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Article

Yves Bottineau-Fuchs and Gordon Campbell

(before 1520–before 1564).

French potter based in Rouen. It is not known how he became a potter; he may have trained in the Italian workshops at the Château de Madrid in the Bois de Boulogne, Paris, where Girolamo della Robbia was employed, or he may have worked under the direction of Flemish masters. There is, however, ansout obvious Italian influence on his work. Nothing is known of his work prior to the ornamental tiles and tiled pavings at the château of Ecouen, which are in the style of the Fontainebleau school (1542–59; Ecouen, Mus. Ren.). His best-known works are the tiles ordered by Claude d'Urfé (1502–58) in 1551 for the Château de la Bastie d'Urfé (now in Paris, Louvre) and the 4152 albarelli ordered in 1545 by the Rouen apothecary Pierre Dubosc.

P. Oliver: Masseot Abaquesne et les origines de la faïence de Rouen (Rouen, 1952)C. Leroy: ‘Avers et revers des pavements du château d'Ecouen’ [a reconstruction of the original floor design], ...

Article

Article

Carmen Ravanelli Guidotti

[Giorgio da Gubbio; Mastro Giorgio]

(b Intra or Pavia, c. 1465–70; d Gubbio, 1555).

Italian potter. He probably learnt the rudiments of pottery at Pavia and seems to have moved to Gubbio c. 1490, together with his brothers Giovanni Andreoli (d c. 1535) and Salimbene Andreoli (d c. 1522). He became a citizen of Gubbio in 1498. He is particularly well known for his lustrewares, and other potters, especially from the Metauro Valley, sent their work to be lustred in his workshop. His wares made in 1518–19 were frequently signed and dated. His istoriato (narrative) wares (e.g. plate decorated with Hercules and the Hydra, c. 1520; Oxford, Ashmolean) can be dated until at least 1537. In 1536 the workshop seems to have been taken over by his sons Vincenzo Andreoli (Mastro Cencio) and Ubaldo Andreoli.

G. Mazzatinti: ‘Mastro Giorgio’, Il Vasari, 4 (1931), pp. 1–16, 105–22 F. Filippini: ‘Nuovi documenti interno a Mastro Giorgio e alla sua bottega (1515–1517)’, Faenza: Bollettino del Museo internazionale delle ceramiche in Faenza...

Article

Claire Dumortier

(b ?Castel Durante, fl 1512; d Antwerp, 1541).

South Netherlandish potter of Italian birth. He probably worked in Venice before settling in Antwerp at the beginning of the 16th century (see Antwerp §III 2.). In 1512 he purchased a house called De Groote Aren in the Oude Veemerct and in 1520 established the Den Salm workshop in the Kammenstraat, which became the most important in Antwerp. His five sons also worked as potters in Antwerp and abroad: Guido Andries the younger (1535/41–c. 1587) in Antwerp; Frans Andries (b before 1535; d after 1565) in Seville; Joris Andries (c. 1535–c. 1579) in Middelburg; Jaspar Andries (1535/41–c. 1580) in Norwich and London (Lambeth); while Lucas Andries (b before 1535; d c. 1573), the eldest son, eventually inherited his father’s workshop in Antwerp. Guido Andries the elder produced faience pots and paving-tiles, the most remarkable of which are those from the abbey of Herkenrode, which are influenced by Venetian maiolica (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

( de )

( fl 1569–84).

Spanish potter born in Navarre and settled in Seville, where he became a prominent maker of azulejos. His tiles for the Alcázar include two remarkable sets installed in the Palacio Gótico between 1577 and 1583, one depicting the Conquest of Tunis. His panel of the Virgin of the Rosary is in the Museo de Bellas Artes in Seville....

Article

Wendy M. Watson

(b Rovigo, 1486–7; d 1542).

Italian maiolica painter . More is known about Avelli than any other maiolica painter because of his many signed works and the autobiographical details included in his sonnets in honour of Francesco Maria I della Rovere, Duke of Urbino. Avelli considered himself to be not only an artist but also a poet and courtier. His intellectual abilities set him apart from his colleagues, even if as a painter he was not the most talented. He seems never to have directed his own workshop, but he is known to have worked in Urbino from 1530, the year of his first unequivocally signed and dated plate; some pieces from the 1520s signed f.r. and f.l.r. may also be ascribed to him. His familiarity with Classical and contemporary literature is evident in his choice of secular and religious subjects, taken from such authors as Virgil and Ovid, Ariosto and Petrarch (e.g. plate, 1531; London, BM). He also depicted contemporary events, sometimes in allegorical form, for example the Sack of Rome (...

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Gordon Campbell

[Ger.: Bartmannskrug; ‘bearded-man jug’; d’Alva bottle

Type of German glazed stoneware jug produced from the 15th century through to the 19th, and known in English from the 17th century as the bellarmine, the eponym of which was Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino (1542–1621), who was detested in England because of his anti-Protestant polemics. The jugs, which are decorated with the moulded face of a bearded man (sometimes with a coat-of-arms below it) are also known as ‘Greybeards’ and as ‘d’Alva bottles’; the latter name alludes to the third Duke of Alba (...

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Gordon Campbell

(fl 1566–89).

Italian potter. He was born in Ascanio and worked in Faenza, initially with Virgiliotto Calamelli, from whose widow he bought the workshop in 1570. Bettisi made huge maiolica services, including one of several hundred pieces made for Albert V of Bavaria in 1576; there is a broad-rimmed bowl from this service in Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. His wares and those of his workshop are marked ‘Don Pino’....

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Biancho]

Type of maiolica covered with a thick white glaze. Bianchi ware was often extravagantly shaped and pierced but tended to be lightly decorated, usually in blue and orange. The decorative technique was known as compendiario (It.: ‘perfunctory’) and characteristically consisted of boldly drawn figures which left most of the glazed surface untouched. It was introduced in the Faenza potteries in the 1540s but was eventually produced all over Europe. The most prominent Faenza manufacturers of ...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Boccaro  

Gordon Campbell

[bucaro; búcaro; buccaro]

Scented red earthenware brought originally by the Portuguese from Mexico; the word derives from Portuguese búcaro (clay cup). The term also denotes similar earthenware made in Portugal and Spain (especially Talavera) from the 16th to the 18th centuries, and the imitation made by Johann Friedrich Böttger at Meissen; the name is also applied to the red Chinese stoneware made in Yixing.

M. C. García Sáiz and J. L. Barrio Moya: ‘Presencia de cerámica colonial mexicana en España’, An. Inst. Invest. Estét., vol.58 (1987), pp. 108–10 M. C. García Sáiz and M. Ángeles Albert: ‘La cerámica de Tonalá en las colecciones Europeas’, Tonalá: Sol de barro, ed. S. Urutia and J. de la Fuente (Mexico City, 1991) J. C. Castro and M. C. McQuade: Talavera Poblana: Four Centuries of a Mexican Ceramic Tradition (Albuquerque, NM, 2000) B. Hamann: ‘The Mirrors of Las Meninas: Cochineal, Silver, and Clay’, A. Bull., vol.92 (March–June 2010), pp. 6–35...

Article

Claire Dumortier

Belgian centre of ceramics production, near Charleroi. Potters were working in Bouffioulx from the 13th to the 15th century. The first mention of a master potter at Bouffioulx was in 1528, brown and grey salt-glazed stoneware being made from c. 1530. During the first half of the 16th century wares produced included tankards with ovoid bodies (often decorated with a figure) and ovoid pitchers, sometimes with three handles and decorated with three faces. During the second half of the 16th century production also included schnellen (tall, tapering tankards). The influence of the Raeren workshops is evident especially in the decoration, which included armorial bearings, medallions, figures, flowers and foliage.

D. A. Van Bastelaer and J. Kaisin: ‘Les Grès-cérames ornés de l’ancienne Belgique ou des Pays-Bas improprement nommés grès flamands Châtelet et Bouffioulx’, Bulletin des Commissions royales d’art et d’archéologie [cont. as Bull. Comm. Royale Mnmts & Sites], 19 (1880), pp. 98–182...

Article

Carmen Ravanelli Guidotti

Italian ceramic factory. In 1498 a maiolica factory was established in the Medici villa of Cafaggiolo, in the Mugello near Florence, by the brothers Piero and Stefano Schiavon family from Montelupo, a famous Tuscan centre of ceramics production. The factory was in production throughout the 16th century, and the products made for the grand dukes of Tuscany and other noble Florentine families reveal a remarkable pictorial zeal, which developed from decorative schemes influenced by the style of wares from Faenza, including alla porcellana (blue-and-white decoration inspired by Chinese porcelain) and grotesques and the rather showy and heraldic istoriato (narrative) scenes. Many of these works are stamped or marked underneath with the words in Chafagiollo or Chafaguotto or sometimes stamped with the famous sp monogram, by tradition ascribed to the Fattorini family (e.g. jug with a portrait of Leo X, c. 1515; Faenza, Mus. Int. Cer.). The strong incentive of an important, rich clientele lasted for several decades. When it declined, however, the factory’s production became increasingly mediocre during the 16th century and was finally supplanted by ...

Article

Carmen Ravanelli Guidotti

[Virgilio]

(fl Faenza, 1531; d Faenza, c. 1570).

Italian potter. He was the son of Giovanni da Calamello, and there are plenty of documents relating to him, especially after 1540, when as a practising potter he went to sell his wares in Bologna. He was so successful that citizenship was conferred on him. In Faenza his workshop was situated in the S Vitale quarter, where there were many other potteries during the 16th century. An inventory of 1556 (Grigioni, pp. 143–51) describes his economic position and the progress of his workshop. Apparently his was among the most well-established workshops in Faenza, able to produce huge table-services, including water jugs, salt-cellars, dishes and vases (e.g. vase with lion handles, c. 1550–60; Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Mus.). In 1566, for health reasons, he handed his shop over to Leonardo Bettisi, known as Don Pino, also from Faenza. Calamelli is recognized as an important exponent of the Compendiario (sketchy) style, which was typical of the so-called ...

Article

Wendy M. Watson

[now Urbania]

Italian centre of maiolica production. Situated near the Metauro River, the town was close to sources of raw materials and was in an excellent location for marketing its wares. Ceramics were manufactured in the town as early as the 14th century, and it was among the most prolific Italian centres of production for pottery during the first half of the 16th century. Its fine maiolica was remarked on by Vasari and by Cipriano di Michele Piccolpasso, a native of Castel Durante and author of the treatise I tre libri dell’arte del vasaio (1557–9). Extensive interchange occurred between Durantine artists and those of Urbino, Gubbio, Pesaro and Faenza.

Among the most famous ceramics of Castel Durante were maiolica plates and jars decorated with candelabra, trophies, musical instruments, oak leaves and designs imitating Chinese porcelain. One important example is a bowl decorated with candelabra (1508; New York, Met.), with the arms of Pope ...

Article

Luciana Arbace

Italian centre of ceramic production. During the 16th century, this flourishing centre of ceramic production in the Abruzzo region was renowned for its development of a highly original artistic style. The oldest examples, the Orsini-Colonna pharmacy jars (c. 1520–40; Watson, pp. 54–5) such as those produced by the Pompeo family, display tasteful and popular variations of the istoriato (narrative) style. Towards the middle of the 17th century, Francesco Grue launched a renaissance in this style, producing large plates decorated with battle scenes. The families of the Gentile, Cappelletti and particularly Grue (see Grue, Francesco Antonio Xaverio) were among the most outstanding Castellian potters responsible for the production of vessels and shields decorated with rural landscapes, allegorical and mythological themes, all of which were painted in naturalistic tones of olive-green, browns, yellows and sometimes gold. The decorative schemes were usually inspired by the Baroque style of painting and were frequently derived from contemporary prints. The work of the Castelli potters was highly valued, and their transfer to the kingdom of Naples was very influential on Neapolitan artists. Towards the end of the 18th century ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Type of English pottery, so called because the first specimens were found in the ruins of Cistercian abbeys; it appears to have been manufactured by monks in the late 15th century or early 16th. The ware is very hard, and usually orange or red (but sometimes grey or purple), and has a chocolate-brown or black glaze and decorations in trailed yellow slip. The most common form is the drinking cup with two or more handles....

Article

Deruta  

Wendy M. Watson

Italian centre of maiolica production. It was the main centre of pottery production in Umbria during the Renaissance. A document of 1358 records the sale of ceramic wares to the convent of S Francesco in nearby Assisi, although potteries probably existed in Deruta even earlier. Between c. 1490 and 1550 production increased in quantity and quality, and plain and decorated wares were supplied to a wide market (see fig.; see also Italy, fig.). By the early 16th century 30 to 40 kilns were in operation, of which only three or four used the metallic gold and red lustres for which Deruta and Gubbio are renowned. As in Gubbio, lustres were applied to local wares and to those brought from such other centres of production as Urbino for this specialized finish. In addition to lustred ceramics, quantities of polychrome maiolica were produced, the predominant colours of which are yellow, orange and blue. In the 17th and 18th centuries the quality of ceramic production declined and was characterized by the manufacture of votive plaques that were placed in churches and homes....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(fl 1508–30).

Italian maiolica painter who worked in Castel Durante (1508), Urbino (1508 and 1530; see Urbino §3) and Venice (1523; see Venice §III 2.). The canon of his works has been reduced by scholarly scrutiny, but those that remain secure are typically plates decorated with allegorical subjects surrounded by grotesque borders....

Article

Luciana Arbace

(fl c. 1543–54).

Italian ceramics painter. He was first active in Urbino, where he is recorded as working in the workshop of Guido di Merlino from 1543. His early signed and dated works include a dish painted with a scene showing Martius Coriolanus and his Mother (1544; London, BM) and a fragment (1546; Stockholm, Nmus.) illustrating the Death of Polixena and bearing the monogram and sign of Urbino. Stylistically very similar to these are plates and dishes illustrating biblical and mythological scenes, dating from 1542 to 1547 (examples in Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Mus.; London, V&A; Edinburgh, Royal Mus. Scotland; Pesaro, Mus. Civ.). In 1547 he took over a kiln in Monte Bagnolo, near Perugia. Certain large vessels, decorated both inside and out, have been attributed to this period (examples in Florence, Bargello, and London, V&A), as have albarelli and flasks. His work is characterized by a strong palette of blues, yellows, oranges and greens and lightly marked contours. His compositions were inspired by printed sources including the illustrated version of Livy’s ...