rome, where he became an inspector of monuments and advocated the establishment of a photographic archive and a catalogue of monuments as a basis for restoration programmes. Having collaborated on excavations inside the Pantheon in 1892, from 1895 he superintended new excavations in the Forum Romanum (see Rome, §V, 1); the latter uncovered fundamental evidence concerning the origins of Rome, including the Lapis Niger (1st century bc; in situ), an archaic Latin inscription (c. 500 bc; Corpus inscriptionum latinarum, Academia Litterarum Borussicae, Berlin, 1863–, vi, 36840) and ‘pre-Romulan’ burial grounds. He was influenced by John Ruskin’s philosophy of art and argued that the prime function of restoration is to preserve original materials. In ...

Article

Dimitris Tsougarakis

(b Athens, Dec 23, 1887; d Athens, Oct 6, 1979).

Greek architect and archaeologist. He graduated from the National Polytechnic at Athens as an architect in 1908 and gained his doctorate from the University of Athens in 1915, having studied ancient Greek architecture with Wilhelm Dörpfeld (1853–1940), prehistoric archaeology with Georg Karo (1872–1963), archaic sculpture with Rudolf Heberdey and epigraphy with Anton von Premerstein (d 1937). He was the architect for the restoration works (1910–17) on the Acropolis of Athens under Nikolaos Balanos (1852–1933). He served as director of restorations for the ancient monuments of Greece, apart from the Acropolis, from 1920 to 1942, and director of restorations for the monuments of Greece including the Acropolis from 1942 to 1958. He also held posts as professor of morphology and rhythmology at the National Polytechnic (1919–40); professor of the history of architecture also at the Polytechnic (1943–58); and professor of Byzantine archaeology at the University of Athens (...