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Article

Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1810; d 1864).

English painter of pottery and porcelain and the proprietor of a China decorating firm. In 1834 he began to work for Copeland, and during this period he may have developed the formula for Parian ware. He is given credit for its invention in the catalogue of the Great Exhibition of ...

Article

Hiroko Nishida

[Nin’ami Dōhachi; Takahashi Mitsuoki]

(b Kyoto, 1783; d ?Fushimi, Kyoto Prefect., 1855).

Japanese ceramicist. He was the second-generation head of the Dōhachi family. His father, Dōhachi, son of a retainer of the Kameyama fief in the province of Ise, established a kiln at Awataguchi in Kyoto in the Hōreki era (1751–64), thereby forming his own school, and later assumed the name Takahashi Dōhachi. Along with Aoki Mokubei, and Eiraku Hozen, the younger Takahashi Dōhachi was one of the most famous makers kyōyaki (‘Kyoto ceramics’), especially polychrome (overglaze) enamels, in the later Edo period (1600–1868). As a youth he followed his father into the ceramics trade, and then became a disciple of Okuda Eisen. From 1806 he was permitted to conduct official business with the prince–abbot (monzeki) of the temple Shōren’in, which secured his reputation as the leading potter of Awataguchi. In 1814 he moved to the Gojōzaka district, where he built a kiln and perfected the craft of making blue-and-white ceramics. He produced some superbly elegant pieces of ...

Article

Hiroko Nishida

[Yōtoku; Yingchuan]

(b Kyoto, 1753; d Kyoto, 1811).

Japanese potter. He is thought to have been the grandson of Chinese immigrants who came to Japan to escape the turbulence at the end of the Ming period (1368–1644). He was adopted into the Okuda family of wealthy pawnbrokers, who patronized the Buddhist temple Kenninji, where, according to one account, Eisen lodged for a time. The temple was famous as a centre of Chinese learning, and it was probably this contact that stimulated Eisen’s first attempts at making Chinese-style ceramics. By the 1780s he was producing copies of late Ming-period enamelled porcelain called gosu akae (gosu: a type of mineral; aka: ‘red’; akae ‘red design’, a type of ware introduced to Japan in the 17th century). Ceramicists in Kyoto had experimented with porcelain earlier in the 18th century, but Eisen was the first to make sustained use of the material, although it is unclear how he acquired the basic clay for porcelain. He is now known to have studied ceramic techniques at ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Viipuri (now Vyborg, Russia) 1911; d Santorini, Greece, 1989).

Finnish ceramic and glass designer. In 1945 he joined Arabia porcelain factory, where he dispensed with the notion of the china set in favour of mix and match tableware. His best known series was ‘Kilta’ (designed in 1948, sold from 1953 and relaunched in 1981 as ‘Teema’), which was available in several colours and was enormously practical: he dispensed with decorative rims and shaped the surfaces so that they could be easily stacked. He also worked for the Nuutajärvi glassworks, for whom he produced both functional glass and decorative pieces. In both ceramics and glass, Kaj was probably the most influential designer of the 20th century....

Article

Mitsuhiko Hasebe

(b Kanagawa, Dec 9, 1894; d Tochigi, Jan 5, 1978).

Japanese potter and museum official. In 1916 he graduated from the department of ceramics at the Tokyo Technical College. He then entered the Kyoto Municipal Institute of Ceramics, where he worked with Kanjirō Kawai, who was his senior there. In 1920 he went to England with Bernard Leach, who had been staying in Japan, and together they set up the Leach Pottery studio in St Ives, Cornwall. Hamada worked there until 1924, when he returned to Japan. He settled in Mashiko in Tochigi Prefecture, where he continued to produce ceramics using reddish brown iron glaze and black-and-white devitrified glazes and clay from the surrounding region. He absorbed traditional technical methods and emulated the organic beauty of various forms of Korean ceramics and of the folk crafts of Japan, and in particular Okinawa. In 1926 with Muneyoshi Yanagi and others he promoted the Mingei (‘folk crafts’) movement. In his later years he established a simple, bold style working with such techniques as salt glazing (e.g. ...

Article

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese family of artists. They were established in Kyoto by the mid-14th century as sword experts in the service of the military aristocracy, for whom they engaged in the decoration, maintenance and connoisseurship of swords. In the late 15th century they emerged as leaders of the machishū, the group of upper-class Kyoto merchants who took over control of the city in the wake of the devastating Ōnin Wars (1466–77). By 1600, however, the power of the machishū had been broken, and many of its members turned their energies to cultural activities. (1) Hon’ami Kōetsu played a prominent role in this movement, and, with the painter Tawaraya Sōtatsu (see Tawaraya Sōtatsu, §1, (i)), he formed the foundation of the school of decorative painting and design later known as Rinpa (see Japan, §VI, 4, (v)). His grandson (2) Hon’ami Kōho continued this tradition.

(b Kyoto...

Article

Hiroko Nishida and Andrew Maske

[Nishimura Zengorō XI; Konan Hozen]

(b ?Kyoto, c. 1795; d Ōtso, Tōtōmi Prov. [now Shiga Prefect.], 1854).

Japanese ceramicist and member of the Eiraku family. At the age of 13 he was adopted by Nishimura Ryōzen, the tenth-generation head of a family of doburo (earthenware braziers) makers for the tea ceremony. In 1827 he was invited to Kii Province (now Wakayama Prefect.) to produce porcelain for the local daimyo, from whom he received the right to use a silver seal bearing the name Eiraku. He obtained national recognition for his sometsuke (blue-and-white) and kinrande (gold and enamel) wares (see Japan §IX 3., (iii)). Hozen was skilled in the manufacture of many types of ceramic ware, including stonewares and copies of Chinese Ming-period (1368–1644) wares, and his coloured glazes (violet, yellow, red, blue and green) were a major influence on later Kyoto ceramics (kyōyaki). He also devoted much effort to mastering the use of underglaze copper red (shinsha). After passing the family headship to his son, Wazen, in ...

Article

Mitsuhiko Hasebe

(b Shimane Prefect., Aug 24, 1890; d Kyoto, Nov 18, 1966).

Japanese potter. In 1914 he graduated from the department of ceramics of the Tokyo Technical College and researched such subjects as glazes at the Kyoto Municipal Institute of Ceramics. In 1920 he obtained a climbing kiln (noborigama), the Shōkeiyō, with eight chambers, at Gojōzaka in Kyoto. In the following year he made his début with technically skilled works imitating the classical wares of China and Korea, for which he gained immediate prominence. In 1926 with Muneyoshi Yanagi and others he promoted the Mingei (‘folk crafts’) movement; his own work moved towards the use of simple organic forms influenced by folk crafts. An example of his later work is a diamond-shaped vase with floral design of 1939 (Kyoto, N. Mus. Mod. A.)

After World War II Kawai discovered his own personal style: dignified forms gave way to rich irregular shapes and, using creative methods such as ‘splashed’ with multi-colour glazes and ‘brushed slip’ with cobalt blue and other colours, he constructed a highly original range of forms. He also carved unusual wooden sculptures and wrote extensively. Kawai’s former home, together with his own works, his collection of folk crafts, his kiln and other property, were restored and opened in ...

Article

Hiroko Nishida

Japanese family of ceramicists. They were active in Kyoto. The first-generation head, Kinkōzan Gen’emon, established a kiln at Awataguchi in the Shōhō era (1644–8). At first the family produced utilitarian objects, but later they made teabowls for the tea ceremony (chadō), particularly of the type known as kyōyaki (‘Kyoto wares’; see Kyoto, §III). The third-generation head, Zen’emon, became master ceramicist to the shogunate in the Edo period (1600–1868). The fourth- and fifth-generation heads (both also called Zen’emon) were skilled producers of wares—such as flower vases, incense burners, display ornaments (okimono), drinking vessels and covered dishes—that imitated Dutch designs and also showed the influence of the work of Nonomura Ninsei. Later generations produced porcelain, basing their techniques on the manuals of Aoki Mokubei (see Aoki Mokubei §2). A porcelain teabowl accompanied by a box bears a calligraphic inscription of the year ...

Article

Mitsuhiko Hasebe

[Fusajirō]

(b Kyoto, March 23, 1883; d Kanagawa, Dec 21, 1959).

Japanese potter, calligrapher and medallist. At an early age he taught himself seal-carving and calligraphy, for which he won a prize in 1904; soon after he became a commercial calligrapher and medallist. In 1915 he had his first experience of decorating pottery at a kiln in the district of Hokuriku. In 1919 he opened an art shop in Tokyo, and in 1920 he founded the Gourmet’s Club on the second floor of the store, serving food in traditional ceramic vessels that he had himself collected. Kitaōji soon began to produce his own pottery, creating forms drawn from studying the vessels that he used for his cuisine. In 1925 he opened the Gourmet’s Club Hoshigaoka Restaurant in Tokyo. In 1926 he established a studio and kiln known as Hoshigaokayō in Kita Kamakura. He often surpassed the classical forms on which his works were based, becoming well known for his simple but original designs. He used red enamels and gold in his work and was influenced by blue-and-white wares and coloured porcelain from the Ming period (...

Article

Kathy Niblett

(Howell)

(b Hong Kong, Jan 5, 1887; d St Ives, Cornwall, May 6, 1979).

English potter and writer. Until he was ten years old he lived in the Far East, which had a most powerful influence on his life and work. In 1903–4 he studied drawing with Henry Tonks at the Slade School of Art, London. He kept a death-bed promise to his father to train to work in the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, but left after nine months and in 1908 he attended the London School of Art to learn etching with Frank Brangwyn. In 1909 he returned to Japan to teach etching and in 1911 was ‘seized with the desire’ to work in clay after attending a ‘raku yaki’ tea party, where he shared the instantaneous joy of Raku family pottery. He found a pottery teacher, Shigekichi Urano (1881–1923), who had become Kenzan VI c. 1900 (see Ogata family §(2)). After teaching him to pot, Kenzan built a kiln for Leach in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1634; d 1708).

Dutch potter whose Delft factory was well-known for its red stoneware imitations of South Chinese Yixing wares. In the 1670s the factory began to produce the earliest ceramic European teapots. They were based on Chinese designs, with a small body (enough to hold two cups of tea), a short spout and a loop handle. They were decorated in relief with Chinese motifs such as prunus....

Article

Kōzō Sasaki and Hiroko Nishida

[Hyakurokusanjin; Kokukan; Kukurin; Rōbei; Ryūbei; Sahei; Seirai; Teiunrō; Yasohachi]

(b Kyoto, 1767; d Kyoto, 1833).

Japanese potter, painter and scholar. He was born into the Kiya family of restaurateurs and adopted the surname Aoki only after becoming a painter. Mokubei, one of his many artist’s names, was created by combining the Chinese characters for ‘tree’ and ‘rice’ (a character anagram of his given name Yasohachi). His most familiar studio name (), Rōbei (‘deaf [Moku]bei’), dates from the time when he had become deaf from the clangour of his ceramic kilns. Despite his plebeian origins, he gravitated at a young age towards the arts and Chinese philosophy and poetry. At 18 he became a pupil of Kō Fuyō, from whom he learnt seal-carving, epigraphy, literati painting (Nanga or Bunjinga; see Japan, §VI, 4, (vi), (d)), Confucianism and the arts and crafts of China. His first acquaintance with pottery also came through Fuyō, who owned a large collection of Chinese ceramics. After studying with Fuyō, he is said to have gone to Ise (now Mie Prefect.) to take up metalwork, and he later tried his hand at sculpture, but he was successful at neither. In ...

Article

Richard L. Wilson

[Nonomura Seiemon]

(b ?Nonomura [now in Kyoto Prefect.]; fl c. 1648–c. 1690).

Japanese potter. The name Ninsei is also applied to wares made at the potter’s workshop from the mid-17th century in the precincts of Ninnaji, a temple at Omuro, north-western Kyoto. Ninsei is credited with establishing a standard of elegance and refinement that has characterized Kyoto ceramics ever since (see Kyoto §III). For his technical skills, Ninsei is ranked, along with Ogata Kenzan (see Ogata family §(2)) and Aoki Mokubei, as one of Japan’s three greatest potters.

It is thought that Ninsei came from the village of Nonomura in the Tanba district (now part of Kyoto Prefect.), where he had mastered the forming techniques for large vessels. According to Ogata Kenzan, he also trained at Seto (now in Aichi Prefect.), a ceramics centre since ancient times. By 1648 he was working at Ninnaji, which had been rebuilt after centuries in ruins. He later adopted the ‘nin’ from Ninnaji, combining it with ‘sei’ from his given name, Seiemon, to produce the name Ninsei. Its first recorded use is on the underside of an incense burner bearing the date equivalent to ...

Article

Shin’ichiro Osaki

(b Tokyo, Feb 26, 1911; d Tokyo, January 7, 1996).

Japanese painter and ceramicist. His father, Ippei Okamoto (1886–1948), was a cartoonist, and his mother, Kanoko Okamoto, was a poet and novelist. In 1929 he entered the Tokyo School of Fine Arts, but six months later he left and accompanied his parents to Paris. From the following year Okamoto studied philosophy at the Université de Paris. At the same time the paintings of Picasso had a tremendous impact on him and he decided to become a painter. In 1932 he exhibited work at the Salon des Indépendants and the following year became a member of the Abstraction–Création group. Gradually he learnt the limits of pure abstraction, and in an exhibition at the Salon des Indépendants he showed the painting the Sad Arm (1936; priv. col.) depicting an arm with a clenched fist, which he was invited to include in the International Surrealist Exhibition of 1938. Consequently his friendship with such Surrealists as André Breton, Louis Aragon and Max Ernst deepened. He participated in the Collège de Sociologie set up by George Bataille and others, and associated with many leading intellectuals. At this time he produced relatively uniform examples of Concrete art, although often using symbolic materials such as cloth or ribbon in his works. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1810; d 1910).

English porcelain painter. He worked at Coalport Porcelain Factory, Derby, and Pinxton Porcelain Factory, painting birds in a style derived from Sèvres (e.g. Coalport vase and cover, Ironbridge, Coalport China Museum). He subsequently ran a porcelain painting shop in Spa Fields, London (where his employees included Moses Webster), and (from ...

Article

Karen M. Gerhart

[Ōtagaki Nobu]

(b Kyoto, 1791; d Kyoto, 1875).

Japanese poet, calligrapher, potter and painter. Shortly after her birth, she was adopted by Ōtagaki Mitsuhisa who worked at Chion’in, an important Jōdo (Pure Land) sect temple in Kyoto. In 1798 she was sent to serve at Kameoka Castle in Tanba, where she studied poetry, calligraphy and martial arts. She returned to Kyoto in 1807 and was married to a young samurai named Mochihisa. They had three children, all of whom died shortly after birth; in 1815 Mochihisa also died. In 1819 Nobu remarried, but her second husband died in 1823. After enduring the tragic loss of two husbands and all her children, Nobu, only 33 years old, cut her hair off and became a nun, at which time she adopted the name Rengetsu (‘lotus moon’). She lived with her stepfather, who had also taken vows, near Chion’in. After his death in 1832 Rengetsu began to make pottery, which she then inscribed with her own ...

Article

Hiroko Nishida

Japanese family of ceramicists. Representative of the kyōyaki (‘Kyoto’) tradition of ceramics (see Kyoto §III), the family was known for its high-quality overglaze polychrome enamels. The first-generation head of the family, Kiyomizu Rokubei, built a kiln in the Gojōzaka district of eastern Kyoto. In addition to mastering the use of Seto glazes, he made copies of gohon wares, a type of ceramics made after Japanese models fired in Korean kilns. These included water containers (mizusashi) and teabowls (chawan) with a standing crane motif. Extant pieces show that he collaborated with the painter Maruyama Ōkyo. The second-generation Kiyomizu Rokubei made teabowls in the style of Ogata Kenzan (see Ogata family §(2)) and water pitchers with Seto glazes. The fifth-generation Rokubei developed such wares as Taireiji (‘state ceremonial porcelain’), which combined individual techniques with tradition. Rokubei VI (1901–80) introduced to decorative ceramics the new styles and ceramic techniques known as ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1827; d 1891).

French glassmaker and ceramicist . He was an early advocate of Japonisme, commissioning Bracquemond family, §1 ’s ‘Japanese’ service (1866) and from 1867 running a studio in Paris, where he imitated Chinese carved jade in glass and applied the decorative techniques of Japanese pottery to glass.

K. Schneck: François Eugene Rousseau: Keramik und Glas an der Schwelle zum Jugendstil...

Article

Gordon Campbell

( fl 1851–90).

English pottery manufacturer. His pottery in Longton, Staffs, made earthenware dogs, jugs and figures, most of which were unmarked. In the early 20th century the factory began to make china, and c. 1918 it became a limited company. In the 1920s Sampson Smith Ltd began to promote its wares as Wetley China, and thereafter used terms such as ‘Old Royal China’ and ‘Wetley Rose’. The term ‘bone china’ was introduced ...