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Luciana Arbace

Italian centre of ceramic production. The town, situated near Savona in Liguria, was a flourishing centre of maiolica production during the Renaissance. It was, however, only during the 17th and 18th centuries that a distinctive style developed. Important families in the pottery business included the Grosso, Chiodo, Corrado, Salomone, Pescio, Seitone, Seirullo, Levantino and Siccardi, all of whom produced large quantities of polychrome plates (e.g. by the Corrado, mid-17th century; Nino Ferrari priv. col., see Morazzoni, pl. 43), albarelli and vases, which were sometimes inspired by silverware and contemporary delftware. In some cases, yellow and an olive green were used on a turquoise ground. Wares were decorated in a calligraphic style with an emphasis on naturalistic motifs including such animals as leverets; this style later evolved into Baroque forms painted with soft, loose brushstrokes.

In the 1920s the Futurist potter Tullio Mazzotti (1899–1971), who took the name Tullio d’Albisola, revived Albisola’s reputation as a pottery centre. The town continued to produce pottery throughout the 20th century, especially the blue-and-white pottery known as Antico Savona. The Museo della Ceramica Manlio Trucco houses a collection of Albisola pottery from every period....

Article

Amol  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Ansbach  

Walter Spiegl

German town in Bavaria, c. 40 km south-east of Nuremberg. Ansbach is known particularly as a centre of ceramics production. A faience factory was established by Matthias Baur and Johann Caspar Ripp in Ansbach c. 1708–10. Wares included jugs and tankards at first decorated in blue and later in the famille verte (green, yellow, iron-red, blue and purple) palette. In 1757 a porcelain factory was established beside the faience factory at the behest of Margrave Karl Alexander (d 1806), who in 1763 transferred it to Schloss Bruckberg. The secret formula for porcelain was brought to Ansbach by Johann Friedrich Kändler (1734–91), a nephew of the Meissen Modellmeister Johann Joachim Kändler, who had worked at the factory of Wilhelm Caspar Wegely (1714–64) in Berlin, as had the superb miniaturist and colour specialist Johann Carl Gerlach (1723–86) and the modeller Carl Gottlob Laut (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French centre of ceramics production. A pottery was founded in the village of Bellvue (near Toul, in Meurthe-et-Moselle) in 1758. In 1771 it passed into the hands of Charles Bayard (former director of the Lunéville pottery) and François Boyer, who in 1773 were given the right to style the pottery ‘Manufacture Royale de Bellevue’. Bayard left in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(UK)

English centre of ceramics production. A pottery was founded in the town of Hull (near what is now the Albert Dock) in 1802; the proprietors included Job Ridgway family. It soon closed, but in 1826 it was bought by William Bell, who called it Bellevue; it closed in 1841. The factory produced large quantities of earthenware, much of which was exported to Germany through the Company’s depot in Hamburg. Very few examples of its wares survive; some are marked Belle Vue....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Australian pottery founded in 1858 by a Scot, George Guthrie (1808–1909), in the town of Bendigo, Victoria. The factory made household wares, including acid bottles, bricks, clay pipes, roof tiles and tableware. During World War I it also made portrait jugs of military commanders, and in the 1930s it made agate-ware vases that were marketed as Waverly ware. The pottery is still active, but since ...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Gordon Campbell

English centre of ceramics production. Town in Derbyshire where a group of manufacturers of household wares in brown stoneware were active from the 18th century to the early 20th. The most prominent factories were Oldfield & Co. and S. & H. Briddon. The Brampton potter Thomas Davenport (1815–88) emigrated to Utah, where he and his descendants worked as potters....

Article

Bernadette Nelson

Portuguese centre of ceramic production. Documents record kilns operating in the town in 1488, and the first potters were Álvaro Annes, Vicente Annes and Francisco Lopes. However, the modern ceramics tradition with which the town is associated dates to the time of a certain D. Maria ‘dos Cacos’, who is recorded as having attempted to sell his wares in fairs all over Portugal between 1820 and 1853. Pieces attributed to him are rare. He was succeeded by Manuel Cipriano Gomes (fl 1853–7) from Mafra. In addition to producing faience that resembled wares made in the Oporto factories (see Oporto §2), Gomes also produced a body of wares that were strongly influenced by the work of Palissy, Bernard.

In 1884 the Fábrica de Faianças das Caldas da Rainha was established in Lisbon, under the artistic direction of the painter Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro (see Bordalo Pinheiro family §(1)...

Article

Patrick Bowe, Bet McLeod and Patricia Wardle

French town in the Oise region, c. 40 km north of Paris, and the site of a famous château. It is also known as a centre of production of porcelain and lace.

Chantilly, set on a rock in the otherwise flat, marshy valley of the Nonette River, was first fortified in Roman times and was in continuous occupation throughout the Middle Ages. In 1386 it was bought by Pierre d’Orgemont, Chancelier de France, who built a new castle (completed 1394) on the site. In 1484 Chantilly passed to the Montmorency family. In 1524 remodelling of d’Orgemont’s castle in a French Renaissance style was begun by Anne, Duc de Montmorency and Constable of France under Francis I (reg 1515–47), Henry II (reg 1549–59) and Charles IX (reg 1560–74). Work was interrupted by the capture (1525) of the Constable at the Battle of Pavia but was resumed after his release. Between ...

Article

Crich  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Echizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan, based on some 20 kiln sites 7 km north-west of the city of Takefu (Fukui Prefect.). Echizen is known as one of Japan’s ‘Six Old Kilns’. It is one of three centres that arose in the area (the others being Kaga and Suzu) in the 12th century in response to increased agricultural production. Ceramics appeared in Fukui Prefecture in the 6th century ad with the manufacture of Sue stoneware, fired in tunnel kilns (anagama; see Japan §IX 2., (ii), (a)). In the 12th century, however, increased agricultural production, coupled with the introduction of new technology, encouraged the development of a higher-fired brown stoneware. The use of a tunnel kiln with a dividing pillar, the manufacture of jars with everted rims and incised horizontal bands and the use of the coil-and-paddle technique in the early Echizen wares point to origins in kilns such as ...

Article

Hull  

Ivan Hall

[Kingston-upon-Hull]

English port and university city in Humberside, at the confluence of the rivers Hull and Humber. Founded in medieval times, it was an important centre for the production of ceramics in the 19th century.

The city was founded because Edward I recognized the strategic importance of the port and of the town of Wyke then on the site. The regular grid pattern of the street layout was started before 1293, although work did not begin on the ring of defensive walls until 1321. Bricks were made in Hull from the early 14th century, and brick buildings are characteristic of the city, for example Holy Trinity (begun c. 1300). The market-place was narrow, and the High Street originally had buildings only to the west, although subsequent building on the riverbank created a new development of private merchants’ houses with gardens or courts, warehouses and quays. The enclosed area was not fully built over until the mid-18th century. The island block owned by the Carmelites until the Reformation remained intact; it was progressively redeveloped in a handsome manner during the 18th century and the early 19th. In the late 14th century many of the gabled timber-framed houses were either encased by new work (often brick) or were vertically extended and refronted, thus transforming the appearance if not the underlying substance of the town. ...

Article

Iga  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan. It flourished from the late 16th century in the vicinity of Ueno City (now Mie Prefect.;see Japan, §IX, 3, (ii)). Although Iga is most famous for its aggressively distorted, natural ash-glazed wares for the tea ceremony (see Japan, §XV), kilns in the surrounding hills also produced utilitarian wares from at least the second half of the 17th century. It remains unclear if there is any local predecessor to the Iga teawares that emerged in the late 16th century. Sue wares (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)) were fired in the region from the 6th century ad, and unglazed stonewares were manufactured in nearby Shigaraki from the 13th century, but since the entire region drew from the same clay source, it is impossible clearly to isolate a proto-Iga ware from the vast amounts of wares made at Shigaraki.

The beginning of Iga teawares is traced through tea ceremony records. The ware is mentioned first in ...

Article

Thurstan Shaw

Town in Nigeria (pop. c. 15,000 in the 1990s), situated 40 km south-east of Onitsha, which is on the River Niger. The name means ‘Great Igbo’ in the Igbo language. It is also the name given to the ancient culture that produced the elaborate metalwork and ceramics, dated to the 10th century ad, that were found at three sites on the outskirts of the town.

The first site came to light some time before the outbreak of World War II in 1939 while a man, Isaiah Anozie, was digging a cistern. Not far below ground-level he unearthed a highly decorated bronze bowl, and further digging led to the discovery of other bronzes, some of which were given to his neighbours who thought they would make good ‘medicine’. The remaining objects were bought by John Field, the area’s Assistant District Officer, who published an account of the discovery and presented the collection to the Nigerian Federal Department of Antiquities. At the invitation of the Department, the archaeologist ...

Article

Regina Krahl

[Ching-te-chen]

Town and county seat in north-east Jiangxi Province, China, and the country’s main centre of porcelain production. For most of its existence the town was part of Fouliang, in Raozhou Prefecture, and in historical records its ceramics are generally referred to as Raozhou ware. With a continuous history of manufacturing porcelain from the Tang period (ad 618–907), it is the source of most Chinese porcelain.

The imperial kilns were located at Zhushan in the centre of modern Jingdezhen city; many lesser kilns were situated in Hutian, 4 km to the south-east. The area is supplied with fine-quality porcelain stone, the basic raw material for Chinese porcelain; it is surrounded by forests that provided fuel for the kilns; and it is conveniently connected to the major ports of southern China by rivers. Recent excavations have brought to light several different kiln types, including egg-shaped zhenyao kilns, bread-roll-shaped mantou kilns and dragon kilns (...

Article

Lambeth  

Gordon Campbell

English centre of ceramics production. The earliest documented pottery in Lambeth (on the south bank of the Thames opposite the city of London) was established in 1570 by the Antwerp potters Jasper Andries (1535/41–c. 1580) and Jacob Janson (later anglicized as Johnson), who made the tin-enamelled earthenware later known as Lambeth Delftware. In ...

Article

Limoges  

G. H. Byrom and Bet McLeod

Capital city of the Haute-Vienne département in south central France and an important centre for the production of enamel and porcelain.

During the early 12th century there was a distinct movement towards the production of champlevé enamelling on copper or bronze, which afforded larger areas to be decorated than was previously possible with gold cloisonné enamelling (see Enamel, §2, (i)). By the mid-12th century Limoges workshops had become highly commercial, manufacturing enamelled goods in the Romanesque style for civil (see fig.) and religious purposes, and exporting them throughout Europe and beyond until the late 14th century (see Gothic, §VI). There was a demand for such items as reliquaries and shrines, which served as the ‘canvas’ for the superb enamel embellishments, and most church treasures included an ecclesiastical object enamelled in Limoges. Towards the end of the 13th century, however, there were signs that the manufacture was in decline. The craft of champlevé enamelling was brought to an end by the sacking of Limoges (...

Article

Meissen  

Ernst Ullmann, Bettina Georgi and Hans Sonntag

German city at the confluence of the rivers Triebisch and Elbe, on the northern edge of the Elbe basin, c. 25 km north-west of Dresden. It has a population of c. 30,000 and is the site of the oldest porcelain factory in Europe, founded 1710.

Ernst Ullmann

In ad 928 Henry the Fowler, Duke of Saxony (reg 912–36), founded a castle (Misni) to protect the Elbe line against the Slavs, as part of his policy of eastward expansion. A bishopric under the archdiocese of Magdeburg was established in 968 by Emperor Otto I, and a margrave of Meissen is mentioned in the same year. In 1125 Conrad von Wettin became margrave, and the city remained a Wettin possession, although it became a free city in 1423 when the first Elector of Saxony, Frederick I (reg 1423–8), received the Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg. The sons of Frederick II (reg...

Article

Carmen Ravanelli Guidotti

Italian centre of maiolica production. This small town near Florence was an important centre of ceramics production from the mid-15th century. The potters of Montelupo, many of whom originally came from other Italian centres of maiolica production, must have found favourable working conditions, and from the end of the 15th century their pottery was held in such high regard that some of them were able to move their kilns to the countryside around Florence or even, as in the case of the family known as the Fattorini (see Schiavon family), to the Cafaggiolo ceramic factory, which was under the patronage of the Grand Dukes of Tuscany. During the Renaissance the maiolica from Montelupo reflected typical Italian themes, including East Asian and Gothic floral decoration and portraits. The colour range was very striking, particularly during the 16th and 17th centuries. An outstanding group of wares known as arlecchini were so called because they were decorated with a vivid, multi-coloured palette dominated by yellow. This technique was used for painting characters from the ...