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Claude Laroche

(b Paris, Nov 9, 1812; d Chatou, Aug 2, 1884).

French architect and restorer. He was the son of a Neo-classical architect of the same name (1783–1868), who was a pupil of Charles Percier and architect to the département of Charente. The younger Paul Abadie began studying architecture in 1832 by joining the atelier of Achille Leclère and then entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1835. While he was following this classical training, he participated in the rediscovery of the Middle Ages by going on archaeological trips and then, from 1844, in his capacity as attaché to the Commission des Monuments Historiques. He undertook his first restoration work at Notre-Dame de Paris, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus and Viollet-le-Duc. Abadie was appointed deputy inspector at Notre-Dame in 1845, and in 1848, when the department responsible for diocesan buildings was created, he was appointed architect to the dioceses of Périgueux, Angoulême and Cahors. He subsequently completed about 40 restoration projects, mainly on Romanesque churches in Charente, in the Dordogne and the Gironde, and as a diocesan architect he was put in charge of two large cathedrals in his district: St Pierre d’Angoulême and St Front de Périgueux. In the former he undertook a huge programme of ‘completion’, returning to a stylistic unity that was in line with current episcopal policy (...


Philippe Durey

(b Le Havre, June 21, 1750; d Paris, April 15, 1818).

French sculptor, draughtsman and engraver. He arrived in Paris in 1765 to become a pupil of Augustin Pajou. Although he never won the Prix de Rome, he appears to have travelled to Rome in the early 1770s. About 1780 or 1781 he was involved in the decoration of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux’s Hôtel Thélusson, Paris. From 1784 to 1785 he carried out work at the château of Compiègne, including the decoration of the Salle des Gardes, where his bas-reliefs illustrating the Battles of Alexander (in situ) pleasantly combine a Neo-classical clarity of composition with a virtuosity and animation that are still Rococo in spirit.

Beauvallet was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1789. During the French Revolution he was a passionate republican and presented plaster busts of Marat and of Chalier (1793–4; both destr.) to the Convention. He was briefly imprisoned after the fall of Robespierre in ...


(b Toulouse, 1766; d Paris, 1826).

French dealer, restorer and painter. He may have begun his career as a protégé of Henri-Auguste de Chalvet, a collector and Associate Member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse. His first teachers were Pierre Rivalz and Lambert-François-Thérèse Cammas. He moved to Paris shortly before the French Revolution but went almost immediately to London, where he established himself as a portrait painter, exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1794 and 1795. He returned to Paris in 1796 and that year sent three portraits to the Salon. In 1799, he exhibited the curiously Romantic Girl Surprised by a Storm (New York, Brooklyn Mus.). The following year he achieved popular success with Woman of Property Begging (England, priv. col.). His talents as a portrait painter were particularly admired: surviving examples are Adrien Segond (1812; Paris, Louvre) and Dieudonné Jeanroy (1812; U. Paris V, Fac. Médec.). His style of painting reflected contemporary admiration for highly finished works in the manner of 17th-century Dutch artists....


Seymour Howard

(b Rome, ?1716; d Rome, Dec 9, 1799).

Italian sculptor, restorer, dealer, collector and antiquary. He lived and worked all his life in the artists’ quarter of Rome. He was apprenticed to the French sculptor Pierre-Etienne Monnot from c. 1729 to 1733, and by 1732 had become a prize-winning student at the Accademia di S Luca. From the early 1730s he appears to have worked for Cardinal Alessandro Albani on his collections of antiquities, renovating sculptures with Carlo Antonio Napolioni (1675–1742).

In 1733 Clement XII bought most of Albani’s earlier holdings of antique sculpture in order to prevent their sale and export to the court of Augustus the Strong in Dresden. He housed them in the Museo Capitolino, Rome, where Cavaceppi worked as a principal restorer, with Napolioni and his nephew Clemente Bianchi, under the direction of Marchese Gregorio Capponi and Cardinal Giovan Petro Lucatelli, until the end of the papacy (1740–58) of Benedict XIV. By mid-century, after renovating Early Christian antiquities in the Lateran, Cavaceppi’s reputation extended beyond Italy and with the aid of Albani he had become an independent dealer. He was in great demand among the major collectors and agents of central Europe and England—including ...


Ilaria Bignamini

(d London, 1748).

English restorer and art dealer. Possibly related to the print-seller and auctioneer John Cock (d 1714), he began his career cleaning and restoring Old Master paintings. In this capacity he was employed by some of the foremost collectors of his time, including John Hervey (1665–1751), 1st Earl of Bristol, and James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos. Around 1726 Cock set up the earliest art auction rooms in London to survive for any length of time. These were situated in the house in Covent Garden formerly occupied by Peter Lely. Around the same date he joined the gatherings of artists and amateurs of the Rose and Crown Club, London, where he met William Hogarth, who later satirized Cock’s supposed greed and cunning in his engraving Battle of the Pictures (1745). Cock also acted as a property auctioneer, conducting his business on a scale unprecedented in England. After his death he was succeeded in the salerooms in Covent Garden by the firms of ...


P. Knolle

(b Groningen, bapt March 12, 1745; d Amsterdam, 1818).

Dutch painter, restorer and art appraiser. He began work at an early age in Steven Numan’s factory of lacquered objects in Groningen. With Numan’s son Hermanus he decided to improve his skills in the wallpaper factory of Jan and Johannes Luberti Augustini in Haarlem. When Numan left for Paris to continue his studies, van Drielst moved to Amsterdam, where he worked again for a short period in a wallpaper factory before he began to work independently. He became a member of the Guild of St Luke in 1768, the year he attended the Amsterdam city drawing academy to practise life drawing. He also carried out restorations and appraisals and became a friend of Adriaan de Lelie and other artists.

Van Drielst became increasingly interested in landscape, and working from nature studies he made watercolours and paintings that sold easily to such collectors as Bernardus de Bosch and Jan Gildemeester. These landscapes, which appealed to the renewed interest in nature in the 18th century, were based on the work of 17th-century Dutch painters such as Meindert Hobbema and Jacob van Ruisdael. Van Drielst was nicknamed the ‘Drentse Hobbema’, as he increasingly frequented the province of Drenthe to supplement his series of sketches from nature, for example the ...


Sarah J. Weatherwax

(b Geneva, Switzerland, Sept 18, 1737; d Philadelphia, PA, Oct 10, 1784).

American painter, draftsman, collector and museum proprietor of Swiss birth. Du Simitière, the son of Jean-Henri Ducimitière (or Dusimitière), an East Indies broker and Judith-Ulrique Cunegonde Delorme, studied art at the University of Geneva. In 1757 he left Amsterdam for the West Indies to document and sketch native flora and fauna and to collect historical materials, launching more than a decade of traveling and collecting in the New World including stops of varying lengths in New York City, Charleston, SC, Burlington, NJ, Boston, MA, Newport, RI, and Philadelphia, PA. In 1769 Du Simitière became a naturalized American citizen, living in Philadelphia (except for a two year sojourn in the West Indies) from 1770 until his death in 1784.

Du Simitière planned to write a natural and civil history of the West Indies and North America based on the large quantities of books, cartoons, manuscripts, coins, newspapers, natural history specimens, broadsides and art he amassed during his travels, but that project never came to fruition. In ...


Alessandro Conti

(b Loreto, 1744; d Venice, March 17, 1821).

Italian restorer. He was a pupil of the painter Gaspare Diziani, but is known mainly as a restorer and as the organizer of the restoration workshop set up by the Republic of Venice in 1778 for the conservation of ‘public paintings’, such as those in the Doge’s Palace and in churches under the state’s jurisdiction. For this task he called on the services of several restorers, including Giuseppe Bertani (fl c. 1717–97) and Diziani’s son Giuseppe (fl until 1803). Some aspects of Edwards’ techniques were unusual. When relining paintings, for example, he would pour warm sand on to the backs in order to paste them to the new canvas, a method that was gradually replaced by the system of hot irons introduced by the French at the end of the 18th century. He always restricted retouching to areas of missing paint and refused to add or remove inscriptions or to make any alterations or ‘improvements’ to a painting. He also kept careful records of the planning of his restorations, paying attention to the protection of the setting of a work, as well as individual costings. Edwards’ extensive restoration of works in the ...


Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen

(b Abeltoft, Sept 6, 1856; d Frederiksberg, June 27, 1920).

Danish architect, painter and teacher. After technical school and apprenticeship to a bricklayer, he attended the School of Architecture of the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen in 1873. He was taught by Hans Jørgen Holm, an advocate of a national style based on the free use of historically associative elements, and Ferdinand Meldahl, who espoused a more ‘correct’ and thus more international architecture. After leaving the Kunstakademi in 1878, Kampmann worked for Holm and Meldahl before going to Paris, where, at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, he learnt the ‘wet’ watercolour technique that he later passed on to his pupils Edvard Thomsen, Aage Rafn, Kay Fisker and his sons Hans Jørgen Kampmann and Christian Kampmann. He was awarded the large gold medal in 1884 and then embarked on a Grand Tour on which he executed travel sketches of Germany, Italy and Greece, capturing in watercolour textures and atmospheres.

In his buildings, logic and legibility informed Kampmann’s approach throughout. For his home town of Hjørring he built a hospital (...


Marianne Frodl-Schneemann

(b Hanau, nr Frankfurt am Main, Sept 15, 1780; d Vienna, Oct 28, 1856).

Austrian painter, teacher and Curator of German birth. From the age of ten, Krafft studied at the Hanau Akademie while at the same time continuing his school education in Hanau. In 1799 he went to Vienna with his sister and studied at the Akademie for three years with the history and portrait painter Heinrich Füger. At this time Krafft painted mythological subjects, made copies from older works and produced several self-portraits that already reveal his capacities in this genre, for example Self-portrait (1799; priv. col., see Frodl-Schneemann, pl. I). The dream-like atmosphere of total absorption, which Krafft often achieved through his use of the techniques of early German painting, constitutes one of the most striking aspects of his portraits from the turn of the century. From 1802 to 1804 he was in Paris, where he studied with Jacques-Louis David and François Gérard. The work of these two, together with that of Jean-Baptiste Greuze and Antoine-Jean Gros, was to influence Krafft’s later work when he returned to Vienna. David’s realist tendencies in painting had a fundamental effect on Krafft’s artistic output, and it was through Krafft that this realism contributed to a development towards Biedermeier art in Vienna. In ...


Alessandro Conti

(b Paris, 1705; d Paris, c. 1777).

French restorer. He first experimented with transferring paintings on to new backings in the French royal collection c. 1740. He achieved extraordinary notoriety for his relining, in 1749–50, of Andrea del Sarto’s Charity and even more so for the relining a year later of Raphael’s St Michael (both Paris, Louvre). Using what he described as a ‘secret’ method, Picault claimed to be able to guarantee paintings an indefinite life. The problem of exactly what this method was and how Picault was able to command his extraordinarily high fees has given rise to lively debate among scholars and conservators. He apparently removed the paint layer from each picture by submitting it to nitric acid vapours; he then applied the painting to its new support using a composition containing such substances as rosin. Their poor durability always led to new relinings being needed within a few years. Raphael’s Mackintosh Virgin and Child...


Valeria Farinati

(b Venice, Aug 23, 1683; d Padua, Nov 15, 1761).

Italian scientist and archaeologist. He is noted for his work as a technical consultant specializing in architectural and hydraulic problems. He began his studies in 1690 in Venice, at the Seminario Patriarcale, Murano, completing them c. 1705 at the school of the Somaschi Fathers at Santa Maria della Salute. In 1708 he was appointed a professor of astronomy at the University of Padua. On 30 November 1710 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, London; this was followed by membership of the most famous Italian academies, as well as those of Berlin (1715), St Petersburg (1735) and Paris (1739). He maintained a continuous correspondence with the most eminent scientists and men of culture, both Italian and foreign, and published numerous works on scientific subjects. In the course of Poleni’s career at the University of Padua, he was professor of philosophy (c. 1715–19...


David Cast

(b London, 1771; d Brighton, Nov 5, 1843).

English connoisseur, museum curator and picture restorer. He was born into a Huguenot family long settled in London that claimed connection with the French noble family of the name of Seguier. He first trained as a painter under Philippe-Joseph Tassaert (1732–1803), and also possibly under George Morland, a family friend, and worked as a professional artist specializing in topographical views of London and making copies of Old Masters. Following his marriage to the wealthy Ann Clowden, he gave up painting and turned his attention to connoisseurship, providing help to collectors of pictures. His clients included G. Watson Taylor, Sir Charles Long (later 1st Baron Farnborough), Sir Robert Peel and, most importantly, George IV, whom he advised on collecting Dutch and Flemish pictures (London, Buckingham Pal., Royal Col.). He was also appointed Conservator of the Royal Picture Galleries by George IV, a position he retained under William IV and Queen Victoria. For many years Seguier was Superintendent of the British Institution, London, holding summer exhibitions of Old Masters and winter exhibitions of contemporary painters. With his brother ...


Alessandro Conti

Italian family of restorers. After a series of experiments dating from as early as the first half of the 18th century, Giacomo Succi (fl Imola, c. 1775; d Rome, 1809) and his sons Domenico Succi (fl c. 1826) and Pellegrino Succi (fl 1812–63) perfected a method of transferring frescoes from their original settings, with techniques that are the basis of those still in use. They generally removed only the painted layer (the strappo technique), which was then treated to ensure that it retained the correct degree of luminosity. Giacomo’s first experiments were made in 1775 on the frescoes by Bartolomeo Cesi in Imola Cathedral (two poorly preserved fragments, Imola, Mus. Civ.), and he is also known to have been responsible for the removal of two works by Guercino in 1791, the White Mare and Venus and Cupid (both Cento, Pin. Civ.)

A greater number of works were transferred by Giacomo’s sons, and these are often of far better quality than would be expected at such an early date. ...