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Article

Andrew Weiner

(b Beirut, 1925).

Lebanese painter and writer active in the USA. Daughter of a Greek Christian mother and a Syrian Muslim father, Adnan was educated in Lebanon before going on to study philosophy at the Sorbonne, Harvard, and the University of California, Berkeley. For many years she taught aesthetics at Dominican College, San Rafael, CA; she also lectured and taught at many other colleges and universities. During the 1970s Adnan regularly contributed editorials, essays, and cultural criticism to the Beirut-based publications Al-Safa and L’Orient-Le Jour. In 1978 she published the novel Sitt Marie Rose, which won considerable acclaim for its critical portrayal of cultural and social politics during the early years of the Lebanese Civil War. Adnan published numerous books of poetry, originating in her opposition to the American war in Vietnam and proceeding to encompass topics as diverse as the landscape of Northern California and the geopolitics of the Middle East. Her poetry served as the basis for numerous works of theater and contemporary classical music....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Slip clay that can produce a dark brown glaze. Albany slip was mined near Albany, NY, from the early 19th century, and was used on American stoneware. It is no longer mined commercially, but is imitated by colouring similar clays.

‘Slip Sliding Away’, Ceramics Monthly, 36 (Jan 1988), pp. 57–8...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American pottery manufacturer. Beginning in 1828 D. & J. Henderson made award-winning Rockingham in a factory previously occupied by the Jersey Porcelain and Earthenware Co. in Jersey City, NJ, but in 1833 David Henderson (c. 1793–1845) took control of the company and changed the name to the American Pottery Manufacturing Co. (see fig.). In addition to the fine Rockingham modelled by the Englishman Daniel Greatbach (fl after 1839; d after 1866), the company was the first to make transfer-printed pearlware in the USA and c. 1833 reproduced Ridgway’s ‘Canova’ pattern. Many English potters who settled in the USA during the second quarter of the 19th century started their American careers in Henderson’s pottery. After Henderson’s death in 1845, the firm continued until 1852, when John Owen Rouse (d 1896) and Nathaniel Turner (d 1884) took over the works for the production of whiteware, which was made there until ...

Article

Joan Marter

(b Benicia, CA, Sept 4, 1930; d Benicia, Nov 2, 1992).

American ceramicist. Arneson was an influential artist of the Bay Area from the 1960s until his death. He was identified with Funk art in the 1960s and expanded his creation of witty ceramic sculpture by focusing on self-portraits and political subjects. He spent his youth in a small working-class town and worked as a cartoonist for the local paper. Arneson received an undergraduate degree in 1954 from the California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland and taught at a local high school. His master’s degree was awarded in 1958 by Mills College. In 1962 he began teaching at the University of California, Davis, and he continued there as head of the ceramics department for 30 years. Also on the faculty were Wayne Thiebaud, William Wiley, and Roy De Forest. Graduates from UC Davis include renowned clay artists David Gilhooly (b 1943) and Richard Shaw (b 1941...

Article

Suzanne Tise

Descriptive term applied to a style of decorative arts that was widely disseminated in Europe and the USA during the 1920s and 1930s. Derived from the style made popular by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, the term has been used only since the late 1960s, when there was a revival of interest in the decorative arts of the early 20th century. Since then the term ‘Art Deco’ has been applied to a wide variety of works produced during the inter-war years, and even to those of the German Bauhaus. But Art Deco was essentially of French origin, and the term should, therefore, be applied only to French works and those from countries directly influenced by France.

The development of the Art Deco style, or the Style moderne as it was called at the time, closely paralleled the initiation of the 1925...

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b Heidersdorf, April 5, 1722; d Lititz, PA, Oct 28, 1788).

American potter of German birth. Although originally trained as a weaver, Aust was apprenticed to a potter in Herrnhut, Germany, where the Moravian Brethren were centred. In 1754 he arrived in Bethlehem, PA, the Brethren’s first colonial outpost. After ten months’ work at the pottery there under master Michael Odenwald, Aust went to the new settlement in Bethabara, NC, where he established its first pottery. In 1768 the pottery was moved to another new settlement at Salem, NC. All the wares necessary for daily life were made in Aust’s potteries, including large stoves (see Teapot, 1756–71; New York, Met.). Aust’s most distinctive work is found on decorative plates embellished with floral or geometric ornament delineated in green, red, brown, white and dark brown slips (e.g. earthenware dish used by Aust as a trade sign, diam. 555 mm, 1773; Winston-Salem, NC, Old Salem; see Bivins, p. 224). He trained a number of apprentices who worked in the Piedmont region, thereby creating a ‘school’ of his style that is associated with the area....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1926, Butte, MT; d Missoula, MT June 20, 2007).

American potter and sculptor of Finnish descent who is best known as a figurative ceramicist but has also worked in bronze, concrete, glass and metal. His works are normally in stoneware with incised decorations, but Autio began to work in porcelain while working at the Arabia Porcelain Factory in Helsinki in the 1980s....

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b New York, Oct 27, 1886; d Columbus, OH, Feb 15, 1947).

American potter . As a student of Charles Fergus Binns at Alfred University, Alfred, NY, he was introduced to the practical aspects of running a pottery, and in 1904 Binns sent him to help Dr Herbert James Hall (1870–1923) to establish a pottery for occupational therapy at his sanatorium in Marblehead, MA. In 1908 the Marblehead Pottery was reorganized on a commercial basis. Baggs designed the wares, which were mostly simply shaped vases covered with muted matt glazes and contrasting stylized decorations. In 1915 Baggs purchased the pottery and continued to be associated with it until its closure in 1936. Between 1925 and 1928 he developed brilliant blue and green glazes while working as a glaze chemist at R. Guy Cowan’s, Cowan Pottery Studio in Cleveland, OH. In 1928 he became professor of ceramic arts at Ohio State University in Columbus. During the 1930s he revived interest in salt-glazing stoneware, and his ‘Cookie Jar’ (...

Article

Tara Leigh Tappert

(b Philadelphia, PA, May 1, 1855; d Gloucester, MA, Sept 17, 1942).

American painter. Beaux’s paintings of upper-class men, women, and children represent the finest examples of portraiture from the turn of the 20th century (see fig.). Known for her bravura brushwork, lush colour, and consummate ability to combine likeness and genre, Beaux’s paintings garnered awards and accolades at the exhibitions where she regularly showed her work. By the 1890s her portraits were often compared with those of John Singer Sargent, and she was as well known as Mary Cassatt.

Beaux was 16 years old when an uncle arranged private art lessons with a distant relative and artist, Catharine Ann Drinker (1871–2). Beaux did copy-work with her and then took two more years of training at the art school of Francis Adolf van der Wielen (1872–4). Beaux later studied china painting at the National Art Training School with Camille Piton (1879). Her earliest Philadelphia training prepared her for a career in the decorative arts. A few of Beaux’s early commissions include her lithograph, ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American pottery manufactory in Baltimore, MD, founded in 1846 by Edwin Bennett, a Staffordshire potter, and his brother William. The company was known as Bennett & Brothers and in 1890 was incorporated as the Edwin Bennett Pottery Company. It closed in 1936. The early products were household wares with a brown glaze (known in America as Rockingham ware) and jugs of biscuit porcelain resembling Parian ware, but with a blue or sage-green ground and white decorations. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1840; d 1907).

Anglo-American potter. He was born in Staffordshire and as a young man worked for Doulton, where he developed a distinctive method of underglaze painting. In 1877 he emigrated to New York, where he established a studio; at first he imported English biscuit clay, but then developed his own compound. His pottery, in which he favoured Arts and Crafts styles or Islamic styles, was distributed through Tiffany & Co. Examples of his work at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, include a vase dated ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b Worcester, UK, Oct 4, 1857; d Alfred, NY, Dec 4, 1934).

American potter and teacher of English birth. As the son of Richard William Binns (1819–1900), director of the Worcester Royal Porcelain Co. Ltd, he was exposed at an early age to the pottery industry. After holding various positions in the Worcester firm, he resigned. In 1897 he settled in the USA, where he was appointed director of the Technical School of Arts and Sciences in Trenton, NJ, and superintendent of the Ceramic Art Co., also in Trenton. In 1900 he became the first director of the New York College of Clayworking and Ceramics at Alfred University, NY. In this capacity and as a founder-member and officer in the American Ceramic Society, he greatly influenced the development of American ceramics. He frequently contributed articles to Craftsman, Keramic Studio and the Transactions and Journal of the American Ceramic Society, and he was the author of several books. His own technically exquisite stoneware, produced at Alfred, was inspired by early Chinese ceramics and emphasized the interrelationship of classical shape and finely textured glazes. His students included ...

Article

Jean Stern

(b Bomen, Austria, Jan 14, 1864; d Pasadena, Feb 5, 1929).

American painter and porcelain painter of Austrian birth. Bischoff began his artistic training at a craft school in his native Bomen. In 1882 he went to Vienna for further training in painting, design and ceramic decoration. He came to the USA in 1885 and obtained employment as a painter in a ceramic factory in New York City. Bischoff moved to Pittsburgh, PA, then to Fostoria, OH, and finally to Dearborn, MI, continuing to work as a porcelain painter. In 1906 he moved his family to the Los Angeles area. Two years later he built a studio–home along the Arroyo Seco in South Pasadena, which included a gallery, ceramic workshop and painting studio. Once in California, Bischoff turned to landscape painting, in addition to continuing his flower paintings and his porcelain work. Through the 1920s, he painted the coastal areas of Monterey and Laguna Beach, the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the desert near Palm Springs. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Canadian pottery founded in Collingwood, Ontario, in 1947. Its earthenware figures were moulded from a rich red clay and used two glazes, one dark and one light; during firing the lighter glaze ran as it passed through the darker glaze. The pottery is associated with its characteristic green figures and vases, but in the 1960s produced earthenware in other colours and also made tea and coffee sets. The pottery closed in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1913; d 1969).

American potter famed for his hand-painted porcelain figures of American birds. He maintained an aviary on the Delaware River, and the captured life specimens were the models for the work of his studio in Trenton, NJ. The largest collection of his porcelain birds is housed in the Stark Museum in Orange, TX....

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American porcelain manufacturer. Gousse Bonnin (b ?Antigua, c. 1741; d c. 1779) moved in 1768 from England to Philadelphia, where he established the first porcelain factory in America with money from an inheritance and with investments from George Morris (1742/5–73). The land was purchased late in 1769 and in January 1770 the first notice regarding the enterprise was published. The first blue-decorated bone china wares were not produced until late in 1770. Newspaper advertisements noted ‘three kilns, two furnaces, two mills, two clay vaults, cisterns, engines and treading rooms’ and listed such wares as pickle stands, fruit baskets, sauce boats, pint bowls, plates, plain and handled cups, quilted cups, sugar dishes in two sizes, cream jugs, teapots in two sizes, and breakfast sets. Well-established foreign competition, however, was too formidable for the new business, which had to charge high prices to meet large expenses; production ceased by ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1779; d c. 1864).

American potter who made red earthenware domestic wares in Goshen, CT, for 72 years. There is little documentary evidence of the activities of most American potters of the period, but Brooks is an exception. The extensive records, together with the archaeological excavation of the site of his pottery, has meant that he is the best understood American potter of the 19th century. His workshop is now a working exhibition in Old Sturbridge Village, where a replica of his kiln was built in ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b Valcartier, Qué., May 16, 1836; d Trenton, NJ, May 4, 1922).

American sculptor, ceramic modeller and teacher of Canadian birth. Broome received his artistic training at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, where he was elected an Academician in 1860 and taught (1860–63) in the Life and Antique department. In 1854 he assisted Thomas Crawford with the statues on the pediment of the Senate wing of the US Capitol in Washington, DC, and tried unsuccessfully to establish a firm for architectural terracotta and garden ornaments in Pittsburgh and New York.

From 1875 Broome was employed as a modeller by the firm of Ott & Brewer in Trenton, NJ. The parian porcelain sculpture he created for their display at the Centennial International Exhibition of 1876 in Philadelphia won him medals for ceramic arts (e.g. Plaque; New York, Met.). Following his success at the Exhibition and at the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris, for which he was Special Commissioner from the USA, he was active as a teacher and lecturer and was keenly interested in educational, political and industrial reforms. He also continued as a modeller for potters in Ohio and Trenton, including the ...

Article

Lillian B. Miller

(b New York, Dec 11, 1848; d New York, Jan 18, 1931).

American businessman, collector, patron and dealer. He began collecting art in 1869 with paintings by American Hudson River school artists and conventional European works, Chinese porcelain, antique pottery and 17th- and 18th-century English furniture. By 1883 his taste had focused entirely on American works, especially on paintings by George Inness and Winslow Homer. By dealing in such works and by giving frequent exhibitions, Clarke enhanced the popularity of these artists, while also realizing large profits for himself. His founding of Art House, New York, in 1890 confirms the profit motive behind his collecting practices. The most notable sale of his paintings took place in 1899, when he sold at auction 373 contemporary American works at a profit of between 60 and 70%. Four landscapes by Inness—Grey, Lowery Day (c. 1876–7; untraced), Delaware Valley (1865; New York, Met.), Clouded Sun (1891; Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mus. A.) and Wood Gatherers: Autumn Afternoon...