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Article

Christine Mullen Kreamer

(b Jan 25, 1930; d Lomé, Jan 4, 2010).

Togolese painter, sculptor, engraver, stained glass designer, potter and textile designer. Beginning in 1946, he received his secondary education in Dakar, where he also worked in an architecture firm. He travelled to France and received his diplôme supérieur from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. A versatile artist, Ahyi is best known for his murals and for monumental stone, marble and cement public sculptures. His work reflects the fusion of his Togolese roots, European training and an international outlook, and he counts among his influences Moore, Braque, Modigliani, Tamayo, Siqueiros and Tall. His work combines ancient and modern themes and materials, maternity being a prominent topic. The messages of his larger, public pieces operate on a broad level to appeal to the general populace, while smaller works often reflect his private engagement with challenges confronting the human condition. His compositions are both abstract and figurative and evoke the heroism and hope of the two world wars, Togo's colonial period and the struggle for independence from France, as well as the political efforts of the peoples of Vietnam, South Africa and Palestine. Ahyi has won numerous international prizes, including the prize of the city of Lyon (...

Article

Inmaculada Julián

(b Madrid, Feb 26, 1937).

Spanish painter, sculptor, potter, printmaker and stage designer . As a painter he was mainly self-taught. After working as a journalist in 1957, he left Spain in 1958 to avoid military service, settling in Paris. There he continued to work both as a journalist and painter. From 1968 to 1972 he lived in Milan, returning to Paris in 1973. His work developed from expressionism to realism (Nueva figurina), which reflected on the pictorial language and function of painting and the artist’s role in society. He manipulated ready-made images, words and elements derived from commercial art and the work of other painters. His pieces formed series whose titles referred to the legacy of the Spanish Civil War and the contemporary political situation to help make their critical point. His work frequently provoked controversy, for example his series Arcole Bridge and St Bernard’s Pass (1962–6) was based on the theme of Napoleon Bonaparte as a symbol of imperialism (e.g. ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Giulio V. Blanc

(b Havana, Sept 3, 1914; d Westchester, Oct 30, 2008).

Cuban painter, ceramicist and printmaker. He studied at the Academia de S Alejandro in Havana (early 1930s) and at the Academia de S Carlos in Mexico City (1938), where he also became familiar with the work of the muralists. He had his first one-man exhibition at the Lyceum in Havana in 1942.

Bermúdez shared with many of his contemporaries an interest in Cuban realities and themes painted in a manner that was in keeping with 20th-century art movements. His work from the 1940s is characterized by popular Cuban scenes and types depicted in an almost caricatural, naive style with loud tropical colours (e.g. The Balcony, 1941; New York, MOMA).

In the 1950s Bermúdez abandoned the folkloric themes and tropical voluptuousness of his earlier paintings, instead depicting elongated, barely human, Byzantine-like figures. The most accessible of these paintings are of acrobats and musicians. In 1967 Bermúdez left Cuba for political reasons and settled in San Juan, Puerto Rico. There he continued to evolve metallic colour harmonies and surrealistic imagery including clocks, ladders and turbaned figures in his paintings. He also produced murals and lithographs, and his best-known print is the silkscreen entitled ...

Article

Ruth Rosengarten

(António Teixeira Bastos Nunes)

(b Lisbon, Sept 18, 1899; d Lisbon, Aug 18, 1982).

Portuguese painter, printmaker and designer of tapestries and tile panels. Known primarily as a ‘painter of Lisbon’, he began his artistic career as an illustrator and cartoonist as well as writing a weekly satirical page (1928–50) in the newspaper O sempre fixe. He visited Paris in 1929, 1930–1 and again in 1937, when he was impressed by a retrospective exhibition of the work of van Gogh, whose influence is evident in Botelho’s scenes of urban squalor of the late 1930s. He had begun to depict calm, unpopulated views of Lisbon in the early 1930s, for example Side View of the Castle (1935; Lisbon, Mus. Cidade), and from the early 1940s concentrated almost exclusively on this theme. The compositions became increasingly crisp and planar and the piling up of volumes and compression of space increasingly stylized, especially after he began to paint from memory in 1949. The tonalities of Botelho’s paintings remained consistently pale, as in ...

Article

Alastair Laing

(b Paris, Sept 29, 1703; d Paris, May 30, 1770).

French painter, draughtsman and etcher. Arguably it was he, more than any other artist, who set his stamp on both the fine arts and the decorative arts of the 18th century. Facilitated by the extraordinary proliferation of engravings, Boucher successfully fed the demand for imitable imagery at a time when most of Europe sought to follow what was done at the French court and in Paris. He did so both as a prolific painter and draughtsman (he claimed to have produced some 10,000 drawings during his career) and through engravings after his works, the commercial potential of which he seems to have been one of the first artists to exploit. He reinvented the genre of the pastoral, creating an imagery of shepherds and shepherdesses as sentimental lovers that was taken up in every medium, from porcelain to toile de Jouy, and that still survives in a debased form. At the same time, his manner of painting introduced the virtuosity and freedom of the sketch into the finished work, promoting painterliness as an end in itself. This approach dominated French painting until the emergence of Neo-classicism, when criticism was heaped on Boucher and his followers. His work never wholly escaped this condemnation, even after the taste for French 18th-century art started to revive in the second half of the 19th century. In his own day, the fact that he worked for both collectors and the market, while retaining the prestige of a history painter, had been both Boucher’s strength and a cause of his decline....

Article

Rupert Featherstone

Tool with a hard, smooth, tip, mounted in a wooden handle, used for smoothing or polishing. In water gilding, a burnisher of polished agate is used to smooth the underlying gesso and bole after the gold is applied, giving a highly reflective surface. Burnishers used to burnish ancient pots are depicted in Egyptian wall paintings from the 14th century ...

Article

Susan Compton

[Shagal, Mark (Zakharovich); Shagal, Moses]

(b Vitebsk [now Viciebsk], Belarus’, July 7, 1887; d Saint-Paul-de-Vence, Alpes-Maritimes, March 28, 1985).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, designer, sculptor, ceramicist, and writer of Belarusian birth. A prolific artist, Chagall excelled in the European tradition of subject painting and distinguished himself as an expressive colourist. His work is noted for its consistent use of folkloric imagery and its sweetness of colour, and it is characterized by a style that, although developed in the years before World War I, underwent little progression throughout his long career (see.g. I and the Village, 1911; New York, MOMA). Though he preferred to be known as a Belarusian artist, following his exile from the Soviet Union in 1923 he was recognized as a major figure of the Ecole de Paris, especially in the later 1920s and the 1930s. In his last years he was regarded as a leading artist in stained glass.

Chagall spent his childhood, admirably recorded in his autobiography, in a warm Hassidic family in Vitebsk [now Viciebsk], with frequent visits to his grandfather’s village home. He attended the traditional Jewish school but afterwards succeeded in entering the local Russian high school, where he excelled in geometry and drawing and determined to become an artist. At first he studied locally in the studio of ...

Article

Paula Furby

(b Mount Barker, March 24, 1911; d Adelaide, May 15, 1995).

Australian painter, printmaker, potter, teacher and art critic. Chapman studied at the South Australian School of Arts and Crafts (1928–32) and became a fellow of the Royal South Australian Society of Arts (RSASA) while still a student. Ivor Hele (1912–93) was a notable influence on her and when he became a war artist, Chapman taught his life-drawing and painting class at the school from 1940–41. From 1942–5 Chapman served in the Australian Women’s Army in army education in Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney. In 1945 in Sydney she married the artist James Cant (1911–82). With Cant she was a co-founder of the Studio of Realist Art (SORA). While supporting realist artists as secretary–organizer of SORA, Cant experimented with abstraction and surrealist automatism. She exhibited abstracts works with the Contemporary Art Society in 1947–8.

From 1949–55 Chapman and Cant lived in England, but she did little painting, being then and later the main breadwinner in her marriage. They returned to Australia and settled in Adelaide in ...

Article

Willemijn Stokvis

[Beverloo, Corneille Guillaume]

(b Liège, July 3, 1922; d Auvers-sur-Oise, France, Sept 5, 2010).

Dutch painter, printmaker, ceramicist and writer. He studied drawing at the Amsterdam Rijksakademie from 1940 to 1943 but taught himself to paint. While at the academy he became a close friend of Karel Appel. His early work was naturalistic, but he began to treat his forms more schematically c. 1945. After the liberation he was inspired by the joie de vivre of French painters, and in particular by the work of younger artists such as Edouard Pignon, which led him to adopt a lyrically Cubist style.

In 1947 Corneille spent four months in Hungary. He discovered Surrealism when browsing in a small bookshop in Budapest. Here he also encountered the work of Klee and Miró for the first time; they became an important source of inspiration. Corneille, who also wrote poetry, began to rely more on his imagination in his work. The devastation wrought by the war in the old city of Budapest captured his interest, in particular the contrast between the rhythm of straight lines and the ruins, interrupted by bursting mounds of fertile ground, covered by vegetation; it became a point of departure for his subsequent work....

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(b Lima, 1926).

Peruvian painter, printmaker, and ceramicist, active in Europe. He studied at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima until 1953 and then began to exhibit paintings, prints, murals, and ceramics on an annual basis in Lima. He continued his studies in Spain in 1956, and from then on remained in Europe, mainly in Paris and Madrid. In Paris he became an assistant at the printmakers’ workshop at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts. Following a period in Cuba where he worked at the Taller de Grabado de Cubanacán, Espinoza Dueñas returned to France to study ceramics at Sèvres, executing sculptural, symbolic works reminiscent of Pre-Columbian Peruvian ceramics. His paintings, which are expressionistic in style, are colorful, energetic and full of symbolism (e.g. Pampa Road, 1955; Lima, Mus. A.).

Lavalle, J. A. de and Lang, W. Pintura contemporánea II: 1920–1960, Col. A. & Tesoros Perú. Lima, 1976, pp. 158–159.Evento artesanal cerámico: Taller Museo de Cerámica Contemporánea, creado y dirigido por el maestro Francisco Espinoza Dueñas, con la colaboración del Ayto. de Pilas (Sevilla)...

Article

Karen Cordero Reiman

(b Aguascalientes, May 30, 1900; d Mexico City, Aug 26, 1984).

Mexican painter, printmaker, writer and ceramicist. He enrolled at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, in 1917 and soon became active in the post-revolutionary nationalist cultural movement, attempting to recuperate folk-art motifs and techniques. In 1920 he designed a ceramic frieze for the Colegio Máximo de San Pedro y San Pablo, Mexico City. He edited the influential art magazine Forma (1926–8) and was involved in creating the Escuela Libre de Escultura y Talla Directa, Mexico City, the ¡30–30! group (which promoted the democratization and de-academization of the arts), and the Centros Populares de Pintura, which offered art education to people in industrial areas, encouraging the representation of their surroundings without academic constraints. In the 1930s he directed an exhibition space funded by the Ministerio de Educación Pública, for which, with Roberto Montenegro and Francisco Díaz de León, he designed posters and catalogues noted for their innovative typography. Fernández Ledesma also produced prints inspired by popular graphics and figurative paintings influenced by Picasso and by Pittura Metafisica; he also wrote several books on popular traditions and stage and costume designs....

Article

(b Paris, June 17, 1820; d Paris, March 1, 1900).

French painter, designer and printmaker. He was a pupil of Jules Jollivet, Pierre Lecomte and Eugène-Ammanuel Amaury-Duval, for whom he also acted as executor. From 1857 to 1885 he worked mainly as a designer for the Sèvres manufactory. He exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon from 1842 to 1880; from 1864 he could exhibit his works at the Salon without having to undergo selection by the jury. Heavily influenced by the style of Ingres’s pupils, and especially Amaury-Duval, Froment painted a Virgin (1846; Autun, St Jean) that recalls the contemporary work of Ingres for the stained-glass windows in the chapel of St Ferdinand at Dreux. In the same year he painted St Peter Healing a Lame Man at the Door of the Temple in the church at Pégomas.

Froment’s genre scenes, with their pleasant, decorative symbolism, are often close to the works of Jean-Léon Gérôme and Jean-Louis Hamon, or his friend ...

Article

David Alexander

(b in or near Dublin, c. 1710; d London, April 2, 1762).

Irish painter, mezzotint-engraver and porcelain manufacturer, active in England. He probably trained in Dublin, benefiting from the example of the portrait painter James Latham. However, there were few opportunities for portrait painters in Dublin, and by 1735 he had moved to London. He was sufficiently established by 1736 to be commissioned by the Saddlers’ Company, London, to paint a full-length portrait of Frederick, Prince of Wales (destr.; version, Windsor Castle, Berks, Royal Col., see Millar, no. 543). Frye engraved this portrait himself in mezzotint (1741; see Chaloner Smith). He also worked as a miniature painter, both in oil and in pencil. He quickly matured into a confident and assured portrait painter and could undoubtedly have made a greater name for himself, but he chose to join Edward Heylyn (1695–after 1758) in the attempt to produce porcelain at the Bow Factory, London. In 1744 they took out a patent for a new method, using china clay brought to England from the North American colony of Georgia by ...

Article

Fani-Maria Tsigakou

(b Athens, May 23, 1882; d Athens, March 20, 1966).

French illustrator, printmaker and designer of Greek birth. At a very early age he showed a talent for drawing and soon took to drawing cartoons. He studied mathematics for two years at the National Technical University in Athens, but he finally enrolled at the Higher School of Fine Arts in Athens, where he studied under Nikiforos Lytras. In 1899, when he was still a student, he won first prize in a competition for cartoons run by the Paris newspaper Le Journal. Upon graduation he went to Paris on a scholarship and studied for some time at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Fernand Cormon. He continued to draw cartoons for the Greek magazines Pinakothiki and Panathinea; he also worked for the German periodicals Simplicissimus and Lustige Blätter, and on the strength of this was invited to go to Germany, where he stayed from 1907 to 1909.

In 1914 Galanis joined the Foreign Legion, took out French nationality and was transferred to an infantry regiment. In the course of his postings during World War I he was sent to Corfu in ...

Article

Rodolphe Rapetti

(b Paris, June 7, 1848; d Atuona, Marquesas Islands, May 8, 1903).

French painter, printmaker, sculptor and ceramicist. His style developed from Impressionism through a brief cloisonnist phase (in partnership with Emile Bernard) towards a highly personal brand of Symbolism, which sought within the tradition of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes to combine and contrast an idealized vision of primitive Polynesian culture with the sceptical pessimism of an educated European (see fig.). A selfconsciously outspoken personality and an aggressively asserted position as the leader of the Pont-Aven group made him a dominant figure in Parisian intellectual circles in the late 1880s. His use of non-naturalistic colour and formal distortion for expressive ends was widely influential on early 20th-century avant-garde artists.

Article

Norman Stretton

(b Badsey, Hereford & Worcs, bapt April 7, 1731; d Brislington, Avon, Oct 14, 1817).

English engraver and painter. He was apprenticed to George Anderton, an engraver, in Birmingham on 28 January 1745. In 1756 he joined the Worcester Porcelain Company of Dr John Wall (1708–76). He became a partner in the firm in March 1772. At Worcester, Hancock engraved copperplates for transfer-printing on porcelain. Many designs were adapted from contemporary engravings and paintings, particularly those of the French schools; such romantic scenes as Amusements champêtres and Fêtes vénitiennes were derived from compositions by Antoine Watteau. A series of children’s games, including Battledore and Shuttlecock, Blind Man’s Buff and Marbles, are based on a series of compositions engraved by Gravelot. Mugs with portraits of Frederick II, King of Prussia, dated 1757 (for illustration see Worcester), are based on an engraving by Richard Houston after a painting by Antoine Pesne and are among the best-known examples of Hancock’s work. The English schools also provided subjects for Hancock’s engravings. A half-length portrait of George III decorates Worcester mugs together with one of Queen Charlotte, both likenesses after engravings by ...

Article

(b Stuttgart, Dec 2, 1795; d Munich, July 9, 1846).

German painter and printmaker. He was a pupil in Stuttgart of Johann Baptist Seele, whose stiff drawing style he at first adopted. After taking part in the Napoleonic Wars he moved to Munich in December 1815 to study landscape painting at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste under Wilhelm Alexander Wolfgang von Kobell. His first oil paintings were copies of hunting scenes after Franz Joachim Beich, whose works were in the royal collection at Schloss Schleissheim. He also copied pen drawings by Kobell and Johann Georg von Dillis. His first original oil paintings (e.g. Militia Picket at Schlettstadt, 1816; Stuttgart, Staatsgal.) depicted scenes from his own life as a soldier. Between 1818 and 1822 he painted many landscapes replete with genre-like details of the area around Munich and the Bayerisches Oberland, and these were widely disseminated as lithographs (e.g. Excursion on the Tegernsee, 1818; e.g. Munich, Staatl. Graph. Samml.). The composition tends to draw attention first to the active figures in the foreground and then to an open view of the countryside, a device recalling the works of Kobell. These early naturalistic scenes are characterized by an affinity for nature and by the depiction of people at work....

Article

Ticio Escobar

[Cervera, Andrés Campos]

(b Asunción, 1888; d Valencia, Spain, 1937).

Paraguayan painter, engraver, and ceramicist. He studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, and spent six years studying in Paris in private studios. His first exhibition, in Asunción in 1920, marked a turning-point in the history of Paraguayan art. He showed oil paintings inspired principally by Cézanne and the Fauvists, and the arbitrary colors and heavy impasto of his stylized landscapes introduced local artists to the innovations of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism previously unknown in Paraguay; as a result, other painters began to use them in their work. In his engraving, Herrería used a simplified line based on flat contrasts of color. From 1922 he began to work in ceramics, developing themes derived from Pre-Columbian Latin American traditions and scenes of daily rural life in Paraguay. His plates and small sculptures had designs influenced by Art Deco. The series of motifs used in his ceramics show a deep understanding of Paraguayan humor and popular art and give a vivid portrait of everyday life that transcends the merely picturesque....

Article

Phylis Floyd

French term used to describe a range of European borrowings from Japanese art. It was coined in 1872 by the French critic, collector and printmaker Philippe Burty ‘to designate a new field of study—artistic, historic and ethnographic’, encompassing decorative objects with Japanese designs (similar to 18th-century Chinoiserie), paintings of scenes set in Japan, and Western paintings, prints and decorative arts influenced by Japanese aesthetics. Scholars in the 20th century have distinguished japonaiserie, the depiction of Japanese subjects or objects in a Western style, from Japonisme, the more profound influence of Japanese aesthetics on Western art.

There has been wide debate over who was the first artist in the West to discover Japanese art and over the date of this discovery. According to Bénédite, Félix Bracquemond first came under the influence of Japanese art after seeing the first volume of Katsushika Hokusai’s Hokusai manga (‘Hokusai’s ten thousand sketches’, 1814) at the printshop of ...