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Article

Agano  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese region in Buzen Province (now part of Fukuoka Prefect.), northern Kyushu, where stonewares were manufactured at various sites from c. 1600 (see also Japan, §IX, 3, (i), (d)).

The first potter to make Agano ware was the Korean master Chon’gye (Jap. Sonkai; 1576–1654). Deported to Kyushu during one of the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597, he entered the service of Hosokawa Tadaoki (1563–1645), the newly appointed governor of Buzen. On the completion of Tadaoki’s fortress at Kokura (now Kitakyushu), Chon’gye built the Saienba kiln, probably within the castle precincts. A site thought to be Saienba was found beneath Myōkōji, the temple that replaced the castle in 1679, and excavations took place between 1979 and 1983. Sherds of both tea ceremony and everyday wares have been found there; they have transparent glazes made with a wood-ash flux, opaque glazes made with a straw-ash flux or brown-black glazes pigmented with iron oxide. Inscriptions on surviving pieces and entries in contemporary diaries indicate that these early products were also called Buzen or Kokura ware. After a few years the Saienba kiln closed, and ...

Article

Luciana Arbace

Italian centre of ceramic production. The town, situated near Savona in Liguria, was a flourishing centre of maiolica production during the Renaissance. It was, however, only during the 17th and 18th centuries that a distinctive style developed. Important families in the pottery business included the Grosso, Chiodo, Corrado, Salomone, Pescio, Seitone, Seirullo, Levantino and Siccardi, all of whom produced large quantities of polychrome plates (e.g. by the Corrado, mid-17th century; Nino Ferrari priv. col., see Morazzoni, pl. 43), albarelli and vases, which were sometimes inspired by silverware and contemporary delftware. In some cases, yellow and an olive green were used on a turquoise ground. Wares were decorated in a calligraphic style with an emphasis on naturalistic motifs including such animals as leverets; this style later evolved into Baroque forms painted with soft, loose brushstrokes.

In the 1920s the Futurist potter Tullio Mazzotti (1899–1971), who took the name Tullio d’Albisola, revived Albisola’s reputation as a pottery centre. The town continued to produce pottery throughout the 20th century, especially the blue-and-white pottery known as Antico Savona. The Museo della Ceramica Manlio Trucco houses a collection of Albisola pottery from every period....

Article

Arita  

Hiroko Nishida

Region in Japan, now part of Saga Prefecture, and the name of a type of porcelain first produced there during the early Edo period (1600–1868). The ware was originally known as Imari yaki (‘Imari ware’) because it was shipped from the port of Imari (Saga Prefect.). During the Meiji period (1868–1912) porcelain was produced throughout the country. The need to distinguish it from other porcelain wares led to the use of the name Arita (Arita yaki). As a result, the names Imari and Arita wares were used interchangeably. In the West, Arita porcelain was known by several names, including Imari, Amari, Old Japan and Kakiemon (see Japan, §IX, 3, (iii)).

Porcelain production is said to have begun in Japan in 1616, when the Korean ceramicist Ri Sanpei [Jap. Kanagae Sanbei] (1579–1655), who had been brought to Japan after Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s invasions of Korea (...

Article

(b Sigüenza, Spain, 1649; d ?Lisbon, c. 1703).

Portuguese painter of Spanish origin. He arrived in Lisbon in 1669 and began his career as a decorative painter in the workshop milieu of the city. In the same year he married Agostina das Neves, the sister-in-law of the painter Marcos da Cruz. In 1681–2 he painted and gilded the ceiling of the choir and crossing in S Luís dos Franceses, Lisbon (destr. 1755). Documents show that from 1690 he confined himself to the painting of azulejos (glazed tiles). He contributed to the development of a monumental conception of figured panels and to the use of cobalt blue as the characteristic colour for Portuguese tiles. He developed the use of azulejos to form a unified pictorial design and created a repertory of decorative elements such as friezes of vases, flowers, single motif tiles and patterns. His important works include panels with scenes from the Life of St John the Baptist...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Western name for Chinese porcelain of the Kangxi period (1662–1722) imported by Dutch merchants through the Dutch trading station at Batavia (now Jakarta). This porcelain, which was brown-glazed, decorated with panels and usually painted in blue, was imitated by European manufacturers, notably at Meissen and Leeds, and these imitations are known as Batavia ware....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Ger.: Bartmannskrug; ‘bearded-man jug’; d’Alva bottle

Type of German glazed stoneware jug produced from the 15th century through to the 19th, and known in English from the 17th century as the bellarmine, the eponym of which was Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino (1542–1621), who was detested in England because of his anti-Protestant polemics. The jugs, which are decorated with the moulded face of a bearded man (sometimes with a coat-of-arms below it) are also known as ‘Greybeards’ and as ‘d’Alva bottles’; the latter name alludes to the third Duke of Alba (...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Large circular earthenware dish made in England (especially Bristol and Lambeth) in the late 17th century and early 18th; the name derives from the dashes of blue around the rims. The dishes are usually decorated with portraits of Stuart monarchs or pretenders, but some portray an Adam and Eve in which the fruit is an orange, an allusion to William and Mary of Orange. There are no makers’ marks on the dishes....

Article

Boccaro  

Gordon Campbell

[bucaro; búcaro; buccaro]

Scented red earthenware brought originally by the Portuguese from Mexico; the word derives from Portuguese búcaro (clay cup). The term also denotes similar earthenware made in Portugal and Spain (especially Talavera) from the 16th to the 18th centuries, and the imitation made by Johann Friedrich Böttger at Meissen; the name is also applied to the red Chinese stoneware made in Yixing.

M. C. García Sáiz and J. L. Barrio Moya: ‘Presencia de cerámica colonial mexicana en España’, An. Inst. Invest. Estét., vol.58 (1987), pp. 108–10 M. C. García Sáiz and M. Ángeles Albert: ‘La cerámica de Tonalá en las colecciones Europeas’, Tonalá: Sol de barro, ed. S. Urutia and J. de la Fuente (Mexico City, 1991) J. C. Castro and M. C. McQuade: Talavera Poblana: Four Centuries of a Mexican Ceramic Tradition (Albuquerque, NM, 2000) B. Hamann: ‘The Mirrors of Las Meninas: Cochineal, Silver, and Clay’, A. Bull., vol.92 (March–June 2010), pp. 6–35...

Article

Hugo Morley-Fletcher

(b Schleiz, Feb 4, 1682; d Dresden, March 13, 1719).

German chemist and inventor. With the assistance of the scientist and mathematician Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (1651–1708), he initiated experiments for the manufacture of gold from base metals (alchemy). This attempt attracted the attention of Frederick-Augustus I, Elector of Saxony, who obtained Böttger’s services and kept him under virtual house arrest. The creation of gold did not succeed, but Böttger first developed a red stoneware called Jaspis-porzellan and then on 28 March 1709 discovered ‘true’ or hard-paste porcelain, which had until then only been produced in China and Japan. A factory was established in the Albrechtsburg in Meissen on 6 June 1710. There Böttger worked with David Köhler, Paul Wildenstein and Samuel Stöltzel to refine the new material and to create the necessary colours to decorate it. Initially the shapes were designed by the court goldsmith Johann Jacob Irminger (1635–1724), who in 1712 assumed the role of artistic director at the factory. Böttger’s porcelain was creamy white and could be potted very thinly. Böttger did not see his invention reach its full potential, as very few satisfactory enamel colours had been created by the time of his death. His discovery, however, was to create a fashion for porcelain all over Germany for the next 60 years....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(fl 1671; d 1691).

Dutch pottery manufacturer. He was the proprietor of a Delft pottery called De Metaale Pot, which produced blue-and-white wares and red earthenware teapots; the potter’s mark was LC. The best-known product of the factory is a set of Delft blue faience (c. 1685) which was made for Wenzel Ferdinand, Fürst von Lobkowicz; 125 pieces survive in the Lobkowicz collection in Nelahozeves Castle (north of Prague)....

Article

Gordon Campbell and Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

French family of potters. Antoine Clérissy I (d 1679) and his son Pierre Clérissy I (1651–1728) established the first pottery in Moustiers (Provence) in the late 1670s; Antoine made earthenware, and Pierre initiated the production of faience. Pierre's son Antoine Clérissy II (d 1743) entered into partnership with his father in 1710 and ran the factory from 1728 (when his father died) until 1736 (when he retired); the business then passed to his son Pierre Clérissy II (1704–94), who sold the factory in 1783. The factory's wares were painted with armorial devices, historical scenes and hunting scenes (e.g. oval dish, c. 1700; Sèvres, Mus. N. Cér.) inspired by the engravings of Antonio Tempesta (1555–1660) and painted by François Gaspard Viry (1682–1750). Towards the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th, wares were decorated in blue-and-white with lambrequin borders and strapwork in the style of Jean Berain (e.g. dish, ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American pottery in Burlington, NJ. It was founded in 1688 by Dr Daniel Coxe (b ?Stoke Newington, England, 1640/41; d ?London, 19 Jan 1730) and John DeWilde (b c.1665; d Doctor’s Creek, NJ, 1708). A Cambridge-trained physician, Dr Coxe had extensive interests in the American colonies and was Governor of East and West Jersey from 1688 to 1692. His contract with DeWilde for a pottery ‘for white and Chiney ware’ was only one of the many ways in which he profited from his colonial holdings. From 1675 DeWilde had trained in London delftware potteries and by the time of his association with Coxe was a master potter and maker of delftware. Documents show that tin-glazed earthenwares were sold in the Delaware River Valley, Barbados and Jamaica, although no pieces from this pottery survive. The pottery was probably disbanded when Coxe sold his Jersey holdings to the ...

Article

Walter Spiegl

[Kreussen]

German centre of ceramics production. Stoneware was produced at Creussen, near Bayreuth, as early as the end of the 15th century. Brown-glazed stoneware, however, was not manufactured until the end of the 16th century. The oldest-known dated piece was made in 1614. During the first quarter of the 17th century output was at its finest, and the most famous potteries belonged to the Vest and Speckner families. A number of special forms were developed, including the Krause (a low, wide tankard) and Schraubflasche (a globular-shaped flask with four or six flattened sides). Another speciality was vessels for chemists’ shops, as Creussen wares were resistant to acids. The majority of the potteries’ output consisted of wine jugs and tankards. Typical wares were decorated in relief and brightly coloured enamels. Favoured motifs included the Apostles (Apostelkrüge), biblical scenes, representations of the seven planets (Planetenkrüge), the Emperor with the seven Electors (...

Article

David Drakard

(b c. 1635; bur Fulham [now in London], Oct 13, 1703).

English potter. He was employed by the natural philosopher and chemist Robert Boyle in Oxford in the 1650s, which evidently engendered his interest in chemistry. From 1661 he held secretarial and legal appointments under four bishops of Chester, but it was not until 1670–71, when living at Wigan, that after many experiments he concluded that ‘he had ye secret of making china ware’. He applied for and was granted a patent on 17 April 1672 for making ‘transparent Earthen Ware’ and ‘stone ware’ and moved to London, setting up a pottery in Fulham. By March 1676 the production of stoneware bottles after the Rhenish bellarmines, mugs and similar vessels was sufficiently established for Dwight to negotiate a sales agreement with the Worshipful Company of Glass Sellers of London, who held the London monopoly of the sale of both glassware and stoneware. In June 1684 Dwight obtained a second patent restating his original claims and supplemented with additional ‘inventions’, including ‘opacous redd and darke coloured Porcellane’. Both the extension of the patent on brown stoneware and the ‘inventions’ led to much inconclusive litigation between Dwight and ...

Article

Echizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan, based on some 20 kiln sites 7 km north-west of the city of Takefu (Fukui Prefect.). Echizen is known as one of Japan’s ‘Six Old Kilns’. It is one of three centres that arose in the area (the others being Kaga and Suzu) in the 12th century in response to increased agricultural production. Ceramics appeared in Fukui Prefecture in the 6th century ad with the manufacture of Sue stoneware, fired in tunnel kilns (anagama; see Japan §IX 2., (ii), (a)). In the 12th century, however, increased agricultural production, coupled with the introduction of new technology, encouraged the development of a higher-fired brown stoneware. The use of a tunnel kiln with a dividing pillar, the manufacture of jars with everted rims and incised horizontal bands and the use of the coil-and-paddle technique in the early Echizen wares point to origins in kilns such as ...

Article

Robin Hildyard

English family of potters of German birth. David Elers and John Philip Elers were the sons of Martin Elers, a German who had settled in Holland. David is first recorded as a silversmith in London in 1686, and both brothers then made ‘Browne muggs and red theapotts’ in Staffordshire and Vauxhall, London, from c. 1690. In 1693 they were sued by John Dwight for infringing his stoneware patent but subsequently made red stoneware under licence from Dwight. In 1698 John Philip gave up the lease of his house at Bradwell Wood, Staffs, where he had been both potter and gentleman farmer, but continued making teapots at Vauxhall with David until they were declared bankrupt in 1700. John Philip became a merchant in Dublin in 1701 and was supplied with Chinese porcelain, imported by the British East India Company, by David during the period 1715 to 1722. The primary importance of the Elers brothers to the history of English ceramics is in their introduction of sprigged, red stoneware to Staffordshire, where it was revived in the 1740s; secondly in their use of slip-casting with plaster of Paris moulds; and thirdly in their use of lathe-turning to achieve lightness and sharp profile. Although David claimed in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Ger.: ‘narrow-necked jug]

German jug, usually made of faience and sometimes mounted in pewter. The body is normally ovoid, and has a narrow neck and a hinged pewter lid. Enghalskrüge were made in the 17th and 18th centuries, initially at Hanau Faience Factory and subsequently at factories such as Ansbach and Frankfurt am Main Faience Factory...

Article

Gordon Campbell